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INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION 
OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES 


Plants in Danger 
What do we know? 


STEPHEN D. DAVIS, STEPHEN J.M. DROOP, PATRICK GREGERSON, 
LOUISE HENSON, CHRISTINE J. LEON, JANE LAMLEIN 
VILLA-LOBOS, HUGH SYNGE AND JANA ZANTOVSKA 


Threatened Plants Unit, 
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 
c/o The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. 


Published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 
Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K. 1986 


IUCN 


The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is a 
network of governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), scientists and other 
conservation experts, joined together to promote the protection and sustainable use of living 
resources. 


Founded in 1948, IUCN has more than 500 member organizations from 116 countries, 
including 58 State Members. Its six Commissions consist of more than 2000 experts on 
threatened species, protected areas, ecology, environmental planning, environmental policy, 
law and administration, and environmental education. IUCN 


@ monitors the status of ecosystems and species throughout the world; 

@ plans conservation action, both at strategic level through the World Conservation Strategy 
and at the programme level through its programme of conservation for sustainable 
development; 

@ promotes such action by governments, inter-governmental bodies and non-governmental 
organizations; 

@ provides the assistance and advice necessary to achieve such action. 


From 1984 IUCN and the World Wildlife Fund have been implementing a Plant Conservation 
Programme, designed ‘‘to assert the fundamental importance of plants in all conservation 
activities’’. Plants in Danger: What do we know? is a part of this programme. 


The IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (CMC) is the division of [UCN that provides a 
data service to IUCN and to the conservation and development community. CMC’s primary 
function is the continuous collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of data as a 
basis for conservation. CMC produces a wide variety of specialist outputs and analyses as well 
as major outputs such as the Red Data Books and Protected Areas Directories. CMC is based 
in the U.K. at Cambridge and Kew. Enquiries about the centre or book orders should be 
addressed to: 


IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, 
219(c) Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, U.K. 


The designations of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do 
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN concerning the legal 
status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of 
its frontiers or boundaries. 


Published by IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K. 1986 


Prepared with financial support from the World Wildlife Fund, the Trust Fund for the United 
Nations Environment Stamp Conservation Fund, the United Nations Environment Programme 
and the Natural Environment Research Council (U.K.) on behalf of the European Research 
Councils through the European Science Foundation. 


© 1986 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/United Nations 
Environment Programme 

ISBN 2-88032-707-5 

Printed by Unwin Brothers Ltd, The Gresham Press, Old Woking, Surrey, U.K. 

Typeset by Parchment (Oxford) Ltd., 60 Hurst Street, Oxford OX4 1HD 

Cover design by James Butler and Stephen Droop 

Figures by Reginald Piggott 

Book design by James Butler 

Cover photograph by M.P. Price (Bruce Coleman Ltd.): Fire, Merritt Island, Florida, U.S.A. 


Contents 


Introductory Chapters 
Preface 
Acknowledgements 
Outline of the book 
Plants in Danger: What we know so far 
Constraints to the identification of threatened species 
Conclusions for the future 
Definitions of the IUCN Red Data Categories 
References for introduction 


Country and Island Accounts 
Afghanistan 
Agalega Islands 
Albania 
Aleutian Islands 
Algeria 
American Samoa 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 
Andorra 
Angola 
Anguilla 
Antarctica 
Antigua and Barbuda 
Antipodes Islands 
Argentina 
Ascension Island 
Auckland Islands 
Australia 
Austria 
Azores 
Bahamas 
Bahrain 
Bangladesh 
Barbados 
Belgium 
Belize 
Benin 
Bermuda 
Bhutan 
Bismarck Archipelago 
Bolivia 
Botswana 
Bougainville 
Bounty Islands 
Brazil 
British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago) 
British Virgin Islands 


Page number 


| Ol ee 
NAANHAFWNTTCUOAAKHAH ANN 


nN 
Nn 


26 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Brunei 

Bulgaria 

Burkina Faso 
Burma 

Burundi 
Cameroon 
Campbell Islands 
Canada 

Canary Islands 
Canton and Enderbury Islands 
Cape Verde 
Cargados Carajos 
Caroline Islands 
Cayman Islands 
Central African Republic 
Chad 

Chatham Islands 
Chile 

China 

Christmas Island 
Clipperton Island 
Coco, Isla del 
Coco Islands 
Cocos Islands 
Colombia 
Comoro Islands 
Congo 

Cook Islands 
Coral Sea Islands 
Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Cyprus 
Czechoslovakia 
Denmark 
D’Entrecasteaux Islands 
Djibouti 
Dominica 
Dominican Republic 
Easter Island 
Ecuador 

Egypt 

El Salvador 
Equatorial Guinea 
Ethiopia 

Faeroe Islands 


Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 


South Georgia 

South Sandwich Islands 
Fiji 
Finland 
France 


Corsica 
French Guiana 
Gabon 
Galapagos Islands 
Gambia 
Gambier Islands 
German Democratic Republic 
Germany, Federal Republic of 
Ghana 
Gibraltar 
Glorieuses, Iles 
Great Barrier Reef Islands 
Greece 

Crete 
Greenland 
Grenada 
Guadeloupe and Martinique 
Guam 
Guatemala 
Guinea 
Guinea-Bissau 
Guyana 
Haiti 
Hawaii 
Honduras 
Hong Kong 
Hungary 
Iceland 
India 
Indonesia 
Iran 
Iraq 
Ireland 
Israel 
Italy 

Sardinia 

Sicily 
Ivory Coast 
Jamaica 
Japan 
Johnston Island 
Jordan 
Juan Fernandez 
Kampuchea 
Kazan Retto 
Kenya 
Kermadec Islands 
Kiribati 


Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of 


Korea, Republic of 
Kuwait 


Vii 


Contents 


123 
125 
127 
128 
130 
130 
131 
133 
139 
140 
141 
141 
142 
145 
147 
147 
148 
151 
152 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
161 
163 
164 
166 
168 
173 
178 
180 
181 
184 
186 
190 
190 
192 
193 
195 
197 
198 
199 
201 
202 
202 
204 
205 
206 
207 
209 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Lakshadweep 210 
Laos 210 
Lebanon 211 
Lesotho 212 
Liberia 213 
Libya 214 
Liechtenstein 216 
Lord Howe Island 217 
Louisiade Archipelago 218 
Luxembourg 218 
Macau 220 
Macquarie Island 220 
Madagascar 221 
Madeira Islands 223 
Malawi 225 
Malaysia 226 
Maldives 230 
Mali 231 
Malta 231 
Mariana Islands 233 
Marion and Prince Edward Islands 234 
Marquesas Islands 235 
Marshall Islands 236 
Mauritania 237 
Mauritius 238 
Mexico 240 
Midway Islands 245 
Minami-Tori-Shima 245 
Mongolia 246 
Montserrat 247 
Morocco 247 
Mozambique 249 
Namibia 250 
Nauru 251 
Navassa Island 252 
Nepal 252 
Netherlands 254 
Netherlands Antilles 258 
New Caledonia 259 
New Zealand 261 
Nicaragua 264 
Niger 265 
Nigeria 266 
Niue 268 
Norfolk Island 268 
Norway 269 
Ogasawara-Gunto 271 
Oman 272 
Pakistan 273 
Panama 275 


Papua New Guinea 277 


Viii 


Contents 


Paraguay 279 
Peru 281 
Philippines 283 
Pitcairn Islands 285 
Poland 287 
Portugal 290 
Puerto Rico 292 
Qatar 295 
Réunion 296 
Rodrigues 297 
Romania 299 
Rwanda 301 
Ryukyu Retto 303 
St Helena 304 
St Kitts-Nevis 305 
St Lucia 306 
St-Pierre and Miquelon 307 
St Vincent 307 
Salvage Islands 308 
Sao Tomé and Principe 309 
Saudi Arabia 310 
Senegal 312 
Seychelles 313 
Sierra Leone 316 
Singapore 318 
Society Islands 319 
Socotra 320 
Solomon Islands 321 
Somalia 323 
South Africa 324 
Spain 330 

Balearic Islands 334 
Sri Lanka 335 
Sudan 337 
Suriname 339 
Svalbard 340 
Swaziland 341 
Sweden 343 
Switzerland 345 
Syria 348 
Taiwan 349 
Tanzania 351 
Thailand 353 
Togo 355 
Tokelau 356 
Tonga 356 
Trinidad and Tobago 357 
Tristan da Cunha 359 
Trobriand Islands 360 
Tromelin 360 


Tuamotu Archipelago 361 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Tubuai 
Tunisia 
Turkey 
Turks and Caicos Islands 
Tuvalu 
Uganda 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
United Arab Emirates 
United Kingdom 
Channel Islands 
United States 
Miscellaneous Islands 
United States Virgin Islands 
Uruguay 
Vanuatu 
Venezuela 
Islands 
Viet Nam 
Wake Island 
Wallis and Futuna 
Western Sahara 
Western Samoa 
Yemen, Democratic 
Yemen Arab Republic 
Yugoslavia 
Zaire 
Zambia 
Zimbabwe 


Appendices 


Appendix 1: General and Regional References 


Appendix 2: Index to Bibliography 


Appendix 3: The Implementation of Conservation Conventions relevant to Plants 


Geographical Index 


Preface 


Over the last ten years, a vast amount has been written and published on threatened plants, 
often in rather inaccessible places. Numerous countries have prepared Red Data Books of 
their threatened flora. Yet it is also clear that plant conservation is not succeeding in most 
parts of the world and is not yet fully accepted as a fundamental part of conservation as a 
whole. One reason may simply be that many conservationists do not know how much 
information on plants is already available. This would not be unduly surprising, as most 
efforts to list threatened plants have emerged from herbaria and botanic gardens, rather 
than from conservation groups. Botanists are concerned about the threats to the plants 
they study from day to day and anxious to provide at least an assessment of the problem. 
Yet, although individual botanists may be the best people to assess which species are in 
danger, conservation organizations, with successful track records in other fields of 
conservation, are surely in a far better position to turn that knowledge into effective action 
on the ground. 


The purpose of this book is to provide these conservation organizations with a concise 
guide to information on threatened plants. Rather than providing information on each 
threatened plant, which would be impossible in one book, we show how to find that 
information. The entries are arranged alphabetically by country, so as to answer the 
questions, ‘‘Where can I find out about the flora of any country, which species in that 
flora are threatened, and who may be trying to save them?’’ 


The book forms part of the IUCN/WWFEF Plant Conservation Programme. This is a set of 
around 90 activities, derived from the philosophy and principles of the World 
Conservation Strategy. Long overdue, its aim is two-fold: firstly, to provide a strategic 
basis for plant conservation, and secondly, by means of model projects, to show how this 
knowledge can be applied on the ground. As part of the first aim, IUCN is preparing about 
10 books and major papers, of which this book is one. Others include an illustrated 
account for the layman of why plant conservation is important (Green Inheritance by 
Anthony Huxley, 1985) and a Conservation Strategy for Botanic Gardens (1985-6). At 
early stages of preparation are a book on the principles and practice of plant conservation, 
and a Red Data Book of plant sites where high numbers of plant species could be saved. 
Other activities cover education, training and institution-building. Special themes, in 
addition to threatened plants, are the issue of genetic resources, the status of economic 
plants and the role of botanic gardens in conservation. 


The concepts developed in the strategic part of the programme are being applied in field 
projects in 16 selected countries. These include, for example, a rescue programme for the 
critically endangered Mauritian flora; land use surveys of threatened areas like the 
Usambaras and Ulugurus of Tanzania; support for large plant-rich national parks like La 
Amistad (Costa Rica), Tai (Ivory Coast) and Manu (Peru); support for planning networks 
of protected areas in Borneo and Irian Jaya; conservation of medicinal plants in Sri 
Lanka, of teosintes in Mexico and of multipurpose palm species in Latin America; and 
education about plant conservation in India. 


As these activities show, research on threatened plants and rescue of their populations are 
only part of plant conservation. Yet it is on this aspect that most of the research and data- 
gathering has concentrated, at least until very recently. Plants in Danger: What do we 
know? charts the results of that work, but intentionally does not extend to other, more 
recent, topics in plant conservation. For instance, few references are given on the 
conservation of economic plants; in this case, and in others, the priority is not so much 
data synthesis as conceptual development and pilot projects which will show, for example, 


xi 


how the genetic variation of economic plants can best be conserved in situ as well as ex 
situ. As the spotlight widens to include topics such as the conservation of medicinal plants 
and the better use of traditional knowledge about plants useful to man, it seemed sensible 
to document the quite remarkable progress that has been made in the last decade or so in 
finding out which species are threatened. 


It is our hope and intention that the knowledge outlined in this book will encourage action 
to save the threatened plants documented so assiduously by botanists all over the world. 
Although more research is needed, enough is known about the threats to plant life for 
action to be taken now: for instance, creation of national parks and biosphere reserves, 
better use of botanic gardens, and enactment of more effective laws to control plant 
collecting and plant trade. For of all the changes that man can make to the Earth, none is 
more permanent or more wasteful than the extinction of a species. 


xii 


Acknowledgements 


This book could not have been written without a great deal of help from many people. It is 
our pleasure to acknowledge and thank over 400 botanists who helped us and contributed 
information. Virtually all whom we approached offered their help. We are most grateful. 
The response we received, literally overwhelming at times, and the masses of additional 
data accumulated, are the main reason the book was delayed from its original publication 
date at the end of 1984. 


We would like to thank especially those scientists who reviewed and commented on the 
drafts for whole regions and contributed so much to the book. Their help was vital in 
ensuring overall consistency and compieteness. In some cases, reviewers most kindly spent 
many hours carefully checking manuscripts, finding obscure and difficult references for us 
and sharing their knowledge with us. Here we thank in particular C.D. Adams 
(Caribbean), P.S. Ashton (Asia), M.M.J. van Balgooy (Asia), F.R. Fosberg (Pacific), J.B. 
Gillett (Africa), B. MacBryde (New World), R. Polhill (Africa), G.T. Prance (New World 
Tropics), P.H. Raven and his colleagues at Missouri Botanical Garden (all the tropics) and 
V.M. Toledo (Latin America). We also thank L. McMahan and J. McKnight at 
WWF-U.S. for their help with the New World accounts and WWF-U.S. in general for 
their continued support to CMC. We thank especially those botanists who contributed 
country accounts for us; we want to mention here the contribution of R.A. DeFilipps, who 
not only wrote the account for the U.S.A. (with P. Gregerson), by far the longest in the 
book, but also gave extensive help with many other accounts. 


We also warmly thank our colleagues in the Library and Herbarium at Kew. Preparing the 
book has drawn heavily on the splendid facilities of the Kew Library and we are most 
grateful to the staff for patiently coping with our many requests. Above all, we would like 
to thank the staff of the Herbarium, in particular the Keeper, G.LI. Lucas, for their 
continued support. The Threatened Plants Unit of IUCN’s Conservation Monitoring 
Centre developed within the Kew Herbarium and continues to benefit greatly from its 
presence there. IUCN is deeply grateful to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and to its 
Director, E.A. Bell, for their magnificent support that has now lasted over 10 years. 


The sections for countries of Latin America were written by Patrick Gregerson and Jane 
Lamlein Villa-Lobos of the Smithsonian Institution, with whom IUCN has a co-operative 
arrangement for data-gathering on threatened plants in that region. IUCN is most grateful 
to the Smithsonian for their help and acknowledges with pleasure the contributions of 
their scientists. 


In a sense the real authors of this book are the very many experts who spared time to 
comment, and in many cases rewrite, the accounts for the places on which they are the 
acknowledged experts. For their help and for sharing their knowledge, we thank E. 
Adjanohoun, J.M. Aguilar Cumes, J.R. Akeroyd, D.M. Al-Eisawi, A.H. Al-Khayat, A. 
Alnen, R.M. Alfaro, S.I. Ali, S. Andrews, G.W. Argus, E.O.A. Asibey, G.G. Aymonin, 
J.A. Bacone, P. Bamps, C. Barclay, W.T. Barker, T.M. Barkley, T. Baytop, H.E. Beaty, 
S. Beck, L.J. Beloussova, D. Benkert, G. Benl, R.W. Boden, P. Boniface, I. Bonnelly de 
Calventi, A. Borhidi, J. Bosser, D. Bramwell, F.J. Breteler, P. Broussalis, R.E. Brown, 
R.K. Brummitt, W. Burger, W. Burley, R. Burton, R. Bye, L.J.T. Cadet, J. Cerovsky, 
J.D. Chapman, A.O. Chater, M.N. Chaudhri, A. Cheke, S. Cheng-kui, M. Chilcott, G.L. 
Church, S. Cochrane, M. Cohen, N.H.A. Cole, J.B. Comber, P. Condy, M. Conrad, 
M.J.E. Coode, T.A. Cope, F. Corbetta, R.A. Countryman, P. Coyne, PJ. Cribb, Jae: 
Croft, B.S. Croxall, K. Curry-Lindahl, W. D’Arcy, J.-P. D’Huart, E. D’Souza, A. 


xill 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Danin, B. De Winter, R.A. DeFilipps, H. Demirez, G. Dennis, G. Dihoru, M. Dillon, 
M.G. Dlamini, C.H. Dodson, D.D. Doone, L.E. Dorr, F. Dowsett-Lemaire, J. 
Dransfield, A.M. Dray, R.W. Dwyer, J. Dwyer, E. Einarsson, J.M. Engel, H. Ern, L. 
Escobar, R. Faden, P. Fairburn, L. Farrell, J.M. Fay, J. Feilberg, K. Ferguson, A.A. 
Ferrar, H. Fink, M.A. Fischer, J.J. Floret, E. Forero, L.L. Forman, B. Fredskild, J.D. 
Freeman, F. Friedmann, I. Friis, E. Gabrielian, Z.O. Gbile, C. Geerling, D. Geltman, 
A.H. Gentry, A. George, B. Gibbs-Russell, M.G. Gilbert, D.R. Given, L. Godicl, E.E. 
Gogina, P. Goldblatt, P. Gélz, L.D. Gomez P., C. Gdmez-Campo, J.-J. de Granville, W. 
Greuter, C. Grey-Wilson, V.I. Grubov, C.V.S. Gunatilleke, M.N. el Hadidi, W. Hahn, 
A.V. Hall, N. Hallé, O. Hamann, H. Hamburger, L. Hamet-Ahti, A.C. Hamilton, A. 
Hansen, W.Z. Hao, R.M. Harley, I. Hedberg, I.C. Hedge, D. Henderson, A.J. Hepburn, 
F.N. Hepper, D. Herbst, V.H. Heywood, F.-C. Ho, K. Hgiland, L. Holm-Nielson, S. 
Holt, J. Holub, M. Houser, K.-S. Hsu, T.-C. Huang, O. Huber, C.J. Humphries, H.G. 
Hundley, D.R. Hunt, J. Hunziker, T. Ingelég, H. Jacques-Félix, P. Jaeger, S.K. Jain, H. 
Jasiewicz, C. Jeffrey, J. Jensen, J. Jérémie, R. Johns, M.C. Johnston, J.-C. Jolinon, 
L.D. Jornez, M.G. Karrer, K. Kartawinata, D.L. Kelly, H. Keng, R. Kiesling, R. Kiew, 
R.A. King, R.B. de Klee, E. Kohler, J. Kornas, R. Kral, B.A. Kuzmanov, R. Kwok, E. 
Landolt, E. Lanfranco, P. Lantz, S.E. Lauzon, C.C. Lay, J.-P. Lebrun, T.B. Lee, Y.N. 
Lee, J.H. Leigh, R. Letouzey, G.P. Lewis, R.W. Lichvar, J.C. Lindeman, H.P. Linder, 
A.H. Liogier, Phan Ke Loc, B. Lojtnant, D. Long, A.H. Lot, J. Lovett, S. Lyster, H.S. 
MacKee, D.A. Madulid, W. Marais, F. Markgraf, C. Martin, P.C. Martinelli, B. 
Mathew, S.J. Mayo, D. McClintock, B.R. McDonald, R.D. Meikle, J.E. Mendes Ferrdo, 
J. Mennema, A.G. Miller, J. Miller, M.J. Mitchell, N. Mohner, D. Money, T. Monod, F. 
Monterroso, D.M. Moore, W.H. Moore, Ph. Morat, S.A. Mori, N. Morin, L. Morse, M. 
Mufioz Schick, T. Miiller, D.F. Murray, C. Nelson S., F. Németh, E. Ni Lamha, D.H. 
Nicolson, H. Niklfeld, H. Nishida, C. Norquist, M. Numata, C. Ochoa, H. Ohba, J.C. 
Okafor, R. Olaczek, L. Olivier, P. Olwell, S. Orzell, R.T. Pace, J. Page, C. Pannell, F.H. 
Perring, D. Philcox, A. Phillipps, B.R. Phillips, D. Phitos, R.E.G. Pichi-Sermolli, J. 
Pickard, S. Pignatti, G.E. Pilz, E. Pingitore, A.R. Pinto da Silva, A. Pinzl, M. Plotkin, 
A.C. Podzorski, D.M. Porter, D.A. Powell, R. Press, S. Price, A. Radcliffe-Smith, T.P. 
Ramamoorthy, A.L. Rao, W. Rauh, L. Reichling, S.A. Renvoize, S.A. Robertson, W.A. 
Rodgers, J.A. Rodrigues de Paiva, M. Romeril, W. Rossi, J.H. Rumely, J. Rzedowski, 
M.-H. Sachet, Md. Salar Khan, M.J.S. Sands, C. Sargent, M. Scannell, J. van Scheepen, 
C. Scheepers, F.M. Schlegel, M. Schmid, J. Schwegman, J.W. Scott, K. Scriven, M. 
Segnestam, K.H. Sheikh, G. Sheppard, T. Shimizu, A. Shmida, S. Siwatibau, A.C. 
Smith, W.A. Smith, T. Smitinand, S. Snogerup, J.C. Solomon, G.V. Somner, B.A. 
Sorrie, M. Soto, R. Spichiger, J. Steyermark, A.L. Stoffers, W. Strahm, H.E. Strang, A. 
Strid, A.M. Studart da Fonseca Vaz, T.F. Stuessy, H.-J. Su, A. Sugden, H. Sukopp, J. 
Suominen, J.D. Supthut, D. Sutton, W.R. Sykes, A.L. Takhtajan, E. Tanner, C. Taylor, 
Y. Te-Tsun, A.D. Thompson, G. Thor, Dao Van Tien, C.C. Townsend, G. Traxler, G. 
Troupin, C. Tydeman, P. Uotila, K. Vollesen, S. Vuokko, M. Wadhwa, F.H. 
Wadsworth, S. Wahlberg, M. Walters, S.M. Walters, D.A. Webb, L. Webb, E. Weinert, 
O. Weiskirchner, D.W. Weller, T. Wendt, H. van der Werff, M. Werkhoven, A. Whistler, 
F. White, T.C. Whitmore, G.E. Wickens, S.R. Wilbur, R.T. Winterbottom, J.R.I. 
Wood, K. Woolliams, T. Wraber, A. Wiinschmann, F. Yaltirik, T. Zanoni, E. Zardini, A. 
Zimmermann and E.M. van Zinderen Bakker, with apologies to anyone whom we may 
have forgotten. 


We thank those in IUCN who have helped make this book possible, in particular M.F. 
Tillman, Director of the Conservation Monitoring Centre, J.A. McNeely, Director of the 
Programme and Policy Division, and O. Hamann, Plants Officer. We thank L. Wright, 


Xiv 


Acknowledgements 


IUCN Publications Officer, for seeing it through production and issuing it, and D.C. 
Mackinder, N.P. Phillips and S. Luckcock, in the Computer Services Unit, for help with 
the word-processing. His fellow authors would also like to thank Stephen Droop, now a 
professional publisher in his own right, for his meticulous work in compiling the 
appendices and in proof-reading the whole book. 


Naturally we wish to give particular thanks to our financial sponsors, without whom none 
of the work could have been done. The preparation of the European accounts was done 
under a grant from the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), on behalf 
of the European Research Councils, co-ordinated through the European Science 
Foundation. The CMC receives generous financial support from the United Nations 
Environment Programme (UNEP), under their Global Environment Monitoring System 
(GEMS), and from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). In this case WWF have given an 
additional grant towards publication that will enable 500 copies of this book to be donated 
to botanical institutions and conservation organizations in those countries where funds for 
buying books are hard to obtain. We warmly thank our sponsors for all this support. 


Outline of the book 


In the pages that follow, we provide information about data sources on plants for each 
country and island group in the world. Most islands are given a separate account, whatever 
their political affiliations, because so often their flora is very different from that of the 
parent country. We have only placed the island account next to that of its parent country 
where both are close geographically, the island is not oceanic and the floras are similar; 
otherwise the islands are placed in the alphabetical sequence. For example, Corsica may be 
found after the account for France, but Guadeloupe and Martinique, French 
départements, are placed in the main sequence. 


We have included most islands other than those inshore ones and those that have little or 
no flora. The main omissions are in the Arctic, where there are few, if any, endangered 
plants. We have had difficulty in finding the correct names for some of the islands, and 
have found it quite impossible to be wholly consistent in geographical names. The 
literature on small islands, although fascinating, is obscure and difficult to find and we are 
conscious that some of the accounts are far from complete. We would be glad to know of 
any errors. 


The information in each account is arranged under the following headings, although where 
data are lacking or where the accounts are very short, some or all of the headings have 
been omitted for the sake of clarity. 


Area In square kilometres, mostly taken from The Times Atlas of the World, 
Comprehensive Edition (Times Books, London, 1983 version). 


Population Taken from the UN World Population Chart, 1984, prepared by the 
Population Division of the Department of International, Economic and Social Affairs, 
United Nations. The figures are estimates, to the nearest thousand, for the middle of the 
year. In a few cases, mostly small islands, different sources were used and these are 
indicated, with a date wherever possible. 


Floristics Here we outline the size of the flora and its affinities, with, where 
relevant, notes on areas of high diversity and endemism. 


In most cases we have tried to give two figures: the number of species of native vascular 
plants, and the number of endemic taxa. The first of these usually comes from the floristic 
literature, being either a tally of species recorded or an estimate of species predicted to 
occur in the country or island. It has been a pleasant surprise to find estimates and totals 
for so many countries. We are unable to present figures for only a handful of countries, 
principally Uruguay, the two Yemens, and the two Koreas. We should emphasize that the 
figures are not always strictly compatible from one country to another; taxonomic 
concepts vary, as does the extent of knowledge. But we do feel that this set of figures, 
never drawn together before as far as we can assess, provides a sharp comment on how the 
diversity of plants is spread over the Earth. 


The second number we have tried to include is the number of endemics; by this we mean 
plants strictly confined to the island, island group or country concerned, rather than plants 
that are of an endemic nature, i.e. confined to small areas, whether in one country or not. 
These figures are usually taken from the IUCN database, as IUCN has been accumulating 
information on endemic plants for many years. 


Vegetation Our aim has been to provide a succinct account of the principal 
vegetation types in each country and to outline the mosaic they form. This is no easy task, 


Xvi 


Outline of the book 


even for professional phytosociologists, and we have invariably found this the most 
difficult section to write. As botanists, with mostly a taxonomic and ecological rather than 
a phytosociological training, we have learned greatly from the process but are very aware 
of the deficiencies in what we have written. We hope, nevertheless, that the accounts will 
be of some use in providing a birds-eye picture of the natural vegetation that remains; the 
tremendous help that we have had from the numerous botanists who have reviewed the 
accounts should ensure, too, that they are not wholly inaccurate. 


In writing these sections, we have deliberately not followed any one system of classifying 
vegetation, and have tried to follow a structural rather than a phytosociological approach. 
As White (1983) says, ‘“‘The remark made long ago by Richards, Tansley and Watt (1939, 
1940) in discussing Burtt Davy’s (1938) classification of tropical woody vegetation, namely 
that existing knowledge is inadequate for the construction of a world-wide natural 
classification, still remains true.’’ We have also tried to avoid the more baffling and 
complex terms used by some vegetation scientists. 


The sections vary greatly from region to region, those for Europe, predominantly a man- 
made landscape, being the most difficult. For Africa, we have had the benefit of F. 
White’s masterpiece on the vegetation - the AETFAT vegetation map and descriptive 
memoir (White, 1983). We have followed this closely and as a result the accounts of the 
vegetation for Africa are better, shorter and more consistent than those for other regions. 


Where possible, especially in tropical forest countries, we have added figures on the extent 
of vegetation remaining, and of the rate of loss, although in no sense do we provide more 
than a brief introduction to the literature. Here, too, difficulties intrude for those who 
seek to summarize. We have, in fact, tended to quote from two very eminent but very 
different, indeed often contradictory, accounts. The first is the series of books by 
FAO/UNEP under the overall title Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project, 
specifically Forest Resources of Tropical Africa, of Tropical Asia and of Tropical America 
(the latter in Spanish). These massive tomes were compiled by FAO from figures requested 
from governments. The second source is Norman Myers’ Conversion of Tropical Moist 
Forests (Myers, 1980), a report prepared for the U.S. National Research Council and 
published by the National Academy of Sciences. As Myers himself (1984) points out, the 
discrepancy lies with the two sets of criteria used. He looked at significant conversion of 
primary forests, that is, destruction plus degradation, whereas the FAO/UNEP study 
focused instead on outright elimination of forests, that is, destruction alone. From the 
point of view of biological values, the Myers figures are therefore likely to be the more 
useful, because it is well known that modification of tropical forests tends to cause loss of 
plant diversity. When these differences are taken into account, Myers (1984) claimed that 
the figures for overall loss of tropical forests were quite similar: a deforestation rate in 
1980 of 76,000 sq. km per year according to the FAO/UNEP study, and a figure for 
outright elimination from the Myers study of 92,000 sq. km per year. In both cases one 
should emphasize that the largest countries with tropical forest are often the least well 
documented so that the overall estimates are figures to be treated with caution. 


Checklists and Floras This section is included to provide a taxonomic basis for 
the sections that follow on threatened species. The aim is to cite those works that 
conservationists would use, so we take a selective view of the botanical literature. Where a 
comprehensive Flora has just been completed, we have added none of the older works 
since these would only be required by the taxonomic specialist. But where a Flora has not 
been written, or is still incomplete, we have included those older works that will be needed 
to cover the gaps. Often, where modern Floras are still only just beginning, as in many 
South American countries, we have included references to monographs for the larger 


| XVii 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


individual families. We have also included botanical bibliographies whenever we could 
find them. In European countries, and some others, we have included plant atlases and 
national botanical journals. 


We should emphasize just how selective we have been, especially for countries with an 
extensive botanical literature. The bibliography of Mexican botany, for example, runs to 
1015 pages (Langman, 1964). The second edition of Taxonomic Literature, TL2, in seven 
massive volumes, will list 15-16,000 titles, mostly published before 1939 and will not be 
complete, covering just the important works (M.R. Crosby and P.H. Raven, pers. 
comm.). 


While in the final stages of producing this book, D.G. Frodin’s Guide to Standard Floras 
of the World was published. This gives very detailed accounts of all the Floras published 
up to 1980, country by country, and is the result of many years of careful research. The 
Floras section of our book is fundamentally different as we list only selected works. 
Nevertheless, quick perusal of Frodin showed a high degree of consistency between the 
accounts. In only a few cases have we taken the liberty of adding a book or paper from 
Frodin’s accounts and all these instances are cited (e.g. ‘‘from Frodin’’). We salute Dr 
Frodin’s magnum opus and commend it for those who require a more detailed and 
complete account. 


Field-guides Again our choice is selective, especially for those countries like 
Britain and the United States where very many field-guides have been published over the 
years. In numerous other countries, however, there is not even a simple guide to the 
common species. 


Information on Threatened Plants This is the core of the book. We have tried to 
include all lists of threatened plants and Plant Red Data Books, but have not listed papers 
on one or two threatened species only, unless they give valuable background on threatened 
species in the area concerned. Some of the major works have been reviewed in the 
Threatened Plants Newsletter, issued by the Threatened Plants Unit about twice a year and 
sent to those who contribute data to the CMC; these reviews are mentioned where they 
provide a useful summary of a work or give new information. 


News of national databases on threatened species are also given, but this is a recent 
development in most countries. The maps (see below) summarize the coverage of Red Data 
Books for countries around the world and the conclusions from this are outlined in the 
following section. 


Where known, we give figures for the number of species (and in some cases infraspecific or 
lower taxa) falling into each of the IUCN Red Data Book Categories, used as a measure of 
the degree of threat to wild populations of individual taxa. These categories are defined at 
the end of the introductory section and outlined with examples in a booklet available from 
the Threatened Plants Unit at Kew. Most of the figures are taken from the CMC database 
on plants. In some instances, we quote the number of plants in The JUCN Plant Red Data 
Book (Lucas and Synge, 1978), especially where these are the only readily available 
examples of threatened species from a particular country. It is important to remember, 
however, that The IUCN Plant Red Data Book contains only examples, chosen to show 
the types of threats, habitats and areas affected. The aim was to find a few examples for 
each country, so the accounts are not representative of the places where the most 
extinctions are happening. 


Laws Protecting Plants This section covers legislation specifically to protect 
plants. It includes details of the type of protection offered and the taxa covered. With the 


XVlii 


Outline of the book 


exception of Europe, information on plants protected by law is still rudimentary; the very 
extensive database of the IUCN Environmental Law Centre in Bonn, West Germany, 
covers the individual species of fauna that receive legal protection, but not yet flora. The 
great size and complexity of that database, which depends on a standard list of animals, at 
least vertebrates, show how difficult it will be to compile similar records for plants. 


Details on laws relating to protected area legislation are not given; for this the reader 
should consult the IUCN Directories of Protected Areas, of which the volume for the 
Neotropics is available (IUCN, 1982). Volumes for Africa, Asia and Oceania are in 
advanced stages of preparation. 


Voluntary Organizations Here are listed those non-governmental organizations 
(NGOs), sometimes called citizen groups, that include plant conservation and botany in 
their remit. Many, but not all, are members of IUCN. 


Botanic Gardens This section was included to reflect the very great importance 
that IUCN attaches to the role that Botanic Gardens can play in conservation. In the 
accounts of some countries, for reasons of space, only gardens subscribing to IUCN’s 
Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body are included. More details of the 
Botanic Gardens of the world may be found in the International Directory of Botanical 
Gardens IV (4th Edition), compiled under the aegis of the International Association of 
Botanical Gardens (IABG) (Henderson, 1983). A survey of botanic gardens, undertaken 
by V.H. Heywood and P.S. Ashton for the preparation of an IUCN Botanic Gardens 
Conservation Strategy, has greatly increased the number of Botanic Gardens on which 
recent data is available; there are now over 1300 institutions recorded in the IUCN 
database as Botanic Gardens although not all may qualify in the scientific sense. 


Useful Addresses These include, for example, the main conservation agency in 
the country and the CITES management and scientific authorities. For the most part, 
herbaria are not included, being very effectively covered by the very meticulous and 
accurate Index Herbariorum (Holmgren, Keuken and Schofield, 1981), which describes 
about 1400 herbaria. 


Additional References This is a very selective section, including additional 
references cited in the text, as well as further books and articles on conservation and 
botany in the country concerned that are especially useful. We have made a special effort 
to include references to national vegetation maps here. 


After the country and island accounts, we provide three appendices. The first gives the 
references that occur so often they are not repeated in full on each country or island 
account. The second provides a geographical index to the references in Appendix 1, with 
an indication of subject matter. It may be helpful in finding references for a region rather 
than for a country. The third is a table showing which countries have ratified or acceded to 
the three global conservation conventions that relate to plants - the Convention on 
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the 
Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (The 
World Heritage Convention), and the Convention on Wetlands of International 
Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat, usually known as the Ramsar Convention. 


The final part of the book is an index of countries, islands and island groups mentioned in 
the data sheets, and important old or alternative names (even if these are not mentioned in 
the text) given as synonyms, followed by the current name. The page number given is that 
at the beginning of the relevant data sheet, rather than the page number of every 
occurrence. Geographical entities such as mountains, rivers or regions are not included in 
the index. 


xix 


NS 
<< \* 


SS 
NS 


> 
DNS 


SN 


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‘ed Data Books 


Degree of completeness of 
: erie. 


to 25% complet 


NRD _ National Red Dat 


Book in preparation 


Xxi 


Plants in Danger: What we 
know so far 


There is now a very substantial amount of knowledge on threatened plants. It is mostly 
very recent: for example, by 1970, only Belgium had produced a threatened plant list, only 
Ronald Melville was cataloguing threatened plants globally, and there was only a 
scattering of papers on plant conservation. Today, almost all the countries of the 
‘‘North’’, as defined by the Brandt Report and so including Australia, New Zealand and 
South Africa, have produced Red Data Books listing their threatened plants. Several 
countries of the ‘‘South’’, notably India, have produced exemplary lists too, and are 
following them up with programmes to conserve the plants they have listed as threatened. 


The coverage of Red Data Books is shown in Map No. 1. Some figures for numbers of 
threatened species in the regions and countries of the ‘‘North’’ are also given in Table 1. 


Table 1 Selected countries or regions of the ‘‘North’’ with Red Data Books 


Country/Region Species Rare & threatened Extinct Endangered 
taxa taxa taxa 
Australia 25,000 1716 117 215 
Europe! 11,300 1927 20 117 
New Zealand 2000 186 4 42 
South Africa 23,000 2122 39 107 
U.S.S.R. 21,100 653 ce 20 c. 160 
U.S.A.’ 20,000 2050 90 ? 


Sources: Country accounts and CMC database 
1. Excludes European U.S.S.R, Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira 
2. Continental U.S.A. 


In Europe, for example, all but five countries have produced Red Data Books or 
threatened plant lists, and those five, with the exception of Italy and Albania, are likely to 
produce reports soon. There is also a regional list for Europe (Threatened Plants Unit, 
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1983), which covers only species rare or 
threatened on a European scale, and a rather incomplete list for the neighbouring region of 
North Africa and the Middle East (IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat, 
1980). In the United States, there is a mass of lists and reports covering both the nation and 
individual states: the situation is complex and rather untypical of other countries, but the 
profligacy of independent initiatives and activities gives perhaps a glimpse of how the data 
may develop elsewhere in future. The data for the U.S.S.R. are also very complex, with a 
plethora of literature. 


In North America, 10-11% of the taxa have been listed as rare or threatened. The figure is 
rather higher in Europe, probably because of the combination of extensive threats to 
vegetation in the northern, industrialized countries, and the high degree of plant endemism 
in the southern Mediterranean countries. In northern European countries, the number of 
world-threatened species tends to be low; this is a reflection of the poverty of the flora, 
mostly consisting of widespread species that have invaded since the last Ice Age. The lists 
of nationally threatened species, however, tend to be several times greater, typically of 200 
taxa or more. 


XXli 


Plants in Danger: What we know so far. 


For the Southern Hemisphere, there is a list for South Africa (Hall et a/., 1980), although 
this is heavily weighted in favour of the Cape. A good list is available for Australia, now in 
its third version, though it is known to be incomplete for the fast disappearing Queensland 
rain forests and for the extraordinarily diverse flora of Western Australia. Botanists 
estimate that as many as 7000 plant species await discovery in Australia, mainly in the 
western region. In temperate Latin America, there is a list for Chile, but not yet for 
Argentina. 


Of all countries, the problem of threatened plants has perhaps been best documented in 
New Zealand. First to appear, in 1976, was a register - or list - of 314 taxa under 
consideration for threatened status (Given, 1976). Then, in 1976-1978, sets of loose-leaf 
sheets were issued; each sheet covered an individual species, with emphasis on the exact 
localities and populations in each locality. This was not a public document, but was 
designed to provide the practising conservationist with the information needed on the most 
critically threatened plants. This was followed by a popular, illustrated book on 
conservation of the New Zealand flora (Given, 1981a), an official Red Data Book covering 
plants and animals (Williams and Given, 1981), and a paper describing the whole 
documentation process (Given, 1981b). 


Within these regions, the highest percentages of rare and threatened species are from those 
areas with a mediterranean climate - the Mediterranean basin countries themselves, 
Western Australia, the Cape of South Africa and California. Raven (1976) estimates that 
these regions contain at least 25,000 plant species; a high percentage of them, maybe as 
many as half, are narrow endemics, and it is these plants, mostly in the IUCN Rare or 
Endangered categories, that dominate the threatened plant lists for U.S.A., Europe, 
Australia and South Africa. To give two examples, Californian endemics account for 669 
of the 2050 threatened species in the U.S. and, according to Hall et al. (1984), the Cape 
Floristic Kingdom contains 1621 threatened plants, including 36 Extinct, 98 Endangered 
and 137 Vulnerable. 


In addition, threatened plant lists and Plant Red Data Books have been prepared for many 
islands. For example, the Canary Islands are well covered by the list for Spain (Barreno et 
al., 1984), a Red Data Book for Mauritius, sponsored by IUCN/WWF, is in preparation 
and several lists have been prepared for the species-rich islands of Hawaii. Emphasis, 
however, has been more on listing the endemics and assigning threatened categories to 
them rather than preparing comprehensive Red Data Books. Nevertheless these lists show 
convincingly the very high degree of species endangerment on islands, especially on 
tropical oceanic islands. 


Most important for conservation of biological diversity are those islands with large 
endemic floras (endemic here means taxa confined to the island concerned). Those with 
over 1000 endemics are listed in Table 2. They are all very ancient land masses, unlike most 
oceanic islands which are of more recent geological origin. These islands contain 
remarkable floras that are very distinct, often isolated biologically and relicts of floras no 
longer seen today. This is demonstrated by the high degree of endemism among genera and 
even families. In all of them the vegetation is acutely threatened, but only for Cuba is there 
a comprehensive assessment of which species are at risk. A more detailed survey and 
assessment of the conservation status of these floras is an urgent world priority. For Cuba, 
Borhidi and Mujiz (1983) list 959 species as threatened or extinct, 832 of them endemics. 
For the Dominican Republic there is a partial list of 133 species (Jiménez, 1978) as well as 
extensive unpublished material. 


| 
Xxiii 


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* Tristan da Cunha 
ENDEMIC TAXA BA 1 
Ex Extinct 


Endangered 
Vulnerable 

Rare 

Indeterminate 
Insufficiently known 
not threatened 


XXiV 


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XXV1i 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Table 2 Oceanic islands with over 1000 endemic plant species 


Country Size of flora Endemics 
Madagascar 10,000-12,000 spp. c. 80% 
Cuba 6000-7000 spp. 3000-4000 
Hispaniola? 5000 spp. 1800 
New Caledonia 3250 spp. 2474 


1. Excludes Australia, New Zealand, Borneo, New Guinea. 
2. Hispaniola comprises the nations of Haiti and Dominican Republic. 


There are, of course, many other islands with rich floras, although none except the four 
listed above have over 1000 endemics. Here, paradoxically, data are usually more 
complete. Some examples are given in Table 3, using the IUCN Red Data Book categories 
to define the degree of threat. The islands least well documented are in the Caribbean, 
especially the Lesser Antillean chain, where a new Flora is in preparation (Howard, 
1974- ). 


Table 3 Endemic vascular plant taxa from selected oceanic islands 


50-1000 endemics, over 75% of the flora assigned to categories 


Ex E Vv Ra «I K nt Total Rare or 


threatened 
Azores 1 - Ss Sie | lil 14 55 30 (55%) 
Canary Islands ial 26s 109 Se 132m 26. 160 569 383 (67%) 
Galapagos - OF o> Sd eis Pe. vera lt) 229 150 (66%) 
Juan Fernandez i S22 aa 17 6 118 95 (81%) 
Lord Howe Island - 2 Oe 585-3 - 2 75 73 (97%) 
Madeira Sue sO re Sole 22) 28 131 86 (66%) 
Mauritius 19") 4265p E35) §39).14 169% 39 280 172 (61%) 
Seychelles eee eso 15 2) AT - 90 73 (81%) 
Socotra 1 84 eel 29 ie :)i 215 132 (61%) 


Similar data exist for Puerto Rico (234 endemics) but are not yet converted to IUCN criteria. Figures 
for Seychelles are for the Granitic Islands only, and so exclude Aldabra. 


The damage to the vegetation of smaller islands often gives an indication of what might 
happen to larger areas in future. In many cases destruction started centuries ago, often 
with the introduction of goats (in case of shipwreck). On the British dependency of St 
Helena, destruction started with the introduction of goats in 1513, which within 75 years 
had formed herds which stretched for nearly 2 km and devastated the flora before a 
botanist could even visit the island. Some examples of devastated floras are given in 
Table 4. 


XXViii 


Plants in Danger: What we know so far. 


Table 4 Small oceanic islands with devastated floras 


Ex E Vv R I K nt Total Rare or 


threatened 
Ascension Island 1 5 - 4 = 1 - 11 10 (91%) 
Bermuda 3 4 6 = ? l ? 14 
Norfolk Island 5 Hey e229 eral | 2 - 48 46 (96%) 
Rodrigues LON 20 8 8 - - 2 48 46 (96%) 
St Helena Vine 23 = alan 2 ~ 49 47 (96%) 


A number of tropical countries have prepared or are preparing threatened plant lists, 
despite the difficulties. Among the most prominent are: 


India Several lists prepared, covering in total c. 900 threatened 
species. 

Nepal National Plant Red Data Book, funded by WWF-US. 

Pakistan Identification of threatened plants is part of the WWF- 


Pakistan Plants Programme. 
Peninsular Malaysia Database on threatened plants being created by the 
Malayan Nature Society. 


The programme in India is one of the most comprehensive, with a full-time team stationed 
around the country, and is described in the country account. In China, a basic list of 354 
threatened plants has been prepared and a Red Data Book covering their status is in 
preparation, the English translation being due in 1985. Another good example is Egypt, 
where a threatened plant list is being prepared by the National Herbarium. There are lists 
of various kinds for El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Kenya, South Korea, 
Peninsular Malaysia, Mexico, Tanzania and Viet Nam, and IUCN hold additional data for 
countries including Ivory Coast, Malawi, Mozambique and Senegal. 


In middle America (Mexico to Panama), an IUCN project has prepared a threatened plant 
list for the region, using where possible the floristic accounts prepared for the forthcoming 
Flora Mesoamericana. Out of many thousands of species screened, including 7622 single 
country endemics, 1620 have been found to be rare or threatened. This is undoubtedly a 
major under-estimate; because of the lack of botanical knowledge, it was not possible to 
assign categories to 5115 of the 7622 single-country endemics. 


There is, then, a large and rapidly expanding literature of Red Data Books and national 
threatened plant lists but like much conservation information, it is mostly ‘grey literature’, 
that is reports, often a typescript, produced in low numbers and known only to a handful 
of people. Such reports are usually available on request but cannot be said to be published. 


To make all these data more accessible and to enable comparisons to be made from 
country to country, the Threatened Plants Unit of IUCN’s Conservation Monitoring 
Centre, based at Kew, has made a database drawing upon much of the information 
contained in the national Red Data Books and threatened plant lists. At present, this is 
principally a matrix of the name of the plant, its distribution by countries and the IUCN 
Red Data Book category for its degree of threat, applied at country and at world level, 
where known. A major development of the database is planned for 1986-7. This will 
enable the database to include plant distributions by localities, with presence in named 
Ck areas, synonyms, life-form, bibliographic references and data sources. It will 
include continued research on effective coding schemes for threats and for habitats. 


XXiX 


WB New Zealand 


Canada 


Bahamas 
= 


Mexico} Bi vamai 


Cuba 


Belize 
iy 
Guatemala 


Mei Salvador / 
Ni ares / 
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ry 
snare Colombia 


. 


Greenland 


Hispaniolat® 


| Puerto 

Rico 
Venezuela 
all 


French 
Guiana 


Peru 
Bolivia 
Brazil 


Chile | ft 


Argentina 


| 


Sweden 


Finland 
infan 
Noi way a 
Denmarkm 
Be ME Neth. fica] USSR 
feland UK om poland 
BelgiumcGrR 
Ms Czech. 
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Hamme Italy ugg: Romania Mongolia 
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SACD Vietnam 
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ny i Gent Ethiopia Sti 
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Size of Flora 
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30000 


20 000 


10000 


(#% Not a political entity) Map 3 


ie) 


XXXIli 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


So far the database contains records on 34,266 plant taxa, 15,870 of which are threatened; 
these comprise 42,569 plant-area records (18 September 1985). Detailed data-sheets, 
comprising one or more sheets of text, are held on c. 300 of the threatened plants, 
including those published as The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (Lucas and Synge, 1978). 
There are still a number of threatened plant lists not incorporated into the database. It is 
reasonable to assume, therefore, that the total number of known threatened plants will rise 
to perhaps as high as 20,000 taxa within the coming months as these data are incorporated. 


Even so, this will barely cover many tropical countries, especially those where rain forest is 
the dominant vegetation. For some time IUCN’s working estimate of the number of 
threatened plants has been 25,000-30,000; the terminology has, however, been 
unsatisfactory, as it is not possible to predict which species will be lost and when; the 
IUCN/WWFEF Plant Advisory Group in 1985 estimated that as many as 60,000 plant species 
could become extinct by 2050 if present trends continue - the greatest loss of plant species 
that has ever occurred during a short period of time. This estimate is entirely compatible 
with the figures outlined above. 


Table 5 Families with most threatened species in the IUCN database 


Name of Family No. Threatened Species’ No. Species? 
Compositae 1430 c. 25,000 
Leguminosae 941 17,000 
Orchidaceae 712 c. 18,000 
Palmae 546 c. 2780 
Rubiaceae 524 c. 7000 
Liliaceae 495 c. 3500 
Euphorbiaceae 487 Over 5000 
Labiatae 477 c. 3000 
Gramineae 460 c. 9000 
Cruciferae 443 c. 3000 


1. Source: IUCN database, 18 September 1985; 
2. Source: Heywood (1978). 


XXXIV 


Constraints to the 
identification of threatened 
species 


The concept of a species threatened with extinction is a simple one, yet, as the previous 
section shows, national threatened plant lists and Red Data Books so far cover only part of 
the world. Whereas most countries of the ‘‘North’’, with predominantly temperate 
vegetation, are well covered, there are few Red Data Books for the countries of the 
‘‘South’’, where the vegetation is mostly tropical. 


Yet as Map No. 3 shows, most of the world’s plants grow in the tropics. Roughly two- 
thirds of the world’s flora is tropical, half of it in Latin America and half shared between 
Africa and Asia. Comparison of the maps shows a sharp discrepancy between these 
regions with Red Data Books and those regions with most plants. 


Although hardly surprising, this is obviously a matter of great concern. The richer the 
flora, obviously the more difficult it is to identify which species are threatened as the 
information on each species tends to be less. Indeed, for much of the world, the 
information on each species is so small that it is not possible to assess chances of survival at 
all. Numerous tropical plants are only known from a handful of herbarium specimens, 
often collected many years ago and frequently poorly documented. It is not known 
whether the plant is common, even dominant, over a large area, or extremely rare. 


This problem is made more difficult by the distribution patterns of many tropical plants. 
The rare species in regions of mediterranean climate and on islands tend to be endemics, 
plants only known from one small place. Here the threat to a site can be equated to the 
threat to a species. Destroy the vegetation on the site and the species will disappear. But in 
the tropics, especially in tropical rain forests, plant species tend to have very scattered 
distributions. One small piece of forest may contain hundreds of different tree species, 
each one with only a few individuals per square kilometre. So the plants tend to be thinly 
scattered over a very extensive range. If part of the forest is to be cut down, it is usually not 
possible to say which species will become extinct and which will not. No one knows the 
critical point when species start to be lost. 


But perhaps most serious of all is the great imbalance in resources for botanical research 
between the temperate and tropical regions. The flora of Britain has barely more species 
than the 1560 hectare island of Barro Colorado in the Panama Canal, whose luxuriant 
forest, although secondary, contains 1369 species (Croat, 1978). Britain, however, is 
probably the best botanized country in the world. Every plant is plotted on a 10 km square 
grid and thousands of amateurs regularly contribute plant records to the journals. There 
are probably more botanists competent on the British flora than species for them to 
identify! The country is covered by a voluminous literature with Floras for each county as 
well as for the nation itself. Yet in countries like Bolivia (15-18,000 species) and Colombia 
(estimated 45,000 species), a handful of botanists grapple with floras that are largely 
unknown. No expert can identify more than a small fraction of a tropical forest flora, at 
least without resource to an herbarium. The sad truth is that most botanists live and work 
in countries far away from most of the world’s plants. 


Also, of course, there are thousands, possibly tens of thousands, of plant species not yet 
discovered, the greatest proportion being from Latin America. This is from a generally 
accepted world total of around 250,000 species of vascular plants. 


XXXV 


Conclusions for the future 


There is, then, plenty of information on which plants are threatened. But most of the 
information is on the countries with least flora. There is very little information on plant 
conservation needs for those parts of the world where plant diversity is greatest and where 
threats to plant life may be most acute. Nor has specific action to save plants been 
particularly widespread or effective. 


The IUCN/WWE Plant Advisory Group, meeting at Missouri Botanical Garden in 
December 1984, expressed the need for plant conservation in this way: 


‘‘Plants are a primary resource of fundamental importance for human life. Rapid 
population growth, together with the excessive and increasing demands that are placed 
on the world’s resources by our societies, are threatening to destroy a major portion of 
our common heritage of plants. This threat is especially evident in the tropics and 
subtropics, where at least two-thirds of the plants of the world occur, and where the 
process of deforestation is proceeding at an alarming rate. Widespread poverty, 
famine, and political instability, for example in Africa, are manifestations of the same 
processes that are driving plants to extinction and, by doing so, seriously limiting our 
future options for developing sustainable relationships between man and his living 
resources. 


All human beings depend upon plants, directly or indirectly, for their lives, as do most 
other forms of life: at least four million different kinds of organisms depend on about 
250,000 kinds of plants. But unless we immediately begin to take drastic and innovative 
measures to preserve them, it is likely that tens of thousands of plant species will 
disappear forever during our lives or those of our children. Their loss would amount to 
a fundamental and permanent change in the character of life on Earth, a life whose 
wealth is characterized by great diversity. 


Some 20 plants provide more than 85% of our food and only a few hundred species are 
cultivated widely. Most plant species have never been examined to see if they might 
have properties that would make them useful as food or for other purposes in our 
modern industrial age, and thousands of species have not even been given a name or 
described scientifically.’’ 


So, with a problem of such magnitude, what should be done? IUCN’s response to such 
questions is the World Conservation Strategy, which provides a conceptual basis linking 
conservation with development. The task now is to work out precisely how the Strategy 
can be implemented. Applying the principles of the World Conservation Strategy to the 
problems of plant conservation: 


1. We need more botanists! M.R. Crosby and P.H. Raven (pers. comm., 1985) 
estimate that there are about 3000 plant taxonomists in the world today. They estimate 
that six times more plant taxonomists are needed to study the world’s flora to an adequate 
extent before it is too late. 


This is a target to impress upon science research councils and other funding agencies. It is 
equally important to promote the correction of the imbalance between where the plants 
grow and where the botanists live. We should surely do all we can to encourage young 
botanists starting on their careers to work on tropical plants. The potential for discovering 
useful new plants is greater in the tropics than elsewhere, but many tropical plants are 
being lost before they are properly understood. 


XXXVI 


Conclusions for the future 


The goal should be to complete surveys of plant diversity and distribution in those areas, 
predominantly tropical, where they are lacking. The need is most acute in tropical Latin 
America, where there are an estimated 90,000 plant species, far more than for any other 
region on Earth; inventories have been prepared for only a few countries, e.g. Guatemala 
and Panama, and those are known to be far from complete. Without the basic knowledge 
of plant distributions, it is impossible to plan for the conservation of plant diversity. 
Inventories are the cornerstone of plant conservation. 


2. We need more Red Data Books! This book shows that preparing Red Data 
Books is possible for many parts of the world. Yet there are still many gaps in the 
coverage. 


Looking at the completed accounts, it is clearly not possible to make a quantitative 
assessment of priorities around the world. The data are too diffuse and the local 
knowledge of floras too variable for that. Yet it may be useful to have a more subjective 
assessment. On the basis of the evidence presented, and from our knowledge of compiling 
a Red Data Book, we would suggest that national plant Red Data Books are feasible and 
necessary in the following countries, where they should be treated as priorities: 


Country Approx. No. Species 
Argentina 9000 
Turkey 8000 
Italy 5000 
Yugoslavia 4800 
Japan 4000 
Morocco 3600 
Saudi Arabia 3500 
Canada 3200 
Portugal 2500 
Israel 2300 
Jordan 2200 
Cyprus 2000 


Looking at the islands, we can be more objective. Clearly priority should be given to those 
islands with over 1000 endemics - Madagascar, Cuba, Hispaniola and New Caledonia, as 
outlined in Table 2. In each case the floras are not well known and far more work is 
urgently needed. The next priority is those oceanic islands whose floras have not been 
assessed for threatened species; all those with over 50 endemics are listed below: 


XXXVIi 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Island No. endemic taxa 
Jamaica c. 910 
Taiwan c. 900! 
Sri Lanka c. 900 ' 
Fiji c. 700 
Caroline Islands 293 ? 
Trinidad and Tobago PASS 
Ogasawara-Gunto ey baie 
Réunion C150} 
Vanuatu c. 150 
Tubuai 140 or less 
Comoro Islands 136 4 
Bahamas 121! 
Sao Tomé 108 
Marquesas Islands 103 ! 
Samoa ? 100 or more ? 
Cape Verde 92 
Mariana Islands 81? 


Notes: 1. Some partial assessments of threatened species - see country accounts for details 
2. Omits monocotyledons 
3. Covered as American Samoa and Western Samoa. 
4. From a checklist published in 1917. 


The book shows that listing threatened plants is best done by a major botanical institution 
in each country, rather than by any international centre. This policy ensures botanical 
accuracy and provides the marriage of literature and herbarium groundwork with field 
knowledge. Work in the library and herbarium may show which species are very restricted 
in range or confined to vulnerable habitats, but only field knowledge, preferably 
accumulated over many years, can say which of them are threatened. This policy also helps 
to build a political and scientific climate within the country to go beyond the data- 
gathering and design a conservation programme to save the plants so listed. 


The aim of a Red Data Book is simple: to provide such data as are required to help create a 
situation where action may be taken to prevent the plants from becoming extinct. IUCN 
believes that each country should develop its own approach and produce a book in its own 
style yet counsels two standards that will promote international collaboration and allow 
comparisons to be made from one country to another. The first is that countries use the 
IUCN Red Data Book categories as a measure of the degree of threat to individual taxa. 
Countries should by all means use other coded means of assessment of their own devising, 
numerical or subjective, but should also apply the IUCN categories to the species listed. 
The categories have been fixed for many years and used in virtually all the Red Data Books 
and lists that have appeared in recent years - the main exception is the United States, where 
categories of similar nomenclature but different meaning are used, following terminology 
in the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. 


The second standard is precision over the full range of the plants listed, in particular 
whether each is confined to the area covered by the Red Data Book or not. If it is, clearly it 
will be threatened on a world scale and should receive priority over species common in 
other countries. If the species does occur outside the country, it is very useful to give some 
indication, however brief, of its full range - is it a pantropical weed, for example, or does 


XXXViii 


Conclusions for the Future 


it just extend over the border into a neighbouring country where it may be equally 
threatened? 


It may also be possible for Red Data Books to include information on the sites where most 
plants could be saved. This is an especially useful approach, particularly where data are 
lacking on individual species. Indeed, the best way to save most tropical plants is to 
preserve relatively large areas of intact vegetation, and it is certainly easier to assess where 
these sites should be rather than to identify threatened species. Using this approach, IUCN 
is preparing a Plant Sites Red Data Book; this will contain accounts of about 150 botanical 
sites indicative of those in greatest need of protection around the world, and where plant 
species diversity and/or endemism is particularly high. It is not intended to be a 
comprehensive account of all sites in danger, but rather an indication of those sites where 
most plants could be saved. Country accounts of savable plant sites will be even more 
useful. 


3. We need more detailed monitoring! Identifying a species as threatened is only 
the very first step in its conservation. There are many other elements of information that 
are needed. The most critical of these are data on precisely where the plant occurs - its 
present localities and data on population biology - how many plants occur at each locality, 
what are the bottlenecks in the life-cycle which are critical to expansion of the population, 
and so on. The techniques to do this are fairly sophisticated, following for the most part 
J.L. Harper’s work on population biology (Harper, 1977). Good examples of such studies 
are few, some being given in a conference partly devoted to this theme on the biological 
aspects of rare plant conservation (Synge, 1981); this shows rather clearly that the 
techniques available are as diverse as the number of experimenters! 


Henefin and colleagues (1981) have designed guidelines for data-gatherers on the 
preparation of status reports on rare or endangered plant species. These were designed for 
the requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. Their very structured 
approach provides a lengthy and useful checklist of factors to consider. 


Equally important as studies on individual threatened species are studies on the plant 
communities in which the species occur, especially on the ecology of the vegetation. An 
understanding of succession, for example, can be critical in ensuring the survival of 
individual plant populations. Experience shows how important such knowledge can be 
before rescue attempts are undertaken. In a number of cases, the fate of the plant has been 
harmed by well-meaning but incorrect conservation action. This is especially true for 
small, very vulnerable sites, where mistakes can be fatal. A good example is the story of 
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius in Britain, outlined by Frost (1981). Early efforts to 
conserve the principal population, confined to a tiny site of 1/12 acre, eliminated the 
plants altogether! The tragedy is that for those regions where most plants are threatened, 
conservation of individual plants has never been attempted, so there are no stories of 
success or failure to recount. This is all the more serious because of the large number of 
economic species in the tropics. 


Far more knowledge is still needed on the basic management of protected areas, especially 
in the tropics, to ensure that the species they contain will survive in future centuries. To 
our knowledge, there has also been little systematic assessment of which rare and 
threatened species are in existing protected areas. IUCN is keen to encourage inventories 
of protected areas as a basic first step in assessing what is protected so far. Few park 
managers have a list of the plants in the sites they manage and those lists that do exist are 
often difficult to obtain and unreliable. The IUCN/WWF Plant Advisory Group 
recommended surveys of the plants in Unesco Biosphere Reserves as a first step and as a 


XXXIX 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


way of uniting the biological and conservation communities. This is being taken up by 
Unesco. 


Indeed, in the coming decades, as habitats continue to decline, the emphasis may move 
away from identifying threatened species towards cataloguing the occurrence of all species 
in protected areas. One can then ask the question, ‘‘Which species are not protected at 
all?’’, and give priority to them. This is a much less subjective approach. The difficulties, 
however, are formidable: to derive the list of species not protected, one needs first of all an 
agreed list or database of plants of the region concerned, followed by lists of species 
occurring in protected areas. The necessary agreement in taxonomy is still far off, but 
modern computer technology should act as a spur for regional and specialist plant 
databases, linked together in a network. 


In contrast, the data are far better on which threatened species are conserved ex situ in 
Botanic Gardens, although it is generally accepted that this approach is a second-best 
solution and is unlikely to succeed for most tropical plants. IUCN’s Botanic Gardens 
Conservation Co-ordinating Body links together about 250 Botanic Gardens into a world 
network for plant conservation. Surveys have shown that c. 4400 of the c. 16,000 known 
threatened species are recorded in cultivation. It is likely that this total will expand rapidly, 
double even, as exchange of electronic media becomes possible between Botanic Gardens 
and IUCN; the computerization of individual gardens record schemes and a limited 
measure of standardization, with the provision of an International Transfer Format, is the 
subject of an IUCN project this year. 


4. We need more conservation action! Despite the impressive amount of 
information catalogued in this book, action to save plants in danger is scattered, often 
small in scale and rarely effective. Indeed, it is hard to find more than a handful of 
examples where a species, once threatened, has been rescued and is now conserved and safe 
for the future. 


Despite this rather depressing fact, it would appear that success is possible in the 
predominantly temperate countries such as those of Europe and North America. Here, no 
more species should be lost. As Lucas and Synge (1978) outline, relatively few of the listed 
species are Endangered and most are confined to very small areas which can usually be 
protected without great difficulty. Indeed, relatively small protected areas may be 
adequate. Botanic Gardens, moreover, can not only cultivate the plants but also 
reintroduce them, maintain their habitats and even own and manage reserves for them. 
Once the individual facts on threats, habitats, sites and populations are known, successful 
conservation of most plant species is likely to prove far less difficult and costly than that of 
animals. The requirement is on the one hand for the political will to act and on the other 
for sufficient, energetic and skilful manpower to take protective action for the numerous 
species involved. 


In much of the tropics, however, one has to recognize, and regretfully accept, that species 
losses are now virtually inevitable. The best answer is to build a network of protected areas 
— national parks and nature reserves - covering representative samples of the best habitat 
types. Clearly the priority is to find those areas with the most diversity and to protect 
them. Setting up one large tropical forest reserve can save hundreds if not thousands of 
species. 


Sometimes a single species can act as a symbol and rallying point for a whole programme 
of habitat conservation. Project Tiger, an initiative of the Indian Government supported 
by the World Wildlife Fund, led not only to an increase in tigers from about 1800 to 3000, 


xl 


Conclusions for the Future 


but, even more important, to a revitalizing of India’s protected areas network, with 
benefits to the numerous plants and animals with which the tiger shared its habitat. 


Yet, obviously, the creation of protected areas is principally a means of buying time. 
Protected areas cannot be effective in the middle of an over-populated and poverty-striken 
environment; the pressures and temptations are too great when protected areas become 
lush but forbidden pockets of vegetation surrounded by degraded land. 


To counter this possibility, managers of protected areas are changing their tactics. In 
developing countries, meeting human needs for food, health and shelter has to be the 
primary goal. Rather than ‘‘set land aside’’, protected area managers want to protect it 
from gross outside disturbance so that the benefits continue to radiate out into the 
surrounding countryside; these include surplus animals for food and a continual supply of 
fresh water in the streams, to give two examples. A vital concept is the buffer zone, a 
broad and possibly undefined area between the park and the surrounding countryside. The 
buffer zone can continue to be used in traditional and sustainable ways, e.g. for gathering 
firewood and wild fruit, for grazing limited numbers of cattle and for gathering medicinal 
herbs. 


Since the United States declared Yellowstone National Park in 1872, parks have been 
created all over the world. In the decade between 1972 and 1982, major protected areas, 
excluding the smallest, rose from 212 million hectares to around 386 million hectares - an 
impressive 55 percent increase. Yet this covers only a small proportion of the Earth’s 
surface, at a time when vegetation is being destroyed faster than ever before. It is a race 
against time; most areas will have to be saved before the 1990s. The timescale for global 
conservation is desperately short. 


The other main remedy, just as important, is to find better means of using land so that 
wild plants continue to grow there and the land remains productive. New ways to grow 
sustainable crops in tropical rain forest environments and to prevent desertification will 
not only contribute greatly to sustainable development but will save wild plants as well. To 
help achieve this, botanists should be included in land-use planning teams, particularly in 
tropical regions where the available knowledge is especially limited. Land-use specialists 
such as agronomists and foresters should be included in conservation-orientated 
discussions as a matter of routine. Conservationists must also work more actively with 
agriculturists and foresters, bearing in mind that conservation and sustainable 
development can succeed properly only if they go hand in hand. The subject is far too 
broad to go into here but is vital for the future of the plant kingdom. 


5. We need more education and training! None of the activities outlined above 
will happen unless there is the trained and skilled manpower to implement them. Indeed an 
investment in training and institution-building can often be the most productive of all. 
There is a severe shortage of well-trained scientists and technicians with conservation 
skills, especially in the tropics. Specifically, the proper management of germplasm reserves 
differs greatly from park management in general, and is seldom based on adequate 
information. 


To address this important problem, the [UCN/WWF Plant Advisory Group 
recommiended that increased efforts should be made to provide training at all levels, to 
incorporate conservation principles as a normal part of biological and botanical training, 
‘and to encourage the preparation of outstanding textbooks and other curricular materials 
on plant conservation. The Group felt that the establishment of specific degrees in 


xli 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


conservation might be extended to universities other than those where such degrees are 
offered at present. 


Training needs to go hand in hand with general education and awareness-building on the 
need for plant conservation. Here we need good educational materials and a cadre of 
enthusiasts to put across the concepts and practice of plant conservation in the press, on 
radio and on television. Better use should be made of Botanic Gardens, which can provide 
the most important single point of information for the public on plant conservation issues. 


This section draws extensively on the conclusions of the first meeting of the IUCN/ WWF 
Plant Advisory Group, outlined in full in Threatened Plants Newsletter, No. 14: 4-7 
(1985). 


xlii 


Definitions of the IUCN Red 
Data Categories 


Extinct (Ex) 
Taxa which are no longer known to exist in the wild after repeated searches of their type 
localities and other known or likely places. 


Endangered (E) 
Taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue 
operating. 


Included are taxa whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats 
have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of 
extinction. 


Vulnerable (V) 
Taxa believed likely to move into the Endangered category in the near future if the causal 
factors continue operating. 


Included are taxa of which most or all the populations are decreasing because of over- 
exploitation, extensive destruction of habitat or other environmental disturbance; taxa 
with populations that have been seriously depleted and whose ultimate security is not yet 
assured; and taxa with populations that are still abundant but are under threat from 
serious adverse factors throughout their range. 


Rare (R) 
Taxa with small world populations that are not at present Endangered or Vulnerable, but 
are at risk. 


These taxa are usually localized within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are 
thinly scattered over a more extensive range. 


Indeterminate (I) 
Taxa known to be Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable or Rare but where there is not enough 
information to say which of the four categories is appropriate. 


Out of danger (O) 

Taxa formerly included in one of the above categories, but which are now considered 
relatively secure because effective conservation measures have been taken or the previous 
threat to their survival has been removed. 


In practice, Endangered and Vulnerable categories may include, temporarily, taxa whose 
populations are beginning to recover as a result of remedial action, but whose recovery is 
insufficient to justify their transfer to another category. 


Insufficiently known (K) 
Taxa that are suspected but not definitely known to belong to any of the above categories, 
because of the lack of information. 


N.B. For species which are neither rare nor threatened, the symbol ‘nt’ is used. 


} 


xliii 


References for introductory 
chapters 


Barreno, E. et al. (Eds) (1984). Listado de Plantas Endemicas, Raras o Amenazadas de 
Espafia. Informacion Ambiental. Conservacionismo en Espafia. No. 3.7 pp. 

Borhidi, A. and Mufiiz, O. (1983). Catdlogo de Plantas Cubanas Amenazadas o 
Extinguidas. Edit. Academia. 85 pp. 

Burtt Davy, J. (1938). The classification of tropical woody vegetation-types. Inst. Pap. 
Imp. For. Inst. 13: 1-85. 

Croat, T. (1978). Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford Univ. Press, California. 
943 pp. 

FAO/UNEP (1981). Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project (in the Framework 
of the Global Environment Monitoring System - GEMS). UN 32/6.1301-78-04. 
Technical Reports nos. 1-3, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, Rome. (Comprises 3 separate reports: Los Recursos Forestales de la 
América Tropical. 343 pp. (Forest Resources of Tropical America; in Spanish); 2 - 
Forest Resources of Tropical Africa. 108, 586 pp. (In English and French); 3 - 
Forest Resources of Tropical Asia. 475 pp. (In English and French).) 

Frodin, D.G. (1984). Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge. 619 pp. 

Frost, L.C. (1981). The study of Ranunculus ophioglossifolius and its successful 
conservation at the Badgeworth Nature Reserve, Gloucestershire. In Synge, H. 
(Ed.), The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. Wiley, Chichester. Pp. 
481-489. 

Given, D.R. (1976, 1977, 1978). Threatened Plants of New Zealand: A Register of Rare 
and Endangered Plants of the New Zealand Botanical Region. DSIR, Christchurch. 
(Loose-leaf.) 

Given, D.R. (1976). A register of rare and endangered indigenous plants in New 
Zealand. N.Z. J. Bot. 14(2): 135-149. 

Given, D.R. (1981a). Rare and Endangered Plants of New Zealand. Reed, Wellington. 
154 pp. 

Given, D.R. (1981b). Threatened plants of New Zealand: documentation in a series of 
islands. In Synge, H. (Ed.), The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. 
Wiley, Chichester. Pp. 67-80. 

Hall, A.V., de Winter, M. and B., van Oosterhout, S.A.M. (1980). Threatened Plants 
of Southern Africa. South African National Scientific Programmes Report No. 45, 
Pretoria. 244 pp. 

Hall, A.V., de Winter, B., Fourie, S.P. and Arnold, T.H. (1984). Threatened plants in 
southern Africa. Biol. Conserv. 28(1): 5-20. 

Harper, J.L. (1977). Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London. 

Henderson, D.M. (1983). International Directory of Botanical Gardens IV, 4th Ed., 
(first published 1963 as Regnum Vegetabile vol. 28). Koeltz Scientific Books, D-6240 
Koenigstein, W.-Germany. 288 pp. 

Henifin, M.S. et a/. (1981). Guidelines for the preparation of status reports on rare or 
endangered plant species. In Morse, L.E. and Henifin, M.S. (Eds), Rare Plant 
Conservation: Geographical Data Organization. New York Botanical Garden. Pp. 
261-282. 

Heywood, V.H. (Ed.) (1978). Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford Univ. Press. 336 
pp. 


xliv 


References for introductory chapters 


Holmgren, P.K., Keuken, W. and Schofield, E.K. (1981). Index Herbariorum: Part 1 
The Herbaria of the world, 7th Ed. Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht and Antwerp. 
452 pp. 

Howard, R.A. (Ed.) (1974- ). Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward 
Islands. 3 vols so far. Arnold Arboretum, Mass. 

Huxley, A. (1985). Green Inheritance : The World Wildlife Fund Book of Plants. 
Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 193 pp. 

IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) (1982). IUCN 
Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas. Published for IUCN by Tycooly 
International Publishing Ltd, Dublin. 436 pp. 

IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980). First Preliminary Draft of the 
List of Rare, Threatened and Endemic Plants for the Countries of North Africa and 
the Middle East. Mimeo, IUCN, Kew. 170 pp. 

Jiménez, J. de J. (1978). Lista tentativa de plantas de la Republica Dominicana que 
deben protegerse para evitar su extincién. Coloquio Internacional sobre la practica 
de la conservacion, Santo Domingo. 

Langman, I.K. (1964). A Selected Guide to the Literature of the Flowering Plants of 
Mexico. Univ. Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1015 pp. 

Lucas, G. and Synge, H. (1978). The IUCN Plant Red Data Book. UCN, Switzerland. 
540 pp. 

Myers, N. (1980). Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests. (A report prepared for the 
Committee on Research Priorities in Tropical Biology of the National Research 
Council.) National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 205 pp. 

Myers, N. (1984). The Primary Source: Tropical Forests and Our Future. Norton, New 
York. 399 pp. 

Raven, P.H. (1976). Ethics and attitudes. In Simmons, J.B. et a/. (Eds), Conservation 
of Threatened Plants. Plenum Press, New York and London. Pp. 155-179. 

Richards, P.W., Tansley, A.G. and Watt, A.S. (1939, 1940). The recording of 
structure, life-form and flora of tropical forest communities as a basis for their 
classification. J. Ecol. 28: 224-239 (1940). Also published as Inst. Pap. Imp. For. 
Inst., No. 19 (1939). 

Synge, H. (Ed.) (1981). The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. Wiley, 
Chichester. 558 pp. 

Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1983). List of Rare, 
Threatened and Endemic Plants in Europe (1982 edition), 2nd Ed. Nature and 
Environment Series No. 27, Council of Europe, Strasbourg. 357 pp. 

White, F. (1983). The Vegetation of Africa. A Descriptive Memoir to Accompany the 
Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. Natural Resources Research 
20, Unesco, Paris. 356 pp. 

Williams, G.R. and Given, D.R. (1981). The Red Data Book of New Zealand: Rare 
and Endangered Species of Endemic Terrestrial Vertebrates and Vascular Plants. 
Nature Conservation Council, Wellington. 175 pp. 


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Afghanistan 


Area 636,267 sq. km 
Population 14,292,000 


Floristics About 3000 species (Kitamura, 1960-1966); estimated 25-30% species 
endemism (I.C. Hedge, 1984, in /itt.). 23 endemic genera, most in the mountains (Hedge 
and Wendelbo, 1970). The flora includes Central Asiatic and Eastern elements (including 
many alpines found along the mountain chains of the Altai, Pamir Himalaya and south- 
west China); Himalayan elements in extreme east and north-east; Eurasiatic and Western 
elements (Stewart, 1982). 


Vegetation In the south-west, mostly desert and semi-desert, with scant 
vegetation; in south and north-west, thorn scrub with many ephemerals, and grasses; in 
west and parts of south, open deciduous woodland with Pistacia and Amygdalus, together 
with mixed herb communities and steppe-like vegetation; Artemisia or Haloxylon where 
the soils are saline; much of the centre and east up to 3000 m, rising to 7000 m in the 
mountainous north-east; West Himalayan evergreen sclerophyllous forest, restricted to 
Nuristan and Safed Koh range (Stewart, 1982), with Quercus spp. up to 200 m, Pinus 
gerardiana (2100-2500 m), Cedrus deodara (2500-3100 m), Picea smithiana and Abies 
wallichiana at 2900-3300 m (Freitag, 1971); juniper woodland up to 3500 m; alpine 
vegetation mainly restricted to a few mountain ranges in east (Breckle, in Davis, Harper 
and Hedge, 1971). 


Checklists and Floras Afghanistan is included in Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 
1963- ), cited in Appendix 1, and Flore de L’Iran (1943-1952), cited under Iran. Other 
relevant works: 


Grey-Wilson, C. (1974). Some notes on the flora of Iran and Afghanistan. Kew Bull. 
29(1): 19-81. (Annotated checklist of plants collected during 1971 expedition; notes 
on vegetation of Makran, Wakhan and Pamir regions of north-east Afghanistan.) 

Hedge, I. and Wendelbo, P. (1964). Studies in the Flora of Afghanistan, 1. Norwegian 
Univ. Press, Oslo. 56 pp. (Annotated list of 7 ferns, 157 angiosperms collected on 
1962 expedition; notes on vegetation.) 

Kitamura, S. (1960-1966). Flora of Afghanistan, 3 vols. Kyoto University, Japan. (1,2 
- Enumeration of plants collected during the Kyoto Univ. Scientific Expedition to 
Karakoram and Hindukush, 1955; details of distributions, Latin diagnoses of new 
species; 3 - additions and corrections.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No national list available. U/mus wallichiana 
was included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Additional References 

Breckle, S.-W., Frey, W. and Hedge, I.C. (1969, 1975). Botanical literature of 
Afghanistan. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 29: 357-371; 33: 503-521. (A useful 
bibliography of botanical literature and maps.) 

Davis, P.H., Harper, P.C. and Hedge, I.C. (Eds) (1971). Plant Life of South-West 
Asia. Botany Society of Edinburgh. 335 pp. (See in particular S.W. Breckle on the 
vegetation in alpine regions of Afghanistan, pp. 107-116; H. Freitag on the natural 
vegetation of Afghanistan, pp. 89-106; P. Wendelbo on distributional patterns 
within the Flora Iranica area, pp. 29-41.) 

Freitag, H. (1971). Die Natiirliche Vegetation Afghanistans. Beitrage zur Flora und 
Vegetation Afghanistans, 1. Vegetatio 22: 285-344. 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Frey, W. and Probst, W. (1978). Vegetation und Flora des Zentralen Hindukus 
(Afghanistan). Reichart, Weisbaden. 126 pp. 

Hedge, I.C. and Wendelbo, P. (1970). Some remarks on endemism in Afghanistan. 
Israel J. Bot. 19: 401-417. 

Podlech, D. and Anders, O. (1977). Florula des Wakhan (Nordost-Afghanistan). Mitt. 
Bot. Miinchen 13: 361-502. (Includes annotated checklist, in German.) 

Stewart, R.R. (1982). History and exploration of plants in Pakistan and adjoining 
areas. In Nasir, E. and Ali, S.I. (Eds), Flora of Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural 
Research Council, Islamabad. 186 pp. (Published as a separate fascicle; see in 
particular pp. 155-174.) 


Agalega Islands 


Two small coralline islands c. 930 km north of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, 10°20’S 
56°20’E. The islands, c. 10 and c. 8 km long, are connected by a narrow sand bank. They 
are well wooded with coconut trees, casuarinas, and other trees; the cultivation of 
coconuts is the only industry on the islands. 91 species of plant were seen by the late J. 
Procter in 1972 (unpublished manuscript); 6 species recorded by Hemsley (1919), but 60 
species more realistic (Procter, pers. comm. to S. Renvoize, reported in Renvoize, 1979). 
The islands are a dependency of Mauritius. 


References 

Hemsley, W.B. (1919). Flora of Aldabra: with notes on the flora of neighbouring 
islands. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew 1919: 108-153. (Checklist, with descriptions of new 
species.) 

Lincoln, G. (1893). Agalega Islands: a report to Sir H.E. Jerringham. Port Louis, 
Mauritius. Unpublished. 19 pp. (Illus.) 

Renvoize, S.A. (1979). The origins of Indian Ocean island floras. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 107-129. 


Albania 


Area 28,748 sq. km 
Population 2,985,000 


Floristics 3100-3300 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 24 national endemics (IUCN figures); c. 300 Balkan 
endemics. Elements: Central European, Mediterranean and alpine. Floristically diverse 
areas include serpentine and limestone rocks that support many Tertiary relict species. 


Vegetation Little recent data on present extent and composition. According to 
Markgraf (1932) there are 4 natural vegetation zones stretching north-scuth: 1 - a narrow 
coastal belt, now largely agricultural with some maquis, phrygana and secondary steppe; 2 
- a broad Mediterranean and transitional deciduous forest zone to the east; 3 - central 
European deciduous montane forests of beech dominating the eastern mountain belt, with 


2 


Albania 


scattered patches of Macedonian Pine (Pinus peuce); 4 - at highest elevations, mostly 
along Yugoslav border in the north and east, a subalpine and alpine zone. 


Checklists and Floras One of the least known countries botanically in Europe, 
but covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980) and the Mea- 
Checklist (both cited in Appendix 1). No complete national Flora, but see Hayek 
(1924-1933, cited in Appendix 1), although the area delimited as Albania there does not 
exactly correspond to the limits of the modern state. 


Most recent regional Floras: 


Mitrushi, I. (1955). Drurét dhe Shkurret e Shqipérisé. Instituti i Shkencave, Tirané. 
604 pp. (Monocotyledons; dicotyledons; line drawings; maps.) 

Mitrushi, I. (1966). Dendroflora e Shqipérisé (Tree Flora of Albania). Univ. Shtetévor i 
Tiranes, Tirané. 519 pp. (Partially supercedes above work; includes cultivated 
species; 617 line drawings.) 

Paparisto, K., Qosja, X. and Demiri, M. (1962, 1965). Flora e Tiranés, Ikonographia, 
2 vols. Univ. Shtetévor i Tiranes, Tirané. 520 pp., 515 pp. (Covers Tirana region 
only; habitats; vol. 2 contains 1300 line drawings.) 


Checklists: 


Alston, A.H.G. and Sandwith, N.Y. (1940). Results of two botanical expeditions to 
south Albania. J. Bot. 78: 119-126, 147-151, 167-174, 193-199, 219-224, 232-246. 
(Checklist for southern Albania.) 

Bornmiiller, J. (1933). Zur flora von Montenegro, Albanien und Mazedonien. Magyar 
Bot. Lapok 32(1/6): 109-142. (Angiosperm checklist.) 

Javorka, A. et al. (1926). Adatok Albania florajahoz. Additamenta ad floram 
Albaniae. 7. Anthophyta. A Magyar Tud. Akad. Balk.-Kutat. tud. ered. 3: 219-346. 
(Angiosperm checklist.) 

Markgraf, F. (1931). Pflanzen aus Albanien 1928. Denkschrift. Akad. Wiss. Wien 
Math.-naturw. 102. 360 pp. (Checklist of vascular species compiled in 1928.) 


Relevant botanical journal: Buletin i Universitet Shtetévor té Tiranes, Seria Shkencat 
Natyrore (Bulletin of the State’s University of Tirana, Series of Natural Sciences). 


Information on Threatened Plants No national plant Red Data Book. Included 
in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in Appendix 1) 
but for Albania this is based upon data from the 1920s; latest IUCN statistics, based upon 
this work: endemic taxa — E:1, V:2, R:11, 1:6, K:2, nt:2; non-endemics rare or threatened 
worldwide - V:2, R:59, I:3 (world categories). 


Useful Addresses 
Botanical Institute of the University of Tirana, Tirana. 


Additional References 

G6lz, P. and Reinhard, H.R. (1984). Die Orchideenflora Albaniens. Mitt. Bl. 
Arbeitskr. Heim. Orch. Baden-Wiirtt. 16(2): 193-394. (Comprehensive mapping 
register es orchid flora of Albania; includes short history of floristic research.) 

Hayek, A. von (1917, 1924). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flora des Albanisch-Montene- 
Grinischen Grenzgebietes. Denkschrift. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-naturw. 94 and 99. 
224 pp. (Floristic knowledge about the flora of the Albanian-Montene-Grinischen 
border districts; illus.) 

Markgraf, F. (1925). Botanische Reiseeindriicke aus Albanien. Repert. Spec. Nov. Reg. 
Veget. 36: 60-82. (Botanical journeys in Albania; descriptive account.) 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Markgraf, F. (1932). Pflanzengeographie von Albanien. Ihre Bedeutung fiir Vegetation 
und Flora der Mittelmeerlander. Bib. Bot. 105. 132 pp. (Map; photographs.) 

Markgraf, F. (1970). Die floristische Stellung und Gliederung Albaniens. Feddes 
Repert. 81(1-5): 215-222. (A descriptive account of the floristic composition and 
structure of the Albanian flora.) 

Markgraf, F. (1974). Floristic report for Albania. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(1): 5-7. 

Ubrizsy, G. and Pénzes, A. (1960). Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Flora und der Vegetation 
Albaniens. Acta Bot. 6(1/2): 155-170. 


Aleutian Islands 


A continuous chain of about 12 large and 50 small islands, extending westwards for nearly 
2000 km from the Alaska Peninsula to 172°W, close to the Commander Islands 
(Komendorskiye Ostrova - to U.S.S.R.). The Aleutians are a Territory of the U.S.A., 
cover 17,666 sq. km and have around 6700 people. Including the Commander Islands, the 
flora comprises 533 taxa of native and introduced vascular plants. ‘‘A few endemics.”’ 
Floristic affinities to the Kamtchatka Peninsula of eastern U.S.S.R. rather than to the 
Arctic. Vegetation predominantly of heath, dominated by Ericaceae, with meadows in 
more sheltered places and fragments of alpine meadows in upland areas. The above taken 
from: 


Hultén, E. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands. Cramer, Codicote, Herts, U.K., and 
Hafner, New York. 376 pp., plus 533 distributional maps and 32 plates. (Includes 
westernmost Alaska Peninsula and with notes on the flora of the Commander 
Islands.) 


For information on threatened plants, see: 


Murray, D.F. (1980). Threatened and Endangered Plants of Alaska. U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land 
Management. 59 pp. (42 species, dot maps, black ink drawings.) 


Algeria 


Area 2,381,745 sq. km 
Population 21,272,000 


Floristics 3139 species (Quézel and Santa, 1962-1963); 3150 species (Le Houérou, 
1975). c. 250 endemic species (Quézel, 1964; 1978, cited in Appendix 1). The Ahaggar 
mountain massif in the south, and the north coast are especially rich. 


Most of Algeria has a Saharan flora, but there is also a narrow coastal band with a 
Mediterranean flora, and a transition zone between the two. Mediterranean and African 
elements occur together on the Ahaggar massif. 


Vegetation Mostly desert with little or no perennial vegetation, and semi-desert 
grassland and shrubland in the north. Coastal band of Mediterranean sclerophyllous 


4 


Algeria 


forest. Saharomontane vegetation occurs on the Ahaggar massif, including tree, shrub and 
grassland communities. Mediterranean montane forests and altimontane shrubland occur 
on Grande Kabylie in the north. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Algeria is included in the incomplete Flore de l’Afrique du 
Nord, the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980), Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and is being covered in 
Mead-Checklist; these are all cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Lapie, G. and Maige, A. (1915?). Flore Forestiére d’Algérie. Orlhac, Paris. 359 pp. 
(Line drawings throughout. Also includes the more common woody plants of 
Tunisia, Morocco and southern France.) 

Quézel, P. and Santa, S. (1962-1963). Nouvelle Flore de l’Algérie et des Régions 
Désertiques Méridionales, 2 vols. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 
Paris. 1170 pp. (Descriptive keys, distributions; 20 black and white photographs in 
each volume.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Algeria is included in the draft list for North 
Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat 
(1980), cited in Appendix 1. 


Faurel, L. (1959). Plantes rares et menacées d’Algérie. In Animaux et Végétaux Rares 
de la Région Méditerranéenne. Proceedings of the IUCN 7th Technical Meeting, 
11-19 September 1958, Athens, vol. 5. IUCN, Brussels. Pp. 140-155. (Includes lists 
of rare or threatened plants in different parts of Algeria.) 

Mathez, J., Quézel, P. and Raynard, C. (1985). The Maghrib countries. In Gémez- 
Campo, C. (Ed.), Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:31, V:22, R:65, 1:6, K:9, nt:38; non-endemic taxa 
rare or threatened worldwide - V:2, R:5, 1:9 (world categories). 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin d’Essais du Hamma, Rue de Lyon, Hamma. 
University Botanic Garden, University d’Alger, Alger. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Ministére de 1’Hydraulique, de l’Environnement et des 
Fo6rets, Ex Grand Seminaire, Kouba, Alger. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Institut National de la Recherche Forestiére, Arboretum de 
Baienm, B.P. 37, Cheraga, Alger. 


Additional References 

Barry, J.P., and Faurel, L. (1973). Notice de la feuille de Ghardaia. Carte de la 
végétation de |’Algérie au 1:500,000. Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. N., n.s. 11: 1-125. 
(Map.) 

Barry, J.P., Celles, J.C. and Faurel, L. (1974). Notice de la carte internationale du 
tapis végétal et des conditions écologiques. Feuille d’Alger au 1:1,000,000. Université 
d’Alger. 42'pp. (Map.) 

Cannon, W.A. (1913). Botanical Features of the Algerian Sahara. Publication No. 178, 
Carnegie Institute, Washington. 81 pp. (84 black and white photographs.) 

Guinet, P. (1958). Notice détaillée de la feuille de Beni-Abbés (coupure spéciale de la 
carte de la végétation de l’Algérie au 1:200,000). Bull. Serv. Carte Phytogéogr., Sér. 
A., Carte de la végétation 3: 21-96. CNRS, Paris. 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Le Houérou, H.-N. (1975). Etude préliminaire sur la compatibilité des flores nord- 
africaine et palestinienne. In CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 345-350. 

Quézel, P. (1964). L’endémisme dans la flore d’Algérie. Compt. Rend. Somm. Séanc. 
Soc. Biogéogr. 361: 137-149. 

Quézel, P. and Bounaga, D. (1975). Apercu sur la connaissance actuelle de la flore 
d’Algérie et de Tunisie. In CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 125-130. 


American Samoa 


The Samoan Archipelago is a chain of tropical, volcanic islands extending in a west- 
northwesterly direction in the South Pacific Ocean, 4200 km south-west of Hawaii and 
1000 km north-east of Fiji. The archipelago is divided politically into American (or 
Eastern) Samoa and Western Samoa. American Samoa, an unincorporated territory of the 
United States, comprises 6 inhabited islands and about 20 small uninhabited islets. It 
includes Swains Island, which is geographically part of the Tokelau Islands. Western 
Samoa is covered separately. 


Area 197 sq. km 
Population 34,000 


Floristics 489 vascular plant species, including naturalized introduced plants; 11 
endemic species (Amersen ef a/., 1982). Of the 140 fern species, 16 are endemic (Amersen 
et al., 1982). Species endemism for the whole of the Samoan Archipelago is c. 25% 
(Whistler, 1980). The flora of American Samoa is closely allied to that of neighbouring 
Western Samoa, Fiji and Tonga. 


Vegetation Lowland tropical evergreen rain forest, with Diospyros, Dysoxylum, 
Pometia and Syzygium, up to 300 m; montane forest, with Dysoxylum, at 300-700 m; 
Syzygium samoense cloud forest only found on Tau and Olosega at 500-930 m; small areas 
of montane scrub on Tutuila; mangroves and swamps near the coast. About two thirds of 
the native vegetation has been disturbed or cleared for settlements and agriculture. The 
area of disturbed forest (including Rhus secondary forest) was estimated to be c. 40 sq. km 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service figures, quoted by Whistler, 1980). 


Checklists and Floras 

Amerson, A.B., Whistler, W.A. and Schwaner, T.D. (1982). Wildlife and Wildlife 
Habitat of American Samoa, 2 parts. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, 
D.C. (1 - Environment and ecology, with list of 15 ‘‘potentially threatened species’’; 
2 - flora and fauna, with checklist of 489 vascular plant species, most of which are 
native species; notes on distribution, endemics indicated.) 

Christensen, C. (1943). A revision of the pteridophyta of Samoa. Bull. Bernice P. 
Bishop Mus. 177. 138 pp. (Covers both Western Samoa and American Samoa; 
revision of Selaginella by A.H.G. Alston.) 

Christophersen, E. (1935, 1938). Flowering plants of Samoa. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop 
Mus. 128. 221 pp.; 154. 77 pp. 

Parham, B.E.V. (1972). Plants of Samoa. DSIR Information Series no. 85, Govt 
Printer, Wellington, N.Z. 162 pp. (Short descriptions of plants from Western 
Samoa, arranged alphabetically by local names; many species also occur on 
American Samoa.) 


6 


American Samoa 


Information on Threatened Plants The only available list is that of 15 
“‘potentially threatened species’’, in Amerson, Whistler and Schwaner, cited above. 


Additional References 
Whistler, W.A. (1980). The vegetation of Eastern Samoa. Allertonia 2(2): 46-190. 
Whistler, W.A. (1983). The flora and vegetation of Swains Island. Afol/ Res. Bull. 262. 
25 pp. 


Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands 


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are island groups in the Bay of Bengal, the former of 
204 large and small islands, and the latter of about 22 smaller islands. The islands are 
administered as a Union Territory of the Republic of India. 


Area 8120 sq. km 
Population 185,254 (1981 census, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics c. 2270 flowering plant species, of which 225 are endemic 
(Balakrishnan, 1977; Balakrishnan and Rao, 1984). The flora of the Andamans is related 
to that of Burma and north-east India, while that of the Nicobars is more closely related to 
that of Sumatra and Malaysia. 


Vegetation The Andamans have tropical evergreen rain forest, rich in 
Dipterocarpus and Pterocarpus, tropical semi-evergreen rain forest and tropical moist 
deciduous forest. The Nicobars have tropical broadleaved evergreen rain forest, with 
Terminalia, Mangifera, Calophyllum, Garcinia and Cyathea. Remaining areas of rain 
forest are under severe pressures from logging and agriculture, particularly on the 
Andamans. Coastal areas of both the Andamans and Nicobars support mangrove forests, 
beach forests and littoral communities; scrub forest on the low flat islands of the northern 
Nicobars. 


Checklists and Floras The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are included in the 
Flora of British India (Hooker, 1872-1897), cited in Appendix 1. For ferns see Beddome 
(1892), and the companion volume by Nayar and Kaur (1972), cited in Appendix 1. Rather 
dated accounts include: 


Gamble, J.S. (1903). A Preliminary List of the Plants of the Andaman Islands. Chief 
Commissioner’s Press, Port Blair. 51 pp. 

Kurz, S. (1870). Report on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands. Office of Govt 
Printing, Calcutta. 75 pp. (Includes enumeration of 660 phanerogams and 50 
cryptogams; notes on distributions and main timber trees.) 

Parkinson, C.E.) (1923). A Forest Flora of the Andaman Islands. Govt Central Press, 
Simla. 325 pp. (Reprinted 1972 by Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 
Keys, short descriptions of 540 native species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Balakrishnan, N.P. (1977). Recent botanical studies in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
Bull. Bot. Survey India 19: 132-138. (Lists 136 ‘rare’ and ‘endangered’ endemic 
species.) 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Balakrishnan, N.P. and Rao, M.V.K. (1983). The dwindling plant species of Andaman 
and Nicobar Islands. In Jain, S.K. and Rao, R.R. (Eds), An Assessment of 
Threatened Plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. Pp. 186-210. (Lists 
110 threatened endemic taxa and 136 threatened non-endemics; notes on 
distribution.) 

Botanical Survey of India (undated). Endangered flora of Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands. Mimeo, 5 pp. (Issued by the Botanical Survey of India, Andaman and 
Nicobar Circle, Port Blair; overview of vegetation and threats to species.) 

Jain, S.K. and Sastry, A.R.K. (1980). Threatened Plants of India - A State-of-the-Art 
Report. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 48 pp. (Includes accounts of 11 
threatened plants from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.) 

Thothathri, K. (1960). Studies on the flora of the Andaman Islands. Bull. Bot. Survey 
India 2: 357-373. (281 species listed, with notes on distribution and abundance on 
the islands.) 


Useful Addresses 
Botanical Survey of India, Andaman-Nicobar Circle, Regional Herbarium, 
Horticultural Road, Port Blair 744102, India. 


Additional References 

Kurz, S. (1876). A sketch of the vegetation of the Nicobar Islands. J. Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal 45(2): 105-164. (Includes notes on 624 vascular plant taxa.) 

Melville, R. (1970). Endangered plants and conservation in the islands of the Indian 
Ocean. In IUCN, //th Technical Meeting Papers and Proceedings, 2. Problems of 
Threatened Species. {UCN New Series 18, Switzerland. Pp. 103-107. 

Sahni, K.C. (1958). Mangrove forests in the Andamans and Nicobar Islands. Indian 
Forester 84: 554-562. 

Thothathri, K. (1962). Contribution to the flora of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 
Bull. Bot. Survey India 4: 281-296. (Floristic analysis; notes on vegetation.) 


Andorra 


The principality of Andorra is situated on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, between 
Spain and France. It is surrounded by mountains, 2000-3500 m high, and nowhere falls 
below 900 m. 


Area 465 sq. km 
Population 34,000 


Floristics and Vegetation Over 1000 native flowering plant species (Losa and 
Montserrat, 1950). The most floristically diverse areas occur on the alkaline rocks at Pic de 
Casamanya, in the centre of the country, and in the north-west around Arinsal and 
Ordino. About one-third of the country is covered by forest of pine, fir, oak and birch, but 
a large proportion is plantation. Rich alpine meadows are widespread, although many 
mountain slopes have been developed for skiing, causing extensive damage. 


Checklists and Floras No national Flora. See: 


Losa, M. and Montserrat, P. (1950). Aportacion al Conocimiento de la Flora de 
Andorra. Botanica 6. No. 53. 184 pp. Consejo Superior de Investigaciénes 


8 


Andorra 


Cientificas, Zaragoza. (Without keys; an annotated checklist and floristic account 
including lower plants; black and white photographs; line drawings; maps.) 

Stefenelli, S. (1979). Guide des Fleurs de Montagne: Pyrenees - Massif-Central - Alpes 
- Apennins (French adaptation). Duculot, Paris-Gembloux. 160 pp. (Colour 
photographs and ecological data for each species.) 


The field-guides of Grey-Wilson (1979) and Polunin and Smythies (1973), both cited in 
Appendix 1, cover the flora. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Angola 


Area 1,246,700 sq. km 
Population 8,540,000 


Floristics (Excluding Cabinda) Estimates of size of flora include c. 5000 (Airy 
Shaw, 1947; J.-P. Lebrun, 1984, pers. comm.) and c. 4600 (calculated from figures quoted 
in Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). Endemism high; c. 1260 endemics, calculated from 
a sample of Conspectus Florae Angolensis (Exell and Goncalves, 1973); this is second in 
Africa only to Zaire. Districts with highest levels of endemism are Huilla, Benguela and 
Bie, in that order. 


Flora predominantly Zambezian, but in northern third of country flora transitional 
between Zambezian and Guinea-Congolian. South-west coast with flora of Karoo-Namib 
and Kalahari-Highveld regions. 


Vegetation Mostly rather uniform Brachystegia-Julbernardia (Miombo) 
woodland. Airy Shaw (1947) estimates that this type of woodland, together with other 
grassland and wooded grassland areas, occupies 90% of Angola. Only on the coastal belt 
and at the southern border do any major deviations from this type occur, and these include 
rain forest in the north, desert, montane forest, dry evergreen forest, Baobab associations, 
and various types of dry scrub. Zonation is well marked only in the south and south-west 
where desert and subdesert formations (containing the famed Welwitschia mirabilis), 
Colophospermum mopane (Mopane) bush and thorn scrub succeed one another as rainfall 
increases inland. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 440 sq. 
km/annum out of 29,000 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras 
Carrisso, L. et al. (Eds) (1937- ). Conspectus Florae Angolensis, 4 vols and 1 fascicle. 
Junta de Investigacdes do Ultramar, and later Junta de Investigacdes Cientificas do 
Ultramar, Lisboa. (Fully annotated checklist with keys. Pteridophytes by E.A. 
Schelpe, 1977. Flora now produced in family fascicles; c. 45% published.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants, but four examples of Vulnerable species are given by B.J. Huntley on p. 99 of 
Hedberg (1979), cited in Appendix 1. 


IUCN has records of 808 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, including 
R:3, I:16, nt:8. 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Garden of Salazar and Floristic Reserve No. 1, Instituto de Investigacdo 
Agronomica de Angola, C.P. 406, Huambo. 


Additional References 

Airy Shaw, J.K. (1947). The vegetation of Angola. J. Ecol. 35: 23-48. 

Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1970). Carta Fitogeografica de Angola. Instituto de 
Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda. 323 pp. (With coloured vegetation map 
1:2,500,000 and numerous black and white photographs.) 

Exell, A.W. and Gongalves, M.L. (1973). A statistical analysis of a sample of the flora 
of Angola. Garcia de Orta, Sér. Bot. 1(1-2): 105-128. 

Monteiro, R.F.R. (1970). Estudo da Flora e da Vegetacao das Florestas abertas do 
Planalto do Bié. Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda. 352 pp. 
(With 35 black and white photographs and coloured vegetation map 1:500,000.) 

Santos, R. Mendes Dos (1982). Itinerdrios Floristicos e Carta da Vegetagao do Cuando 
Cubango. Estudos, Ensaios e Documentos No. 137. Instituto de Investigacdo 
Cientifica Tropical/Junta de Investigacdes Cientificas do Ultramar, Lisboa. 266 pp. 
(With coloured vegetation map 1:1,000,000.) 

Teixeira, J. Brito (1968). Angola. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 193-197. 

Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 


Anguilla 


A flat coralline island of 91 sq. km and 7000 inhabitants in the Leeward Islands of the 
Eastern Caribbean, 113 km north-west of St Kitts. It is administered directly by the United 
Kingdom as a Dependent Territory. The vegetation is mostly tropical evergreen bush and 
low scrub. For botanical information, see the account on Antigua and Barbuda. 
References specifically on Anguilla are: 


Boldingh, I. (1909). A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of Anguilla, B.W.I. 
Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Neerlandais 6: 1-36. (List of 50 vascular plants, 
general ranges given.) 

Box, H.E. (1940). Report upon collection of plants from Anguilla, B.W.I. J. Bot. 78: 
14-16. 


Antarctica 


The continent of Antarctica covers 14 million sq. km. Almost the entire area is 
permanently covered by ice. There is also a belt of pack ice, between 4 and 22 million sq. 
km, surrounding the continent. In addition, there are a number of island groups extending 
into the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean (Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, 
New Amsterdam, Heard and Macdonald Islands) and South Atlantic Ocean (South 
Orkney and South Shetland Islands). 


10 


Antarctica 


The Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, New Amsterdam, Heard and Macdonald Islands 
are rocky islets with mires in which the important peat-forming plants are bryophytes, 
tussock-forming grasses, cushion-forming flowering plants and other herbaceous 
communities. Much of the land is covered with snow throughout the year. Maritime 
Antarctica, the South Orkney and South Shetland Islands are even more barren and are 
within the limit of maximum pack ice extension. 


For South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, see under the Falkland Islands (Islas 
Malvinas). Marion and Prince Edward Islands are covered separately. 


Antarctic Continent 2 indigenous vascular plants (Deschampsia antarctica and 
Colobanthus quitensis), confined to the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula (Greene and 
Holtom, 1971). 


Crozet Islands Area 505 sq. km; population of 30, permanent mission (1982); 
part of the French Southern and Antarctic Territory. 28 vascular plant species (Greene and 
Walton, 1975). 


Heard and Macdonald Islands Area 412 sq. km; no permanent population; 
external territories of Australia. Heard Island has 8 vascular plant species, the Macdonald 
Islands have 3 (Greene and Walton, 1975). 


Kerguelen Islands Area 7000 sq. km; population of 76, permanent mission 
(1982); part of the French Southern and Antarctic Territory. 29 vascular plant species, of 
which Lyallia kerguelensis is endemic and a further 7 species, including the famous 
Kerguelen Cabbage (Pringlea antiscorbutica), are confined to 2 or more sub-antarctic 
islands (Greene and Walton, 1975). 


New Amsterdam Area 55 sq. km; population of 92 (1980), permanent mission 
(1982); part of the French Southern and Antarctic Territory. 55 vascular plant species (J. 
Jérémie, 1984, in litt.). 


St Paul Area 7 sq. km; uninhabited; part of the French Southern and Antarctic 
Territory. Lowland slopes covered by Poa novare and Spartina arundinacea; wetter areas 
dominated by sedges, mainly Scirpus nodosus. 


South Orkney Islands Area 620 sq. km; uninhabited; part of the British Antarctic 
Territory. 2 vascular plants, Colobanthus quitensis and Desche-npsia antarctica (Brown, 
Wright and Darbishire, 1908). 


South Shetland Islands Area 4700 sq. km; uninhabited; part of the British 
Antarctic Territory. 1 vascular plant (Deschampsia antarctica). 


References 

Brown, R.N.R., Wright, C.H. and Darbishire, O.V. (1908). The botany of the South 
Orkneys. Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 23(1): 
101-111. (Includes account of mosses and lichens.) 

Chastain, A. es) Ie flore et la végétation des Iles de Kerguelen. Mém. Mus. 
National Hist. Naturelle, Ser. B, Bot. 11(1). 136 pp. 

Clark, M.R. and Dingwall, P.R. (1985). Cited in Appendix 1. 

Cour, P. (1959). Flore et végétation de l’Archipel de Kerguelen. Terres Australes et 
Antarctiques Francais 8/9: 3-40. 

Greene, S.W. and Holtom, A. (1971). Studies in Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. 
and Deschampsia antarctica Desv., 5. Distribution, ecology and performance on 
Signy Island. Brit. Antarctic Survey Bull. 28: 11-28. 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Greene, S.W. and Walton, D.W.H. (1975). An annotated check list of the sub-antarctic 
and antarctic vascular flora. Polar Record 17(110): 473-484. 

Hemsley, W.B. (1885). Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. 
Challenger During the Years 1873-76. Botany, vol. 1, part 2. London. (See in 
particular the section on the Crozets, including annotated checklist of 7 vascular 
plants, pp. 207-211; the Kerguelen Islands, including checklist of 21 vascular plants, 
pp. 211-243; the Macdonald Group, including checklist of lower plants and 5 
vascular plants on Heard Island, pp. 245-258; New Amsterdam and St Paul, 
pp. 259-281.) 

Hooker, J.D. (1844-1847). The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery 
Ships Erebus and Terror, in the Years 1839-1843, 2 vols. London. (1 - Flora 
Antarctica, Lord Auckland’s Group and Campbell’s Island; 2 - Flora Antarctica, 
the Antarctic Region.) 

IUCN (1984). Conservation and Development of Antarctic Ecosystems. 1\UCN, 
Switzerland. 36 pp. 

Skottsberg, C. (1954). Antarctic flowering plants. Bot. Tidsskr. 51: 330-338. 

Young, S.B. (1971). Vascular flora of the Kerguelen Islands. Antarctic J. United States 
6(4): 110-111. 


Antigua and Barbuda 


Antigua One of the more northerly of the Leeward islands of the Lesser Antilles; 
low-lying, reaching only 415 m altitude; mostly under sugar cultivation. About 45 km 
WSW of Antigua is Redonda (‘‘Round Island’’), 1.3 sq. km, a fragment of a volcano and 
rising to 300 m; uninhabited apart from about 100 feral goats. 


Barbuda 40 km north of Antigua; flat, only 30.5 m altitude; has a large lagoon 
and coastal sand-dunes. 


Area Antigua: 279 sq. km; Barbuda: 160 sq. km 
Population Antigua: 7300 (1979 estimate); Barbuda: 1500 (1979 estimate) 


Floristics 724 angiosperms with 0.7% endemism (Box, 1938, see below, analysed 
by C.D. Adams). These figures are likely to change considerably as the Flora of the Lesser 
Antilles is published. 


Vegetation 

Antigua Mostly dry scrub woodland and man-made grassland; several types of 
seasonal forest, mostly low and secondary; in areas of low rainfall and limestone soils, 
several types of evergreen thicket and scrub; on the coast some mangrove and strand 
vegetation. Area of cultivation recorded as no more than 101 sq. km in 1960, decreasing, 
being replaced by secondary vegetation (Loveless, 1960). According to FAO (1974, cited in 
Appendix 1), 15.9% forested. 


Barbuda Mostly natural bush, with trees in the higher terraces and more stunted 
bushland vegetation; grassy areas towards the windward coast; lower plains cultivated and 
grazed; some coastal mangrove and sand dunes. 


12 


Antigua and Barbuda 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the Flora of the Lesser Antilles (only 
monocotyledons and ferns published so far; Howard, 1974- ), and by the family and 
generic monographs of Flora Neotropica. (Both are cited in Appendix 1.) See also: 


Alston, A.H.G. and Box, H.E. (1935). Pteridophyta of Antigua. J. Bot. 73: 33-40. 

Beard, J.S. (1944). Provisional list of trees and shrubs of the Lesser Antilles. 
Caribbean Forester 5(2): 48-67. (428 species in a table showing which are in the 
Leeward Is. but not which are on each island in the group.) 

Howard, R.A. (1962). Botanical and other observations on Redonda, the West Indies. 
J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 51-66. (Includes account of vegetation and species list.) 

Stehlé, H. and Stehlé, M. (1947). Liste complémentaire des arbres et arbustes des 
petites Antilles. Caribbean Forester 8: 91-123. (A further 328 species to Beard, 1944, 
in similar format.) 


In 1938, H.E. Box prepared a check list, based on earlier records and collections and his 
own collections in Antigua and sight records in Barbuda. The taxonomy and nomenclature 
were revised by J.E. Dandy. Includes an historical introduction and an ecological 
description of the vegetation. Never published - copies at University of the West Indies 
Library, Mona, Jamaica; the Institute of Jamaica, Kingston; and the National Herbarium 
of Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad. (C.D. Adams, 1984, pers. comm.). 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Antigua Archaeological Society, P.O. Box 103, St John’s, Antigua. (Preparing a list of 
some of the plants of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, with some of their uses.) 


Additional References 

Harris, D.R. (1960). The vegetation of Antigua and Barbuda, Leeward Islands, West 
Indies. Prelim. Rep. Dep. Geog. Univ. Calif. 

Harris, D.R. (1965). Plants, Animals, and Man in the Outer Leeward Islands, West 
Indies. An ecological study of Antigua, Barbuda and Anguilla. University of 
California Publications in Geography vol. 18. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 

164 pp. (With photographs and vegetation maps.) 
Loveless, A.R. (1960). The vegetation of Antigua, West Indies. J. Ecol. 48(3): 495-527. 
Wheeler, L.R. (1916). The Botany of Antigua. J. Bot. 54: 41-52. 


Antipodes Islands 


The Antipodes (21 sq. km) are an uninhabited, outlying island group of New Zealand, in 
the Pacific subantarctic, at 49°42’S, 178°50’E. The vegetation consists mainly of grassland 
and is relatively little disturbed. 62 vascular plant taxa (Flora of New Zealand, 1961, cited 
under New Zealand). One endemic, Gentiana antipoda (IUCN category: Rare). The 
islands were declared a Nature Reserve in 1961. For more information see Given, 1981a, 
cited under New Zealand. 


Argentina 


Area 2,777,815 sq. km 
Population 30,094,000 


Floristics Approximately 9000 species of vascular plants (J. Hunziker, 1984, 
pers. comm.), most in the tropical region; 25-30% endemic. Botanically the best known 
country in South America (Toledo, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). Areas of high endemism 
and diversity are: Provinces Patagonia, Punefia, Altoandina, del Monte and Paranaense 
(Hunziker, pers. comm.). The flora of the southern Andes has affinities to the flora of 
New Zealand. 


Vegetation In the northeast, rain forest; in the northwest provinces of Jujuy and 
Salta subtropical semi-deciduous forest and subtropical evergreen seasonal submontane 
broadleaved forest (Unesco, 1981, cited in Appendix 1); in north central and central 
Argentina, the Gran Chaco, a mixture of xerophilous forest and savannas, with many 
halophytic and swamp associations. To the south the Pampa, a vast savanna and open 
prairie, without native trees, mostly grazed or cultivated; in Patagonia, the southern 
quarter of the country, mainly steppe and tundra, with coniferous forest in the west, low 
deciduous thicket in the northeast and subdesert deciduous shrubland and tundra in the 
south (Unesco, 1981). In the Andes, north to south, vegetation includes cloud forest and 
dry puna in the north, caespitose herbaceous communities all along and temperate forest 
in the south. 


Checklists and Floras Recent floristic research in Argentina has focussed on the 
production of regional Floras, sponsored by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia 
Agropecuaria (INTA): 


Burkart, A. (1969- ). Flora Ilustrada de Entre Rios (Argentina). Coleccion Cientifica 
del INTA, Buenos Aires. 6 vols planned, 3 completed: 2 - grasses (1969); 5 - 
Primulales to Plantaginales (1978); 6 - Rubiales to Campanulales (1974). 

Cabrera, A.L. (1963-1970). Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, 6 vols. INTA, 
Buenos Aires. 

Cabrera, A.L. (1977- ). Flora de la Provincia de Jujuy, Republica Argentina. INTA, 
Buenos Aires. 3 vols published out of 10; includes Pteridofitas (1977) and 
Compositae (1978). (To cover an estimated 3500 species.) 

Cabrera, A.L. and Zardini, E.M. (1978). Manual de la Flora de los Alrededores de 
Buenos Aires, 2nd Ed. Acme, Buenos Aires. 755 pp. 

Correa, M.N. (1969- ). Flora Patagénica. INTA, Buenos Aires. 4 vols published, 

8 projected. 

Dimitri, M.J. (1962). La flora andino-patagénica. Anal. Parques Nacionales 9: 1-130. 

Dimitri, M.J. (1974). Pequefia Flora Ilustrada de los Parques Nacionales Andino- 
Patagonicos. Publicacion Técnica No. 46, Separada de los Anales de Parques 
Nacionales, Tomo 13. 122 pp. 

Meyer, T. et al. (1977). Flora Ilustrada de la Provincia de Tucumaén. Fundacion Miguel 
Lillo, Tucuman. 305 pp. 


Toledo (1985, cited in Appendix 1) refers to the following additional Floras as in progress: 
Centro de Argentina by A.T. Humziker (Museo Botanico de Cérdoba), Provincia de 
Corrientes by A. Krapovickas (started in 1979), the Chaco by A. Digilio and the Pampa by 
G. Covas. A 1984 checklist of 1538 native genera is also referred to. 


See also: 


14 


Argentina 


Boelcke, O., Moore, D.M. and Roig, F.A. (1985). La Transecta Boténica de Patagonia 
Austral. CONICET, Buenos Aires. (Vegetation, floristics, geology, human impact 
and climate for the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans between 51° and 52°S.; includes 
2-sheet vegetation map; shorter English version being prepared for Phil. Trans. 
(London), 1985-6.) 

Cabrera, A. and Ferrario, M. (1970). Bibliografia Botdnica de la Provincia de Buenos 
Aires, Plantas Vasculares. Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas, Buenos Aires. 
96 pp. 

Descole, H.R. (1943-1956). Genera et Species Plantarum Argentinarum. Instituto 
Miguel Lillo. 5 vols, few families published. 

Dimitri, M.J. (1972). La Regidn de los Bosques Andino-Patagonicos. Coleccién 
Cientifica del INTA, Buenos Aires. 

Moore, D.M. (1983). Flora of Tierra del Fuego. Nelson, U.K., and Missouri Botanical 
Garden. 396 pp. (545 species, 3% endemic; illus., dot maps.) 

Seckt, H. (1929-1930). Flora Cordobensis. Universidad Nacional, Cordoba. 632 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. The 
following articles and papers contain information on threatened plants: 


Endangered and Threatened Plants in the Republic of Argentina. Botanic Garden 
Journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. (Not seen.) 

Pingitore, E.J. (1976). The Republic of Argentina tree ferns. Los Angeles Int. Fern 
Soc. 3(10): 198-203; 3(11): 222-225; 3(12): 246-249. (Includes list of 8 Endangered 
and 2 Rare species.) 

Pingitore, E.J. (1981). Especies vegetales en vias de extincién de la Republica 
Argentina. Sociedad Horticola Argentina 37: 10-13. (Tentative list of 69 threatened 
species.) 

Pingitore, E.J. (1982). Especies interesantes de La Tierra del Fuego e Islas del 
Antarctico Sur. Bol. Soc. Hort. Argentina 38: 10-12. (Tentative list of 38 threatened 
species.) 

Pingitore, E.J. (1983). Rare palms in Argentina. Principes 26(1): 9-18. (10 native 
palms, 7 listed as rare.) 

Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular A. 
Cabrera on endangered plants of Argentina, pp. 245-247; E. de la Sota on 
endangered plants and communities, pp. 240-244; J. Mickel on endangered 
pteridophytes, pp. 323-328; P. Ravenna on threatened bulbous plants, pp. 257-266. 


Lists of threatened plants and plant communities, arranged by region, are given in 
Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited in Appendix 1. 24 plants are listed in 
the Annex to the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the 
Western Hemisphere (1940). 


Laws Protecting Plants No information. The U.S. Government has determined 
Fitzroya ae Sai confined to Chile and Argentina, as ‘Threatened’ under the U.S. 
Endangered Species Act. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Associacion Natura, 25 de Mayo 749, 1° Piso, Buenos Aires. 
Centro de Ecologia y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Universidad Nacional de 
Cérdoba, C.C. 395, 5000 Cordoba. 
Comité Argentino de Conservacion de la Naturaleza, Avenida Santa Fe 1145, Buenos 
Aires. 


15 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Instituto de Investigaciones de las Zonas Aridas y Semiaridas, Parque Gral, San 
Martin, Mendoza. 


Botanic Gardens 

Departamento de Botanica Agricola, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, 
1712 Castelar, Provincia Buenos Aires. 

Jardin Agrobotanico de Santa Catalina, Instituto Fototécnico de Santa Catalina, 
Llavallol, FNGR. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Carlos Thays’’, Instituto Municipal de Botanica, Av. Santa Fe 3951, 
1425 Buenos Aires. 

Jardin Botanico de la Facultad de Agronomia y Veterinaria, Av. San Martin 4453, 
1417 Buenos Aires. 


An account of Argentinian botanic gardens is given in: 


Sota, E. de la (1979). Argentina: the conservation of endemic and threatened plant 
species within botanic gardens. In Synge, H. and Townsend, H. (Eds), Survival or 
Extinction. Bentham-Moxon Trust, Kew. Pp. 95-99. 


Useful Addresses 

Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina, Leandro N. Alem 968, 1001 Capital Federal, 
Buenos Aires. 

CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Direccién Nacional de Fauna Silvestre, 
Paseo Colon 922-2°, Piso Oficina 201, 1063 Buenos Aires; also (Scientific Authority 
only) Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales ‘‘Bernardino Rivadavia’’, Avenida 
Angel Gallardo 470, 1405 Buenos Aires. 


Additional References 

Cabrera, A.L. (1972). Estado actual del conocimiento de la Flora Argentina. Mem. I 
Congreso Latinoamericano de Botanica. Pp. 183-197. (Not seen.) 

Cabrera, A.L. (Ed.) (1977). Evolucién de las Ciencias en la Repiiblica Argentina. 
1923-1972. Tomo VI. Botanica. Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. (Not seen.) 

Grassi, N. (Ed.) (1982). Conservacién Natural en la Rep. Argentina. Simposio de las 
XVIII Jornadas Argentinas de Botanica. Tucuman. 130 pp. 

La vegetacién de la Republica Argentina (1951-1968). Various authors. 9 fascicles 
reported. INTA, Series Fitogeografica. Buenos Aires. 


Ascension Island 


A barren volcanic island of 94 sq. km in the South Atlantic, c. 1300 km north-west of St 
Helena, 7°57’S 14°22’W. About 1050 residents, plus about 450 military personnel. An 
Island Dependency of St Helena, itself a Dependent Territory of the U.K. The highest 
point is the peak on the east/west ridge of Green Mountain (860 m). Flora of about 25 
native vascular plants; these include 6 endemic fern species and 5 endemic flowering plant 
species; of these 1 is Extinct, 5 Endangered, 4 Rare and | Insufficiently Known. About 300 
plants introduced deliberately or by accident; also goats, rabbits, donkeys, sheep. The 
status of the endemics is outlined in detail in: 


Cronk, Q.C.B. (1980). Extinction and survival in the endemic vascular flora of 
Ascension Island. Biol. Conserv. 17(3): 207-219. 


16 


Ascension Island 
Other useful references: 


Atkins, F.B., Baker, P.E., Bell, J.D. and Smith, D.G.W. (1964). Oxford Expedition to 
Ascension Island, 1964. Nature 204: 722-724. 

Duffey, E. (1964). The terrestrial ecology of Ascension Island. J. Appl. Ecol. 1: 
219-251. (Maps; includes outline of such vegetation as exists and assesses the impact 
of man.) 

Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook: a concise guide to Ascension island, south 
Atlantic, 2nd Ed. (1st Ed., 1968). Published privately, Georgetown. Unpaginated, 
but Ist Ed. 68 pp. (Includes a checklist of the flora, with line drawings.) 

Rudmose Brown, R.N. (1906). Contributions towards the botany of Ascension. Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edinburgh. 23: 199-204. 


Auckland Islands 


An outlying island group of New Zealand, comprising 7 uninhabited volcanic islands in 
the Pacific subantarctic. Total land area of 625 sq. km of which Auckland, the largest 
island, is 464 sq. km. 187 native flowering plant taxa, including 6 endemics. The 
vegetation, which has been modified by introduced goats, cattle, sheep, pigs and rabbits, 
includes coastal Metrosideros forest, scrub and grassland on higher ground and, above 
500 m, exposed peatland. Adams Island was declared a Nature Reserve in 1910; the rest of 
the Auckland Islands were included in the reserve in 1934. There is a programme to reduce 
the numbers of introduced mammals (Clark and Dingwall, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


The Auckland Islands are included in the Flora of New Zealand (1961, 1970, 1980), cited 
under New Zealand. 


For information on threatened plants, see Given (1981a), cited under New Zealand. Latest 
IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - R:1; non-endemic taxa rare or threatened worldwide - 
V:1, R:4 (world categories). 


Additional References 
Godley, E.J. (1969). Additions and corrections to the flora of the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands. N.Z. J. Bot. 7: 336-348. (Covers 45 taxa.) 
Johnson, P.N. and Campbell, D.J. (1975). Vascular plants of the Auckland Islands. 
N.Z. J. Bot. 13: 665-720. (Annotated checklist of 257 taxa including adventives.) 


Australia 


Area 7,682,300 sq. km 
Population 15,519,000 


Floristics c. 18,000 known native vascular plant species with an estimated 7000 
yet to be named or recorded (Flora of Australia, 1981- ). 80% species endemism; over 500 
endemic genera. Species-rich areas include the Cape York Peninsula of northern 
Queensland, the South-Western Province and the Coolgardie region of Western Australia, 


17 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


the northern part of Northern Territory, the coastal regions of N.S.W., north-east 
Victoria and the Central Tablelands. 


Vegetation Predominantly desert (receiving less than 250 mm mean annual 
rainfall) and semi-desert (250-500 mm rainfall). There are 2 extremely arid regions - the 
Nullarbor Plain in the south, and the Lake Eyre Basin/Simpson Desert in central 
Australia. Acacia and Eucalyptus shrublands cover 20% of Australia, mainly in centre and 
west; Mitchell Grass plains, dominated by Astrebla, cover vast areas of the north, 
extending into northern N.S.W.; Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis) grassland in south- 
east, extensively modified for grazing; heathland in south, west and parts of Queensland 
and Tasmania, much has been cleared or drained (Leigh, Boden and Briggs, 1984); alpine 
communities in Tasmania, Victoria and N.S.W. (Beadle, 1981); open forests, dominated 
by Eucalyptus, Callitris and Melaleuca, cover large areas of inland Australia, from the 
Kimberleys in Western Australia, extending across the north to Queensland and west of 
the Great Dividing Range in N.S.W.; open forests of Eucalyptus, Acacia and Casuarina, 
in south-west Western Australia, Northern Territory to Queensland, Cape York to 
Victoria and Tasmania; cool temperate rain forest dominated by Nothofagus in Victoria, 
N.S.W. and Tasmania; subtropical and temperate rain forest mixtures in N.S.W. and 
outliers in north Queensland; subtropical rain forest in south Queensland and north New 
South Wales, in places seduced to small pockets; tropical rain forest and tropical monsoon 
forest in northern Australia. 


c. 20,000 sq. km of all types of rain forest remain, out of an estimated 80,000 sq. km prior 
to European settlement. Clearing of forests continuing, mainly for agriculture, grazing 
and forest plantations; nearly all subtropical lowland forests destroyed and only a few 
thousand hectares of tropical lowland forest remain (Groves, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras 

Bentham, G. (1863-1878) Flora Australiensis: A Description of the Plants of the 
Australian Territory, 7 vols. Reeve, London. (Reprinted 1967 by Asher and Reeve, 
Amsterdam.) 

Flora of Australia (1981- ). 60 vols (including non-vascular plants) to be published over 
a 20-year period. Co-ordinated and edited by the Bureau of Flora and Fauna, 
Department of Arts, Heritage and Environment. Australian Government Publishing 
Service, Canberra. (5 vols published so far. 1 - Introduction, origin and evolution, 
keys to families; 4 - Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae, 5 families; 8 - 
Lecythidaceae to Bataceae, 19 families; 22 - Rhizophoraceae to Celastraceae, 17 
families; 29 —- Solanaceae.) 


Checklists of large genera and families include: 


Chippendale, G.M. and Wolf, L. (1981). The Natural Distribution of Eucalyptus in 
Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication no. 6. 
192 pp. (Checklist of 550 taxa, grid maps showing distributions.) 

Clements, M.A. (1982). Preliminary Checklist of Australian Orchidaceae. National 
Botanic Gardens, Canberra. 216 pp. (List of over 600 accepted species names, with 
synonyms.) 

Jones, D.L. and Clemensha, S.C. (1981). Australian Ferns and Fern Allies, 2nd Ed. 
Reed, Sydney. 


There are many Floras at State and regional level; only a selection are cited here. For a 
comprehensive bibliography see Leigh, Boden and Briggs (1984) and the Flora of 
Australia, 1 (1981). 


18 


Australia 


Bailey, F.M. (1899-1905). The Queensland Flora with Plates Illustrating Some Rare 
Species. Brisbane. (6 parts, General Index.) 

Beadle, N.C.W., Evans, O.D., Carolin, R.C. and Tindale, M.D. (1982). Flora of the 
Sydney Region, 3rd Ed. Reed, Sydney. 724 pp. (Covers coastal N.S.W.; with line 
drawings and colour illus.) 

Black, J.M. (1943-1957). Flora of South Australia, 2nd Ed., 4 parts. Govt Printer, 
Adelaide. (Part 1 - Lycopodiaceae to Orchidaceae has been revised and edited by 
J.P. Jessop, 1978, Woolman, Adelaide. A Supplement to the Flora by H. Eichler 
has been published by the Govt Printer, Adelaide, 1965.) 

Burbidge, N.T. and Gray, M. (1970). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. 
Australian National Univ. Press, Canberra. 447 pp. (Includes outline of vegetation 
of southern Tablelands; with line drawings.) 

Curtis, W.M. (1956-1979). Student’s Flora of Tasmania, parts 1-4, 4A. Govt Printer, 
Hobart. 

Ewart, A.J. and Davies, O.B. (1917). The Flora of the Northern Territory. Govt 
Printer, Melbourne. 387 pp. (Annotated list with keys.) 

Flora of New South Wales (1961-1978). National Herbarium of New South Wales. 
(Discontinued; covers ferns, gymnosperms and 16 flowering plant families, including 
grasses. Prior to 1971 published as a ‘Flora Series’ in Contributions from the New 
South Wales National Herbarium.) 

Green, J.W. (1981). Census of the Vascular Plants of Western Australia. Western 
Australian Herbarium, South Perth. 113 pp. (Checklist of ferns, gymnosperms and 
angiosperms.) 

Jacobs, S.W.L. and Pickard, J. (1981). Plants of New South Wales: A Census of the 
Cycads, Conifers and Angiosperms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 226 pp. 
(Checklist of c. 6000 taxa, distributions indicated.) 

Jessop, J.P. (Ed.) (1981). Flora of Central Australia. Reed, Sydney. (Includes c. 2000 
species.) 

Jessop, J.P. (Ed.) (1983). A List of the Vascular Plants of South Australia. Adelaide 
Botanic Gardens, State Herbarium and Dept of Environment and Planning. 87 pp. 
(Checklist of accepted names and synonyms.) 

Stanley, T.D. and Ross, E.M. (1983- ). Flora of South-eastern Queensland. Dept of 
Primary Industries, Brisbane. 545 pp. (3 vols projected; 1 - keys to dicotyledon 
families, treatments of 79 flowering plant families, 1983; 2 & 3 - in prep.) 

Willis, J.H. (1962, 1972). A Handbook to Plants in Victoria, 2 vols. University Press, 
Melbourne. (1 - Ferns, conifers, monocotyledons; 2 - dicotyledons.) 


Field-guides 

Blombery, A.M. (1977). Australian Native Plants. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 
481 pp. (Keys to genera, line drawings and descriptions of selected plants.) 

Francis, W.D. (1970). Australian Rain-forest Trees, 3rd Ed. Australian Govt Publ. 
Service, Canberra. 468 pp. (Keys, descriptions and field characters of mainly 
subtropical trees, covering mainly eastern Australia.) 

Galbraith, J. (1977). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of South-East Australia. 
Collins, Sydney. 450 pp. (Includes temperate regions of N.S.W., Victoria, 
Tasmania, S. Australia and Queensland.) 

Grieve, B.J. and Blackall, W.E. (1954-1975). How to Know Western Australian 
Wildflowers: A Key to the Flora of the Temperate Regions of Western Australia, 
4 parts. Univ. of Western Australia Press, Nedlands. 

Harris, T.Y. (1979). Wild Flowers of Australia, 8th Ed. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 
207 pp. (Keys to families, over 250 species illustrated in colour.) 


19 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Hodgson, M. and Paine, R. (1971). A Field Guide to Australian Wildflowers. Rigby, 
Adelaide. 251 pp. 

Holliday, I. and Hill, R. (1974). A Field Guide to Australian Trees. Rigby, Adelaide. 
229 pp. (Revised edition.) 

Holliday, I. and Walton, G. (1975). A Field Guide to Banksias. Rigby, Adelaide. 
141 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants The national list of threatened Australian 
plants has been revised twice; the first version was Specht et al. (1974), the second Hartley 
and Leigh (1979) and the third Leigh ef a/. (1981). 


Hartley, W. and Leigh, J. (1979). Plants at Risk in Australia. Australian National 
Parks and Wildlife Service Occ. Paper no. 3. Canberra. (Provisional list of 2053 
plants at risk.) 

Leigh, J., Briggs J., and Hartley, W. (1981). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. 
Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication no. 7, Canberra. 
178 pp. (2206 species listed as rare or threatened. Separate lists for Lord Howe, 
Macquarie, Norfolk, Philip and Christmas Islands; briefly reviewed in Threatened 
Plants Committee Newsletter No. 9: 18, 1982.) 

Specht, R.L., Roe, E.M. and Boughton, V.H. (Eds) (1974). Conservation of Major 
Plant Communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Australian J. Bot. Supp. 
Series 7. 667 pp. (Detailed assessment of conservation status of all the major plant 
communities and species under threat in each State.) 


Also relevant: 


Good, R.B. and Leigh, J.H. (1983). The criteria for assessment of rare plant 
conservation. In Given, D.R. (Ed.), Conservation of Plant Species and Habitats. 
Nature Conservation Council, Wellington, N.Z. Pp. 5-28. 

Leigh, J. and Boden, R. (1979). Australian Flora in the Endangered Species 
Convention - CITES. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Special 
Publication no. 3, Canberra. 93 pp. (Checklist of taxa covered then by CITES; list 
has since been revised; reviewed and outlined in Threatened Plants Committee 
Newsletter No. 7: 19-20, 1981.) 

Leigh, J., Boden, R. and Briggs, J. (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of 
Australia. Macmillan, Melbourne. 369 pp. (Includes detailed case studies of 76 
species presumed extinct and 203 which are endangered.) 

Parsons, R.F., Scarlett, N.H. and Stuwe, J. (1981). A register of rare and endangered 
native plants in Victoria. Threatened Plants Committee Newsletter No. 7: 22-23. 
(Outline of a project to survey and document rare and threatened plants.) 

Pryor, L.D. (1981). Australian Endangered Species: Eucalypts. Australian National 
Parks and Wildlife Service Special Publication no. 5, Canberra. 139 pp. (Data 
sheets, maps and photographs of 124 species at risk.) 


A number of State lists of threatened plants have also been produced, including: 


Rye, B.L. (1982). Geographically Restricted Plants of Southern Western Australia. 
Report no. 49. Dept of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth. 63 pp. 

Rye, B.L. and Hopper, S.D. (1981). A Guide to the Gazetted Rare Flora of Western 
Australia. Report no. 42. Dept of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth. 211 pp. 


A series of illustrated data sheets entitled Rare Western Australian Plants has been 
prepared by B.L. Rye for the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth, in 1982. (8 
seen; notes on ecology, conservation measures; dot maps.) 


20 


Australia 


Latest IUCN statistics: total rare and threatened endemic taxa - Ex:117, E:215, V:570, 
R:812, 1:2, K:505, nt: not known; of these, statistics for State endemic taxa are - Ex:110, 
E:196, V:503, R:716, 1:2, K:467, nt: not known. 


Laws Protecting Plants There is legislation in each State and Territory for the 
protection of flora. Legislation is the most detailed in Western Australia, where 128 
species are listed as ‘Protected Flora’ under the Wildlife Conservation Act Amendment 
Act 1979 of Western Australia. 65 of them are orchids. A further 100 taxa have been listed 
as ‘Rare Flora’ which are considered to be in danger of extinction, rare or otherwise in 
need of special protection; they can be taken from the wild only with the approval of the 
Minister for Fisheries and Wildlife. In Victoria the flora legislation is administered by the 
Forestry Commission while in all other States and Territories it is administered by the 
relevant nature conservation agency. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Australian Conservation Foundation, 672B Glenferrie Road, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122. 
Australian Flora Foundation, c/o Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 
Society for Growing Australian Plants, c/o The Editor ‘Australian Plants’, 860 Henry 
Lawson Drive, Picnic Point, N.S.W. 2213. 
Tropical Rainforest Society, Box 5918 CMC, Cairns 4870, Queensland. 
WWF-Australia, Level 17, St Martins Tower, 31 Market Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 2000. 


Botanic Gardens Many; for full list see Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 
See also: 


Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation (1984). A Report on the Collection 
of Native Plants in Australian Botanic Gardens and Arboreta. Canberra. 69 pp. 
(Lists 55 botanic gardens and arboreta growing native plants, with details of area, 
important plant groups in cultivation, and potential for extending collections.) 


The principal botanic gardens include: 


Adelaide Botanic Garden, North Terrace, Adelaide, S. Australia 5000. 

Australian National Botanic Gardens, P.O. Box 158, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601. 

Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Kings Park Road, West Perth 6005, W. Australia. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, New South Wales 2000. 
Royal Botanic Gardens of Melbourne, Birdwood Avenue, South Yarra, Victoria 3141. 
Royal Tasmanian Botanic Gardens, Queen’s Domain, Hobart, Tasmania 7000. 


Useful Addresses 
Division of Plant Industry, CSIRO, P.O. Box 1600, Canberra City, A.C.T. 2601. 
TRAFFIC Australia, P.O. Box 371, Manly 2095, N.S.W. 
Western Australian Wildlife Authority, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 108 
Adelaide Terrace, Perth, W. Australia 6000. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authority: Australian National Parks and Wildlife 
Service, P.O. Box 636, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601. 


The Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) Working Group on 
Endangered Flora provides a channel for enquiries from overseas. The CONCOM 
Secretariat is at the Department of Arts, Heritage and Environment, G.P.O. Box 1252, 
Canberra, A.C.T. 2601. 


Additional References 
Beadle, N.C.W. (1981). The Vegetation of Australia. Cambridge Univ. Press. 690 pp. 
Groves, R.H. (Ed.) (1981). Australian Vegetation. Cambridge Univ. Press. 449 pp. 


21 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Morley, B.D. and Toelken, H.R. (Eds) (1983). Flowering Plants in Australia. Rigby, 
Adelaide. 416 pp. (Overview of more than 250 flowering plant families; keys to 
genera; distribution maps.) 

Tracey, J.G. (1982). The Vegetation of the Humid Tropical Region of North 
Queensland. CSIRO, Melbourne. 124 pp. 


For vegetation maps of Western Australia see: 


Beard, J.S. et al. (1972- ). Vegetation Survey of Western Australia, 1:1,000,000 
Vegetation Series. Univ. of Western Australia Press, Nedlands. (1 - Kimberley; 2 
— Great Sandy Desert; 3 - Great Victoria Desert; 4 - Nullarbor; 5 - Pilbara; 6 
— Murchison; 7 - Swan area; each map with explanatory notes.) 


Austria 


Area 83,853 sq. km 
Population 7,489,000 


Floristics 2900-3100 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 35 endemic taxa (IUCN figures). Elements: Central 
European (Pannonian), sub-Mediterranean and alpine. Areas of diversity: alpine 
grasslands and dry steppe regions bordering Hungary in the east. 


Vegetation Most remaining semi-natural vegetation in west and central Alps and 
close to Hungarian border in far east. Central Alps: forest relicts of Arolla Pine (Pinus 
cembra) and European Larch (Larix decidua); eastern Alps: forests of beech and Norway 
Spruce (Picea abies) with relict stands of Black Pine (Pinus nigra), interspersed with 
meadows, pastures and arable land. In subalpine zone, Mountain Pine (Pinus mugo) and 
alder, with alpine heaths. On hills and lowlands north of Alps, patches of beech and 
hornbeam forests, amongst arable land and spruce plantations. Some riverine forests with 
poplars; those along Danube and March (Morava) rivers, recently threatened by 
construction of hydro-electric power stations. Eastern Austria mainly arable with 
vineyards, but with relicts of dry Pannonian steppe grassland and oak forests. Small sub- 
Mediterranean influence in south with Ostrya carpinifolia and Fraxinus ornus (M.A. 
Fischer, 1984, in litt.). 


Total tree cover 39.1%; permanent pasture 26.7% (includes alpine grasslands, meadows 
and steppe); arable 20% (Poore and Gryn-Ambroes, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). For maps 
of vegetation and phytogeography see Wagner (1971). 


Checklists and Floras Austria is covered by the 3 regional Floras, Flora 
Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980), I/lustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, 1935- ), both 
cited in Appendix 1 and Flora von Deutschland und seinen Angrenzenden Gebieten 
(Schmeil and Fitschen, 1976, cited under F.R.G.). No modern national Flora, but see: 


Fritsch, K. (1922). Exkursionsflora fiir Osterreich und die Ehemals Osterreichischen 
Nachbargebiete, 3rd Ed. C. Gerold, Wien. 824 pp. (Includes adjacent countries, but 
excludes the Province of Burgenland in eastern Austria; reprinted 1973 by Cramer, 
Liechtenstein.) 


For a modern national checklist see: 


22 


Austria 


Janchen, E. (1956-1967). Catalogus Florae Austriae, 1 vol. and 4 supplements. 
Springer-Verlag, Wien. 

Janchen, E. (1977). Flora von Wien, Niederésterreich und Nordburgenland, 2nd Ed. 
Verein fiir Landeskunde von Niederésterreich und Wien, Wien. 757 pp. 


See also: 


Dalla Torre, K.W. and Sarnthein, L.G. von (1900-1913). Flora von Tirol, Vorarlberg 
und Liechtenstein, 6 vols. Wagner’schen Univ., Innsbruck. 

Hayek, A. von. (1908-1956). Flora von Steiermark, 2 vols. Gebr. Borntraeger, Berlin 
and Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein fiir Steiermark, Graz. 


For bibliographies see Hamann and Wagenitz (1977), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Ehrendorfer, F., Fiirnkranz, D., Gutermann, W. and Niklfeld, H. (1974). Fortschritte 
der Gefasspflanzensystematik, Floristik und Vegetationskunde in Osterreich, 
1961-1971. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien. 114: 63-143. 


Relevant journal: Linzer Biologische Beitrége, Linz. (Formerly Mitt. Bot. Arbeits- 
gemeinschaft am Oberésterreichischen Landesmuseum, Linz.) 


Field-guides See Oberdorfer (1983), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Hegi, G., Merxmiiller, H. and Reisigl, H. (1977). Alpenflora. Die Wichtigeren 
Alpenpflanzen Bayerns, Osterreichs und der Schweiz. Parey, Berlin. 194 pp. 
(Introduction includes ecological descriptions of plant communities; lists protected 
plants; maps; illus.) 

HoOpflinger, F. and Schliefsteiner, H. (1981): Naturftihrer Osterreich. Styria, Graz. 
480 pp. (Flora and fauna; colour illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants National threatened plant list: 


Niklfeld, H. and Karrer, G. (in prep.). Rote Liste Gefaéhrdeter Pflanzen Osterreichs. 
Bundesministerium fiir Gesundheit und Umweltschutz, Wien. 


See also: 


Kux, S., Kasperowski-Schmid, E. and Katzmann, W. (1981). Naturschutz - 
Empfehlungen zur Umweltgestaltung und Umweltpflege II. Osterreichisches 
Bundesinstitut fiir Gesundheitswesen, Wien. 125 pp. (Includes principles and 
problems of nature conservation and countryside management; species protection; 
habitat protection; lists threatened animals, plants and protected areas; illus.) 


There are threatened plant lists for 4 of the 9 Provinces - Burgenland, Karnten, Salzburg 
and Steiermark: 


Bach, H. (1978). Karntner Naturschutzhandbuch, Vol. 1. Kartner, Klagenfurt. 779 pp. 
(Includes threatened and protected plants, and threatened habitats in the Province of 
Karnten; illus.) 

Traxler, G. (1978). Verschollene und gefahrdete Gefasspflanzen im Burgenland: Rote 
Liste bedrohter Gefasspflanzen (Extinct and endangered vascular plants in 
Burgenland: Red list of threatened vascular plants). Natur und Umwelt im 
Burgenland |: 1-24. (Lists 619 regionally threatened flowering plants in Burgenland; 
conservation categories similar but not identical to those of IUCN.) 

Traxler, G. (1980-1982, 1984). Zur Roten Liste der Gefasspflanzen des Burgenlandes. 
Nachtrage, Erganzungen und Berichtigungen (I)-(IV), (About the Red List of 
vascular plants in Burgenland. Additions, completions and corrections (I)-(IV).) 


23 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Natur und Umwelt im Burgenland 3(1): 9-14; 4(1): 22-25; 5(112): 3,4 and Volk und 
Heimat (1984) 3: 42-43. 

Traxler, G. (1982). Liste der Gefasspflanzen des Burgenlandes (List of vascular plants 
in the Burgenland). Veroffent. Internat. Clusius-Forschungsges. Giissing 6: 1-32. 
(Checklist; includes conservation categories.) 

Weiskirchner, O. (1979). Rote Liste Bedrohter Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen in Salzburg 
(Red List of Threatened Ferns and Flowering plants in Salzburg). Amt d. Salzburger 
Landesregierung, Naturschutzreferat, Salzburg. 41 pp. (Lists c. 720 taxa.) 

Zimmermann, A. and Kniely, G. (1980). Liste verschollener und gefahrdeter Farn- und 
Bliitenpflanzen fiir die Steiermark (List of missing and endangered ferns and 
flowering plants for Steiermark). Mitt. Inst. Umweltwiss. Naturschutz 3: 3-29. (Lists 
over 540 taxa including not threatened endemics.) 

Zimmermann, A., Kniely, G., Maurer, W. and Melzer, H. (in prep.). Atlas zur Liste 
Verschollener und Gefthrdeter Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen fiir die Steiermark. Graz. 
(Distribution maps of species treated in Zimmermann and Kniely, 1980.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - V:1, R:7, I:1, 
K:6, nt:20; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - Ex:1, E:1, V:17, R:9, I:5 (world 
categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants No federal legislation for plant species protection, but 
150 taxa are protected by laws and ordinances issued by each of the 9 Provinces. Within 
each Province (Bundesland) there are 4 levels of protection; outlined in Kux ef al. (1981) 
above. This supercedes the earlier publication: 


Plank, S. (1975). Gesetzlich Geschiitzte Pflanzen in Osterreich. Ludwig Boltzmann- 
Institut fiir Umweltwissenschaften und Naturschutz, Graz. 50 pp. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Osterreichischer Naturschutzbund (ONB), Haus der Natur, 5010 Salzburg. (National 
Headquarters of the 9 Nature Protection Associations of the respective Provinces.) 
WWFE-Austria (Osterreichischer Stiftverband fiir Naturschutz), Ottakringer Str. 120, 
Postfach 1, 1162 Wien. 


Botanic Gardens 
Alpengarten Franz Mayr-Melnhof, 8130 Frohnleiten. 
Alpengarten im Oberen Belvedere (Verwaltung der Bundesgarten), Prinz-Eugen-Strasse 
27, 1030 Wien 111. 
Botanischer Garten des Landes K4rnten, Klinkstrasse 6, 9020 Klagenfurt. 
Botanischer Garten der Universitat fiir Bodenkultur, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, 1180 
Wien. 
Botanischer Garten der Universitat Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz. 
Botanischer Garten der Universitat Innsbruck, Sternwartestrasse 15, 6020 Innsbruck. 
Botanischer Garten der Universitat Wien, Rennweg 14, 1030 Wien. 
Botanischer Garten und Arboretum der Stadt Linz, Bancalariweg 41, 4020 Linz. 
Schlosspark Schénbrunn, Verwaltung der Bundesgarten, Schonbrunn, 1130 Wien. 


Useful Addresses 


Institut fiir Botanik und Botanischer Garten der Universitat Wien, Rennweg 14, 1030 
Wien. 


Institut fiir Umweltwissenschaften und Naturschutz, Osterreichischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, Heinrichstrasse 5, 8010 Graz. 


24 


Austria 


CITES Management Authority: Bundesministerium fiir Handel, Gewerbe und 
Industrie, Abteilung II/3, Landstrasser Hauptstrasse 55-57, 1031 Wien. 


Additional References 

Fischer, M.A. (1976). Osterreichs Pflanzenwelt. Naturgeschichte Osterreichs. 104 pp. 
(Vegetation descriptions; illus.) 

Gutermann, W. and Niklfeld, H. (1974). Floristic report on Austria (1961-1971). Mem. 
Soc. Brot. 24: 9-23. 

Maurer, W. (1981). Die Pflanzenwelt der Steiermark. Verlag fiir Sammler, Graz. 

147 pp. (Includes geology, climate, floristics, vegetation and species case-studies in 
Steiermark Province; photographs; line drawings.) 

Niklfeld, H. (1973). Uber Grundziige der Pflanzenverbreitung in Osterreich und einigen 
Nachargebieten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 113: 53-69. 

Scharfetter, R. (1938). Das Pflanzenleben der Ostalpen. Wien. 419 pp. (Survey of 
vegetation of eastern Alps, covering most of Austria.) 

Wagner, H. (1956). Die Pflanzengeographische Gliederung Osterreichs. Mitt. Geogr. 
Ges. Wien. 98(1): 78-92. 

Wagner, H. (1971). Natiirliche Vegetation. In Bobek, H. (Ed.) Atlas der Republik 
Osterreich. Map IV/3. Osterr. Akad. d. Wissensch. Freytag-Berndt and Artaria. 
(Map of potential natural vegetation of Austria, 1: 100,000, with distribution maps 
for 90 taxa, including endemics, at 1: 3,000,000.) 

Wolkinger, F. et al. (1981). Die Natur- und Landschaftsschutz-gebiete Osterreichs. 
Osterreichische Gesellschaft fiir Natur- und Umweltschutz, Wien. 


Azores 


A group of 9 volcanic islands (Flores, Corvo, Terceira, SAo Jorge, Pico, Faial, Graciosa, 
Sao Miguel and Santa Maria) in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1500 km from Lisbon and 1900 
from Newfoundland. 


Area 2235 sq. km 
Population 259,800 (1979 estimate, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics About 600 native plants, 55 endemic; many introduced exotics, some 
harmful to the native flora (e.g. Pittosporum undulatum at low altitudes). 


Vegetation Along the coast a cultivated zone, in which the shrub Myrica faya is 
characteristic. At 500-1350 m is a zone of scrub woodland, dominated by Juniperus and 
Erica, with Laurus, Ilex and other shrubs (Sjégren, 1973b). Laurel forest principally 
remains in the Pico da Vara area on eastern Sao Miguel, but also in small areas on Pico, 
Faial and Sado Jorge. | 


Checklists and Floras The Azores are covered by the completed Flora Europaea 
(Tutin et al., 1964-1980) and the Flora of Macaronesia checklist, both cited in Appendix 1. 
Also relevant: 


Fernandes, A. and R.B. (1980, 1983). Iconographia Selecta Florae Azoricae. 2 fascicles 
so far. Conimbriga. (Descriptions and line drawings; only pteridophytes and 
gymnosperms to date.) 


25 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Franco, J.A. (1971- ). Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Acores). Sociedade 
Astoria, Lisboa. 647 pp. (Incomplete, 1 vol. to date: Lycopodiaceae to 
Umbelliferae; covers mainland Portugal and the Azores.) 

Hansen, A. (1970). A Botanical Bibliography of the Azores. Copenhagen. Mimeo. 
(Very comprehensive.) 

Palhinha, R.T. (1966). Catalogo das Plantas Vasculares dos Agores. Sociedade de 
Estudos Acorianas Afonso Chaves, Lisboa. 186 pp. (Annotated checklist.) 

Sj6gren, E. (1973a). Vascular plants new to the Azores and to individual islands in the 
Archipelago. Bol. Museu Municipal Funchal 27: 94-120. (New records since 
Palhinha’s 1966 catalogue.) 


For a floristic study see: 


Pinto da Silva, A.R. (1963). L’étude de la flore vasculaire du Portugal continental et 
des Acores les derniéres années (1955-1961). Webbia 18: 397-412. 


Information on Threatened Plants The only known list is that produced by the 
IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980) for North Africa and the Middle 
East, cited in Appendix 1. Latest IUCN statistics, based on this work: endemic taxa - 
Ex:1, V:5, R:18, 1:6, K:11, nt:14; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - V:1, R:2 
(world categories). 


Botanic Gardens IUCN/WWE have been asked by staff at the University of the 
Azores to fund the creation of a small botanic garden on S4o Miguel in which endangered 
plants would be propagated. 


Additional References 

Pinto da Silva, A.R. (1975). L’état actuel des connaissances floristiques et 
taxonomiques du Portugal, de Madeére et des Acores, en ce qui concerne les plantes 
vasculaires. In CNRS, 1975, cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 19-28. 

Sjogren, E. (1973b). Recent changes in the vascular flora and vegetation of the Azores 
Islands. Mem. Soc. Brot. 13. 453 pp. (Includes details on 414 taxa of vascular 
plants.) 

Sjogren, E. (1973c). Conservation of natural plant communities on Madeira and in the 
Azores. In Proc. I Intern. Congress pro Flora Macaronesica. Pp. 148-153. (Not 
seen.) 

Tutin, T.G. (1953). The vegetation of the Azores. J. Ecol. 41(1): 53-61. 

Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. (1964). A vegetacao dos Acores. Acoreana 6: 1-32. 

Virville, A.D. de (1965). L’endémisme végétale dans les Iles Atlantides. Rev. Gén. Bot. 
72 (857): 377-602. 


Bahamas 


A low-lying archipelago in a 1223 km long arc of the Atlantic Ocean, extending from the 
coast of Florida on the north-west almost to Haiti on the south-east; 30 major islands, 661 
cays and nearly 2400 rocks. 


Area 13,864 sq. km 
Population 221,000 


26 


Bahamas 


Floristics 1350 species of vascular plants; 121 taxa (8.83%) endemic to the 
archipelago (including Turks and Caicos islands) (Correll and Correll, 1982). Floristic 
relationships are with Florida, Cuba, Hispaniola‘and Yucatan. 


Vegetation Some open pine forest on Grand Bahama, Abaco, New Providence; 
on the so-called Blackland soils, High and Low Coppice formations, the richest vegetation 
type in the islands, but now greatly modified for agriculture; on the coast, coppice on sand 
soils and stunted trees and shrubs on flat elevated rocks; some tidal flats and salt marshes; 
mangrove in protected locations of lee shores in all the larger islands and cays. Vegetation 
severely modified on the main islands (Correll and Correll, 1982). 23.2% forested (FAO, 
1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras The Flora is: 


Correll, D.S. and Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Cramer, 
FL-9490 Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 1692 pp. (715 illus. by Priscilla Fawcett; includes the 
Turks and Caicos Islands.) 


Also relevant: 


Britton, N. and Millspaugh, C.F. (1920). The Bahama Flora. Lancaster. New Era 
Printing Co., New York. 695 pp. (Reprinted 1962, by Hafner, New York.) 

Patterson, J. and Stevenson, G. (1977). Native trees of the Bahamas. Privately 
published. 128 pp. (Colour illus., map.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No national Red Data Book. The only known 
reference is: 


Popenoe, J. (1984). Rare and threatened plants of the Bahamas. Threatened Plants 
Newsletter No. 13: 11. (Lists 21 species considered to be rare or threatened.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
The Bahamas National Trust, Nassau. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Local 
Government, P.O. Box N-3028, Nassau. 


Additional References 

Byrne, R. (1980). Man and the variable vulnerability of island life: a study of recent 
vegetation change in the Bahamas. Afo/l Res. Bull. 240. 200 pp. (Illus., maps.) 

Campbell, D.G. (1978). The Ephemeral Islands: A Natural History of the Bahamas. 
Macmillan Education Ltd., London. 151 pp. 

Coker, W.C. (1905). Vegetation of the Bahama Islands. In Shattuck, G.B., The 
Bahama Islands. Geogr. Soc. Baltimore, John Hopkins Univ. Press. Pp. 185-270. 

Gillis, W.T., Byrne, R. and Harrison, W. (1975). Bibliography of the natural history of 
the Bahama Islands. \Afoll Res. Bull. 191: 1-123. 

Howard, R.A. (1950). Vegetation of the Bimini Island group. Bahamas, B.W.I. Ecol. 
Monogr. 20(4): 317-349. 

Taylor, N. (1921). Endemism in the Bahama flora. Ann. Bot. 35: 523-532. 


27 


Bahrain 


A small island sheikdom of one island with several smaller satellite islands c. 30 km from 
the coast of Saudi Arabia about half way down the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, 
26°N 50°30’E. 

Area 661 sq. km 

Population 414,000 


Floristics Flora small, no endemics known; according to Good (1955), unlikely to 
be much over 175 species of vascular plants. Virgo (1980) quotes collecting lists of between 
70 and 200 species. Affinities with the flora of Iraq. 


Vegetation Mostly desert plant communities, with many sub-halophytic species. 
Two other localized communities: adventive flora of date gardens in cultivated northern 
part of island; halophytic vegetation of muddy shores (salt marsh and mangrove swamp). 


Checklists and Floras 

Bellamy, D.A. (1984). Additional flowering plants of Bahrain. In Hill, M. and 
Nightingale, T. (Eds), Wildlife in Bahrain. Third Biennial Report of the Bahrain 
Natural History Society. Pp. 90-96. (Additions to the checklist of Virgo, 1980; with 
4 colour photographs.) 

Good, R. (1955). The flora of Bahrain. In Dickson, V., The Wild Flowers of Kuwait 
and Bahrain. Allen and Unwin, London. Pp. 126-140. (Includes account of 
vegetation and checklist of vascular plants.) 

Virgo, K.J. (1980). An introduction to the vegetation of Bahrain. In Hallam, T.J. 
(Ed.), Wildlife in Bahrain. Bahrain Natural History Society Annual Reports for 
1978-1979, Bahrain Natural History Society. Pp. 65-109. (Includes an annotated and 
illustrated checklist of the flora.) 


Most of the plants of Bahrain are included in the Flora of Saudi Arabia (Migahid, 1978, 
cited under Saudi Arabia). Descriptions of 86 plants recorded, mostly from the north, are 
given in Virgo (1980), see above. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Bahrain Natural History Society, P.O. Box 20336, Manama. 


Additional References 
Vesey-Fitzgerald, D.F. (1957). The vegetation of central and eastern Arabia. J. Ecol. 
45: 779-798. (With four black and white photographs and small-scale vegetation 
map.) 
Zakis, M.M. (Ed.) (1978). Comprehensive Study of Plant Ecology and Investigation 
into Possibility of Establishing a Botanic Garden in Bahrain. Univ. Arab. States, 
Khartoum. (In Arabic; cited by Virgo, 1980.) 


28 


Bangladesh 


Area 143,998 sq. km 
Population 98,464,000 


Floristics c. 5000 angiosperm species (Khan and Hug, 1972). The flora is mainly 
related to that of India; however, the flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts is 
more related to that of Indo-China (S. Khan, 1984, in Jitt.). 


Vegetation Mostly low-lying alluvial plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river 
systems with extensive marsh and sedge-land, much of the plains under rice and jute 
cultivation. Tropical semi-evergreen rain forest, on Chittagong hills in the south-east and 
in Sylhet; tropical moist semi-evergreen Sal (Shorea robusta) forest north of Dhaka, now 
mostly secondary. Extensive mangroves in the Sunderbans region at the mouth of Ganges, 
covering 6000 sq. km, the largest such tract in the world (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 
1). Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forests 80 sq. km/annum out of 
a total of 9270 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) 
includes the tropical forests of Bangladesh as ‘‘undergoing broad-scale conversion at rapid 
rates’’ and predicts little forest could be left ‘‘by 1990 if not earlier’’. 


Checklists and Floras 

Datta, R.N. and Mitra, J.N. (1953). Common plants in and around Dacca. Bull. Bot. 
Soc. Bengal 7: 1-110. (Keys and descriptions of plants found in 16 km radius from 
Dhaka.) 

Khan, S. and Huq, A.M. (Eds) (1972). Flora of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agric. Res. 
Council, Dhaka. (27 fascicles to date covering 34 small families; no. 4 includes notes 
on vegetation types.) 

Prain, D. (1903). Bengal Plants, 2 vols. Calcutta. (Reprinted by Botanical Survey of 
India, Calcutta, 1963.) 

Prain, D. (1903). Flora of the Sundribuns. Rec. Bot. Survey India 2: 231-370. 


Bangladesh is also covered by the Flora of British India (Hooker, 1872-1897), cited in 
Appendix 1. For ferns see Beddome (1892) and the companion volume by Nayar and Kaur 
(1972), both of which are cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants IUCN has a preliminary list of 35 threatened 
plants, prepared in 1984 by S. Khan, Bangladesh National Herbarium. 


Botanic Gardens 
Baldah Garden, Wari, Dhaka. 
Mirpur Botanic Garden, Dhaka. 


Useful Addresses 
Bangladesh National Herbarium, 229 Green Road, Dhaka. 
CITES Management Authority: The Chief Conservator of Forests, Government of 
Bangladesh, Bana Bhaban, Gulshan Road, Mohakhali, Dhaka-12. 


29 


Barbados 


Barbados, 33.8 km long and 22.5 km broad, is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands. 
It is low-lying, coral and fertile, with a dense population and intensively cultivated for 
sugar cane. 


Area 430 sq. km 
Population 262,000 


Floristics c. 700 native species, 6 endemic; over 10,000 introduced species and 
hybrids, many of which have become naturalized (National Conservation Commission, 
1984, pers. comm.). 


Vegetation Almost the entire island has been modified for cultivation, grazing 
and development; a few patches of coastal woodland remain as do a few isolated areas of 
mangrove swamp vegetation at Graeme Hall and St Lawrence; the greatest variety of 
plants on Barbados are in steep clefts in the upper coralline levels (the Gullies); sparse 
climbing xerophytic vegetation on rocky land and inland cliffs; dune vegetation of grass 
and sandy bushland of low shrub and trees nearly to the sea. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and 
Windward Islands (only monocotyledons and ferns published so far; Howard, 1974- ), 
and by the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica. (Both are cited in 
Appendix 1). The Island’s Flora is: 


Gooding, E.G.B., Loveless, A.R. and Proctor, G.R. (1965). Flora of Barbados. 
H.M.S.O., London. 486 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St Michael. 
National Conservation Commission, Codrington House, P.O. Box 807E, St Michael. 
The Barbados National Trust, Ronald Tree House, No. 2, 10th Avenue, Belleville, 
St Michael. 


Botanic Gardens 
Andromeda Gardens, St Joseph. 
Farley Hill National Park, St Peter. 
Welchman Hall Gully, St Thomas. 


Useful Addresses 
The Bellairs Research Institute, McGill University, St James. 


Additional References 
Gooding, E.G.B. (1974). The Plant Communities of Barbados. Ministry of Education, 
Barbados. 243 pp. 


30 


Belgium 


Area 30,519 sq. km 
Population 9,877,000 


Floristics 1600-1800 native vascular plant species, estimated by D.A. Webb 
(1978, cited in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; c. 1300 according to J.-P. d’Huart (in 
litt., 1984). One extinct endemic (IUCN figure). 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation. Relicts of acid oakwoods and oak/beech- 
woods with birch in the north and east. In central Belgium original beechwoods now 
largely replaced by agriculture but with occasional patches of coppiced oak and hornbeam. 
Dry grassland drastically reduced; remaining pockets in south and east on sandy and 
calcareous soils. Some extensive areas of raised bog and moor survive in the east. Salt- 
marshes and dunes, once extensive along north coast, have almost completely been 
destroyed. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). Selected national and regional Floras: 


De Langhe, J.-E. et al. (1983). Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de 
Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions Voisines, 3rd Ed. Jardin 
Botanique National de Belgique, Meise. 1100 pp. (Ferns and flowering plants.) 

Robyns, W. (Ed.) (1950- ). Flore Générale de Belgique, several parts. Ministére de 
l’Agriculture, Jardin Botanique de L’Etat, Bruxelles. (Incomplete; ferns, 
gymnosperms, angiosperms to Thymelaeaceae, by A. Lawalrée; maps; illus.) 


Atlas: 


Rompaey, E. van and Delvosalle, L. (1978-1979). Atlas de la flore Belge et 
Luxembourgeoise, Ptéridophtyes et Spermatophytes, 2nd Ed., 2 vols. Jardin 
Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles. 116 pp; 293 pp; 1542 maps. (Distribution 
maps of majority of Belgian vascular plants, except the most widespread; 4 sq. km 
grid and explanatory text.) 


National botanical journal: Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 
Brussels. 


Field-guides 
De Sloover, J. and Goossens, M. (1981). Guide des Herbes Sauvages. Duculot, 
Gembloux. 217 pp. 
Tercafs, R. and Thiernesse, E. (1978). Guide Nature de l’Ardenne. Duculot, 
Gembloux. 400 pp. 


See also: Fitter, Fitter and Blamey (1974), cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Aechmea Plants One of the first countries to publish a national 
plant Red Data Book: 


Delvosalle, L., Demaret, F., Lambinon, J. and Lawalrée, A. (1969). Plantes Rares, 
Disparues ou Menacées de Disparition en Belgique: L’Appauvrissement de la Flore 
Indigéne. Ministére de |’ Agriculture, Service des Réserves Naturelles domaniales et 
de la Conservation de la Nature, No. 4. 129 pp. (Lists over 300 extinct and 
threatened vascular plants, and 148 threatened bryophytes; describes threats to the 
flora; maps.) 


31 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 
Other references: 


D’Hose, R. and De Langhe, J.E. (1974- ). Nieuwe Groeiplaatsen van zeldzame Planten 
in Belgié (New locations of rare plants in Belgium). Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 
107(1): 107-114. (Numerous papers in Dutch, starting with that given.) 

Delvosalle, L. and Vanhecke, L. (1982). Essai du notation quantitative de la raréfaction 
d’espéces aquatiques et palustres en Belgique entre 1960 et 1980. In Symoens, J.J., 
Hooper, S.S. and Compére, P. (Eds), Studies on Aquatic Vascular Plants, 
Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Aquatic Vascular Plants, 23-25 
January 1981, Brussels. Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Brussels. 

Pp. 403-409. (Quantifies the decline of aquatic and marsh plants using floristical 
data gathered by the Institut Floristique Belgo-Luxembourgeois.) 

Lawalrée, A. (1971). L’appauvrissement de la flore belge. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 
41: 167-171. 

Petit, J. (1979). Chromique de la Montagne Saint-Pierre: 2. Un liste rouge de plantes 
menacées. Rev. Vervietoise Hist. Nat. 36(7-9): 54-57. 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - Ex:1; non- 
endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:2, V:5, R:2, I:1 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which includes data sheets on 4 Endangered plants in Belgium. 


In spring 1984 WWF-Belgium launched a national Plants Campaign in the Jardin 
Botanique National de Belgique, Meise, as part of their contribution to the International 
IUCN/WWF Plants Programme 1984-85. Further details available from WWF-Belgium 
and the Garden (addresses below). 


Laws Protecting Plants National legislation in 1976 (Arrété royal du 16 février 
1976 relatif aux mesures de protection en faveur de certaines espéces végétales croissant a 
l’état sauvage) provides complete protection for 45 plant taxa and all Lycopodiaceae. 
Partial protection is given to a further 22 species and selected genera and families. For 
details see: 


Lawalrée, A. (1981). Plantes sauvages protegées en Belgique. Jardin Botanique 
National de Belgique, Meise. 32 pp. (Describes habitats and threats of 64 protected 
species; colour photographs.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Domaine de Bouchout, 1860 Meise. 
WWYF-Belgium, Chaussée de Waterloo 608, 1060 Brussels. 


Botanic Gardens 

Arboretum Geographique de Tervuren, Administration de la Donation Royale, Avenue 
du Derby 57, 1050 Bruxelles. 

Arboretum Kalmthout, Weidestraat 60, 2600 Berchem. 

Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Domaine de Bouchout, 1860 Meise. 

Jardin Botanique de l’Université de Liége, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liége. 

Jardin Experimental Jean Massart, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Chaussée de Wavre 
1850, 1160 Bruxelles. 

Plantentuin der Rijksuniversiteit, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Gent. 

Station de Recherches des Eaux et Foréts, 1990 Groenendaal-Hoeilaart. 


32 


Belgium 


Useful Addresses 
Centre d’Education pour la Protection de la Nature, Rue de la Paix 83, 6168 Chapelle- 
lez Herlaimont. 
Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Rue Vautier 31, 1040 Bruxelles. 
Ministére de l’Agriculture, Service de la Protection des Végétaux, Manhattan Centre, 
21 Avenue du Boulevard, 1000 Brussels. 
TRAFFIC-Belgium, WWF-Belgium, see above. 


Additional References 

Lawalrée, A. (1963). Apercu sur l’étude de la flore vasculaire de la Belgique depuis 
1945. Webbia 18: 107-127. 

Lawalrée, A. (1978). Introduction a la Flore de la Belgique. Jardin Botanique National 
de Belgique, Meise. 67 pp. (Descriptive account; black and white photographs.) 

Noirfalise, A. (1971). La conservation des biocoénoses en Belgique. Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Nat. Belg. 41: 219-230. 

Tanghe, M. (1975). Atlas de Belgique: Phytogéographie (Commentaire). Vaillant- 
Carmanne, Liége. 75 pp. (Detailed vegetation account with line drawings.) 

Vanden Berghen, C. (1982). Initiation a l’étude de la végétation, 3rd Ed. Jardin 
Botanique National de Belgique, Meise. 263 pp. 134 figs. 

Vanhecke, L. and Charlier, G. (1982). The regression of aquatic and marsh vegetation 
and habitats in the north of Belgium between 1904 and 1980: some photographic 
evidence. In Symoens, J.J., Hooper, S.S. and Compére, P. (Eds), Studies on 
Aquatic Vascular Plants, Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Aquatic 
Vascular Plants, 23-25 January 1981, Brussels. Société Royale de Botanique de 
Belgique, Brussels. Pp. 410-411. 


Belize 


Area 22,963 sq. km 
Population 156,000 


Floristics Toledo (1985, cited in Appendix 1), from published checklists, quotes 
3240 species of vascular plants. (Gentry, 1978, cited in Appendix 1, quoting D.L. 
Spellman, pers. comm., had estimated 2500-3000 species.) 150 endemic species (IUCN 
figures). Flora is similar to that of the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico and of Petén in 
Guatemala. 


Vegetation Over most of the country, broadleaved rain forest; in the northern 
half, where rainfall is lower, sometimes called semi- or quasi-rain forest; on river banks 
and in lowlands forest of Cohune palm (Orbignya cohune) associated with mahogany 
Swietenia macrophylla, which has been exploited almost to extinction; most of the rain 
forest is secondary due to effect of Mayan and present civilizations (D’Arcy, 1977); on the 
poor soils of the coastal plain and interior up to 1000 m, savannas and pine forests, mainly 
of Pinus caribaea; on the coast wet savannas and mangrove. Estimated rate of 
deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 90 sq. km/annum out of 12,570 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981); this is similar to the NAS estimate that ‘‘some 11,000 sq. km may 
still support good-quality forest, albeit subject to some disruption through light-impact 
timber harvesting’’ (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). 


33 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras Belize is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, 
described in Appendix 1, and by the completed Flora of Guatemala and related articles in 
Fieldiana (cited under Guatemala), as well as by the family and generic monographs of 
Flora Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). Country Floras and checklists are: 


Dwyer, J.D. and Spellman, D.L. (1981). A list of the Dicotyledoneae of Belize. 
Rhodora 83: 161-236. 

Spellman, D.L., Dwyer, J.D. and Davidse, G. (1975). A list of the Monocotyledoneae 
of Belize including a historical introduction to plant collection in Belize. Rhodora 
77(809): 105-140. (Collections since 1959 with annotations for new country records.) 

Standley, P.C. and Record, S.J. (1936). The forests and flora of British Honduras. 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 12: 1-432. (Description of forest types and 
annotated species list; 1981 angiosperms and gymnosperms, 134 pteridophytes.) 

Williams, L.O. (1956). An enumeration of the Orchidaceae of Central America, British 
Honduras, and Panama. Ceiba 5: 1-256. (List of 97 species from Belize.) 


See also: 


Carnegie Institute of Washington (1936-1940). Botany of the Maya Region: 
Miscellaneous Papers 1-21. Washington, D.C. 2 vols. 802 pp. 

Fosberg, F.R., Stoddart, D.R., Sachet, M.-H. and Spellman, D.L. (1982). Plants of 
the Belize Cays. Atoll Research Bull. 258. 77 pp. (Annotated checklist of 182 species 
of vascular plants.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The list of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa — R:6, I:1, K:141, nt:2; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - 
E:1, V:5, R:6, I:6 (world categories). 


Threatened plants are mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104) and J.T. Mickel on rare 
and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Belize Audubon Society, P.O. Box 101, Belmopan. (Membership includes 
knowledgeable botanists.) 


Useful Addresses 
CITES implementation: Chief Forest Officer, Department of Forestry, Ministry of 
Natural Resources, Belmopan. (Note: Belize adheres to CITES, but is not 
considered a Party because it has not separately ratified the Convention since 
independence from the U.K. in 1981.) 


Additional References 

Hartshorn, G. et al. (1984). Belize: Country Environmental Profile. R. Nicolait & 
Assoc., Belize City. 2 parts - Executive Summary (8 pp.) and Field Study (151 pp.). 
(Latter contains list of tree species by G. Hartshorn (pp. 146-151) derived from 
works cited under Floras and Checklists, above, augmented by personal 
observations.) 

Lundell, C.L. (1945). The vegetation and natural resources of British Honduras. In 
Verdoorn, F. (Ed.) (1945), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 270-273. (Includes vegetation 
map.) 


34 


Belize 


Romney, D.H. (Ed.) (1959). Land in British Honduras. Colonial Research Publications 
no. 24, HMSO, London. 327 pp. 


Benin 


Area 112,622 sq. km 
Population 3,890,000 


Floristics c. 2000 species (H. Ern, 1984, in /itt.); 11 endemic (Brenan, 1978, cited 
in Appendix 1). 


Floristic affinities predominantly Sudanian; in southernmost third of country affinities 
Sudanian and Guinea-Congolian. 


Vegetation Mostly Sudanian woodland with Isoberlinia, with a small area of 
Sudanian woodland without characteristic dominants in extreme north, and, in the south, 
lowland rain forest interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivation. In eastern Benin 
there is semi-deciduous rain forest, but this is now represented only by some very small 
reserves. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 12 sq. km/annum 
out of 470 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Benin is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, 
cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedberg, I. (Ed.) (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Benin, pp. 91-92, by E.J. 
Adjanohoun, contains 48 species threatened in Benin: E:10, V:20, R:18.) 


IUCN has records of 13 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no 
categories given. 


Botanic Gardens 
University Botanic Garden, Abomey-Calavi, near Cotonou. 


Useful Addresses 
Ministére du Développement Rural et de l’Environnement, Cotonou. 
Université Nationale du Bénin, Herbier National du Bénin, B.P. 526, Cotonou. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Direction des Eaux, Foérets et Chasse, 
Ministére des Fermes d’Etat, d’Elevage et de la Péche, B.P. 393, Cotonou. 


Additional References 

Adjakidje, V. (1984). Contribution a l’étude botanique des savanes guinéennes de la 
République Populaire du Bénin. Unpublished thesis, University of Bordeaux. 

Adjanohoun, E. (1968). Le Dahomey. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 
1. Pp. 86-91. 

Akoegninou, A. (1984). Contribution a |’étude botanique des ilots de foréts denses 
humides semi-décidues en République Populaire du Bénin. Unpublished thesis, 
University of Bordeaux. 

Aubréville, A. (1937). Les foréts du Dahomey et du Togo. Bull. Com. Etud. Hist. 
Scient. Afr. Occid. Fr. 20. 112 pp. (With 18 black and white photographs.) 


35 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Paradis, G. (1983). A phytogeographic survey of southern Benin. In Killick, D.J.B. 
(1983), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 579-585. 


Bermuda 


The Bermudas or Somers islands comprise 100 small limestone islands, c. 20 of them 
inhabited, in the west of the Atlantic Ocean, 917 km east of the coast of North Carolina, 
U.S.A. They are a self-governing dependent territory of the United Kingdom. 


Area 54 sq. km 
Population 54,670 


Floristics 146 native species of flowering plants and 19 species of ferns, with 
8.7% endemism (Britton, 1918). 17 endemic species recorded by B. Phillips, see below. 
Affinities with both the Old World Tropics and the Neotropics. 


Vegetation Most of the vegetation has been modified; only small areas of natural 
vegetation remain, e.g. Paget and Devonshire marsh and the upland hills of Castle 
Harbour and Walsingham. Originally the endemic Bermuda Cedar (Juniperus 
bermudiana) was dominant, but 96% of its population was devastated by an introduced 
scale insect in 1942. A few mature trees survived and pockets of young Bermuda cedars are 
re-emerging in protected areas. To compensate, many exotic trees and shrubs were 
introduced in the 1950s and 1960s. Areas of protected mangroves exist in tidal inlets and 
around some sheltered bays. (B. Phillips, 1984, in litt.) 


Checklists and Floras 
Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda. Scribners, New York. 585 pp. (Illustrations and 
list of endemic species.) 


Field-guides 
Curtis, E.W. (1978). Bermuda - a floral sampler. Privately published. 54 pp. (Includes 
note on conservation, drawn illus., photographs.) 


Information on Threatened Plants The IUCN Plant Red Data Book has one data 
sheet for Bermuda, on Juniperus bermudiana. In 1981, B. Phillips, of the Bermuda 
Department of Agriculture, prepared a set of data sheets on 30 Bermudan plants, 17 
endemic, 2 of them mosses. 


Laws Protecting Plants Tree Preservation Orders and Woodland Preservation 
Orders are used to protect areas of natural beauty or specimen trees. All remaining 
mangroves are so protected. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Bermuda Aquarium, Natural History Museum and Zoo (BAMZ), Conservation 
Volunteers, P.O. Box FL 145, Flatts, Smith’s 3. 
Bermuda National Trust, P.O. Box 61, Hamilton 5. 
Walsingham Trust, Hamilton Paris. 


Botanic Gardens 
The Bermuda Botanical Gardens, Point Finger Road, Paget East. 


36 


Bermuda 


Useful Addresses 
Conservation Officer, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, P.O. Box 834, 
Hamilton 5. 


Additional References 
Hayward, S.J., Gomez, V.H. and Sterrer, W. (Eds) (1981). Bermuda’s delicate 
balance: People and environment. The Bermuda National Trust. 402 pp. 


Bhutan 


Area 46,620 sq. km 
Population 1,388,000 


Floristics Provisional estimate of 5000 vascular plant species (D. Long, 1984, in 
litt.). Country endemism very low, but 10-15% endemic to Eastern Himalayas. The 
subtropical flora has affinities with that of S.E. Asia, the temperate flora with that of 
China and Japan; Tibetan and Euro-Siberian species are also present (Grierson and Long, 
1983). 


Vegetation Tropical semi-evergreen forests in lowlands, temperate forests and 
scrub at high altitudes. Subtropical and tropical moist deciduous forests predominantly of 
Sal (Shorea robusta) on southern foothills of Himalayas at 200-1000 m, almost totally 
destroyed at low altitudes; warm temperate broadleaved forest at 1000-2000 m (some 
cleared for agriculture and timber); xerophytic Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest in deep 
dry valleys at 900-1800 m; cool temperate broadleaved forest at 2000-2900 m with 
evergreen Quercus and Castanopsis in drier areas, replaced by mixed forest in wetter areas; 
evergreen oak forest in central Bhutan, especially around Tongsa and on the hills above 
Mongar, between 1800-2600 m; various types of coniferous forests to 3800 m; 
juniper/rhododendron scrub and dry alpine scrub up to 4600 m (Grierson and Long, 
1983). Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forests 10 sq. km/annum out 
of a total of 14,900 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Most clearance has taken place in the rich 
subtropical belt (Long, in /itt.). 


Checklists and Floras Bhutan is included in the Flora of Eastern Himalaya 
(1966- ) and the Flora of British India (Hooker, 1872-1879), both of which are cited in 
Appendix 1. 


Grierson, A.J.C. and Long, D.G. (1980). A Provisional Checklist of the Trees and 
Major Shrubs (Excluding Woody Climbers) of Bhutan and Sikkim. Royal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh. 51 pp. 

Grierson, A.J.C. and Long, D.G. (1983- ). Flora of Bhutan: Including a Record of 
Plants from Sikkim. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. (2 parts so far. Vol. 1(1) - 
vegetation, phytogeography, botanical bibliography of Bhutan and Sikkim; 
taxonomic treatments of all gymnosperms and 16 angiosperm families from 
Myricaceae to Polygonaceae; 1(2) - Phytolaccaceae-Moringaceae, 40 families.) 

Subramanyam, K. (Ed.) (1983). Materials for the Flora of Bhutan. Records Bot. 
Survey India 22(2). 278 pp. (Enumeration of c. 200 vascular plants; notes on 
distribution, uses.) 


37 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


There is additional information on the Bhutan flora, with newly described species, in the 
series ‘Notes relating to the flora of Bhutan’ in Notes Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 
Published parts - 36: 139-150 (1978); 37: 341-354 (1979); 38: 297-310 (1980); 38: 311-314 
(1980); 40: 115-138 (1982). 


Information on Threatened Plants None, except for: 


Sahni, K.C. (1979). Endemic, relict, primitive and spectacular taxa in eastern 
Himalayan flora and strategies for their conservation. Indian J. Forestry 2(2): 
181-190. (Mentions 30 taxa rare or threatened in the Himalayan region, including 
Bhutan; notes on vegetation.) 


Additional References For useful background information on the Himalayan 
region see Lall and Moddie (1981), cited in Appendix 1. 


Bismarck Archipelago 


The Bismarck Archipelago, politically a part of Papua New Guinea, is situated east of the 
island of New Guinea, in the Bismarck Sea, south-west Pacific Ocean. The Bismarcks 
comprise volcanic islands, raised coral islands and low coral reefs. Area 49,658 sq. km (of 
which New Britain, the largest island, is 36,500 sq. km). 


The vegetation consists of lowland tropical rain forest, extensive on New Britain; the lower 
limit of montane rain forest is 900 m (Whitmore, 1984, cited in Appendix 1); Nothofagus 
abundant between 1500-2800 m, in parts of central New Britain and eastern New Ireland; 
swamp forests with Campnosperma and Terminalia on coastal north-central New Britain; 
mangroves in north New Britain, New Ireland and New Hanover. Atoll/beach forest and 
large areas of coastal grasslands on New Britain. Bamboo and cloud forest probably 
present (Dahl, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). 


The Bismarck Archipelago is included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 
1958) and on the vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora 
Malesiana region at scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. 


No recent figure for size of flora. No information on threatened plants. 


References 

Peekel, G. E. (1947). Illustrierte Flora des Bismarck-Archipels fiir Naturfreunde. 
(Unpublished ms, Lae.) 

Schumann, K. and Lauterbach, K. (1901, 1905). Die Flora der Deutschen Schutzgebiete 
in der Siidsee, 2 vols. Leipzig. (Also covers north-east New Guinea; in German.) 

Wagner, W.H., Jr. and Grether, D.F. (1948). The pteridophytes of the Admiralty 
Islands. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 23(2): 17-110. (Keys, annotated enumeration, 
mainly covering Manus Island, with notes on localities, habitats, frequency.) 


38 


Bolivia 


Based upon material by J.C. Solomon 


Area 1,098,575 sq. km 
Population 6,200,000 


Floristics Estimated at 15,000 to 18,000 species, of which about 9000 recorded so 
far, reflecting the great diversity of vegetation in Bolivia (J.C. Solomon, 1984, pers. 
comm.). Probably the least collected country in South America (Prance, 1977). Floristic 
affinities with neighbouring countries: the upland Central Andean flora with Peru and 
Chile, the north-east flora with Brazilian Amazonia, the Pampus with Argentina, and the 
Chaco with Paraguay. Endemism uncertain but likely to be highest in the eastern Andean 
slopes (Yungas) and interior valleys (Solomon, pers. comm.). 


Vegetation The Andes, stretching down western Bolivia, fall into three regions: 
the western Cordilleras (adjoining the Atacama Desert of Chile and Peru) with high alpine 
vegetation; the eastern Cordilleras, similar alpine vegetation but interspersed with 
temperate valleys; between them, at 3400-4300 m, cold semi-arid steppe (the Altiplano) 
dominated by low puna grassland with low shrubs, the northern part mostly cultivated. On 
the eastern flanks of the Eastern Cordilleras are very steep valleys with montane moist to 
pluvial forest and cloud forest (the Yungas); further south subtropical evergreen forest 
(the Tucumano-Boliviana forest); both these vegetation types lead into the evergreen 
seasonal lowland forest of the north-east, abutting Brazilian Amazonia; this extends 
650,000 sq. km (9.1% of the total Amazon forest) (Unesco, 1981, cited in Appendix 1). In 
Santa Cruz (south-central Bolivia) are Pampas; in the south-east corner is the impenetrable 
thorn scrub and swamp of the Chaco Boreal, the northernmost part of the Gran Chaco of 
Argentina and Paraguay. In the extreme east this abuts the Pantanal of Brazil and 
Paraguay. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 870 sq. km/annum out of 
440,100 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Bolivia is covered by the family and generic monographs of 
Flora Neotropica, described in Appendix 1. Country accounts include: 


Adolfo, H. (1962, 1966). Plantas del valle de Cochabamba. Editorial Canelas, 
Cochabamba. 2 fascicles. 

Foster, R.C. (1958). A catalogue of the ferns and flowering plants of Bolivia. Contr. 
Gray Herb. 184: 1-223. (196 families listed.) 

Foster, R.C. (1966). Studies in the Flora of Bolivia - IV. Gramineae. Rhodora 68: 
97-120, 223-358. 

Hitchcock, A.S. (1927). The grasses of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Contr. U.S. Nat. 
Herb. 24(8): 291-556. 

Kempff, N. (1976). Flora Amazonica Boliviana. Academia Nacional de Ciencias de 
Bolivia, La Paz. 71 pp. 

Standley, P.C. (1931). The Rubiaceae of Bolivia. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 7(3): 
255-339. 

Vasquez, R. and Dodson, C. (1982). Orchids of Bolivia. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum 
6: 501-600. (Descriptions, illustrations, dot maps.) 


The Missouri Botanical Garden and the Bolivian Academy of Sciences, through the 
Bolivian National Museum of Natural History, began a long-term floristic study of Bolivia 


39 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


in 1981. The first phases are a 3-year survey of two valleys above 1000 m in the Yungas 
near La Paz and an inventory of the Tariquia Podocarpus forest. 


Information on Threatened Plants Four species are listed as threatened in 
Organizacién de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited in Appendix 1, whereas a further 9 
are listed in the annex to the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation 
in the Western Hemisphere (1940). Also relevant: 


Ravenna, P. (1977). Neotropical species threatened and endangered by human activity 
in Iridaceae, Amaryllidaceae and allied bulbous families. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, 
T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 257-266. 


Laws Protecting Plants Ley General Forestal de la Nacién (Decreto 22686 of 13 
August 1974), which covers the management and exploitation of forest resources and 
provided for the creation of the Centro Desarrollo Forestal (CDF) to administer Bolivian 
forestry, contains provisions that relate to forest inventories as well as to the creation of 
protected areas (Solomon, pers. comm.). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Asociacién Boliviana Pro-Defensa de la Naturaleza (PRODENA), Casilla 989, La Paz. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Casilla 123, Santa Cruz. 
Jardin Botanico ‘‘Martin Cardenas’’, Casilla 538, Cochabamba. 


Useful Addresses 

Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Cajon Postal 20127, La Paz. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 5829, La Paz. 

CITES Management Authority: Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, 
Centro de Desarrollo Forestal, Jefatura Nacional de Vida Silvestre, Parques 
Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Av. Camacho 1471 6° Piso, Casilla de Correa No. 1862, 
La Paz. 


Additional References 

Aliaga de Vizcarra, I. (1978). Bibliografia Boliviana de Recursos Vegetales. Academia 
Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, La Paz. 14 pp. 

Beck, S. (1982). Inventario y estudio de la flora Boliviana. Ecologia en Bolivia 1: 
14-21. (New journal; back cover contains simplified map of ‘ecoregions’ of Bolivia.) 

Cardenas, M. (1969). Manual de Plantas Econémicas de Bolivia. Imprenta Ichtus, 
Cochabamba. 421 pp. (Not seen.) 

Freeman, P.H., Cross, B., Flannery, R.D., Harcharik, D.A., Hartshorn, G.S., 
Simmonds, G. and Williams, J.D. (1980). Bolivia: State of the environment and 
natural resources, a field study. US-AID contract PDC-C-Q247. (Unpaged.) 

Herzog, T. (1923). Die Pflanzenwelt der bolivischen Anden und ihres 6stlichen 
Vorlandes. In Engler, A. and Drude, O. (Eds), Die Vegetation der Erde, 15. 
Leipzig. 258 pp. 

Prance, G. (1977). Floristic inventory of the tropics: Where do we stand? Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 64(4): 659-684. 

Tosi, J., Unzueta, O., Holdridge, L. and Gonzalez, A. (1975). Mapa Ecolédgico de 
Bolivia. Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, La Paz. 

Unzueta, O. (1975). Memoria Explicativa: Mapa Ecol6égico de Bolivia. Ministerio de 
Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, La Paz. 312 pp. 


J.C. Solomon, at Missouri Botanical Garden, has compiled an extensive bibliography on 
the botany of Bolivia. 


40 


Botswana 


Area 575,000 sq. km 
Population 1,042,000 


Floristics Number of species unknown. Brenan (1978, cited in Appendix 1) 
estimates 17 endemic species, from a sample of Flora Zambesiaca. 


Split between Zambezian (north-eastern third of country), and Kalahari-Highveld regions. 


Vegetation Mostly Kalahari Acacia wooded grassland and deciduous bushland 
(south-west), and Zambezian woodland without characteristic dominants (north-east), 
with a wide transition band between the two. In extreme south-west an area of sand-dunes 
with sparse grassland or wooded grassland. The Okavango delta in the north is occupied 
by herbaceous swamp and aquatic vegetation, while the Makarikari depression is 
surrounded by halophytic vegetation. 


For vegetation maps see Wild and Barbosa (1967, 1968), and White (1983), both cited in 
Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Botswana is included in the incomplete Flora Zambesiaca, 
cited in Appendix 1. 


Miller, O.B. (1952). The Woody Plants of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. Reprinted 
from the J. S. Afr. Bot. 18. National Botanic Gardens of South Africa, 
Kirstenbosch. 100 pp. (Corrigenda in J. S. Afr. Bot. 19:177-182.) (Short 
descriptions, specimen citations.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hall, A.V. et al. (1980), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Botswana on p. 79 contains 15 
non-endemic species and infraspecific taxa - V:1 (regional category), R:6, K:8.) 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management and Scientific Authority: Ministry of Agriculture (Parks and 
Nature Conservation), Private Bag 003, Gaborone. 


Additional References 

Simpson, C.D. (1975). A detailed vegetation study on the Chobe River in noxth-east 
Botswana. Kirkia 10: 185-227. 

Weare, P.R. and Yalala, A. (1971). Provisional vegetation map of Botswana. Botswana 
Notes Rec. 3: 131-147. (With vegetation map in colour.) 

Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 

Wild, H. (1968). Bechuanaland Protectorate. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 198-202. 


—— 


Bougainville 


Bougainville is an island group, politically part of Papua New Guinea, situated north-west 
of the Solomon Islands in the south-west Pacific Ocean. Area 10,619 sq. km; population 
77,880 (1970 census, Times Atlas, 1983). Bougainville, the largest island, reaches 2743 m at 
Mt Balbis. Large areas in the south have freshwater swamp forests. Bougainville also has 
lowland ridge forest, mixed lowland rain forest, mangroves, coastal forests (with 


41 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Calophyllum, Casuarina and Terminalia), secondary scrub and grasslands (Foreman, 
1971). No figure for size of flora. No information on threatened plants. 


References 

Foreman, D.B. (1971). A Check List of the Vascular Plants of Bougainville with 
Descriptions of Some Common Forest Trees. Botany Bull. no. 5. Dept of Forests, 
Lae. 194 pp. (List of herbarium specimens; 58 trees described with line drawings.) 

Heyligers, P.C. (1967). Vegetation and ecology of Bougainville and Buka Islands. 
CSIRO Land Resources Series 20: 121-145. 

Thorne, A. and Cribb, P. (1984). Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville: a 
preliminary checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 33 pp. (Compiled from 
herbarium and literature records at Kew.) 


Bounty Islands 


The Bounty Islands (1.3 sq. km) are an outlying island group of New Zealand, consisting 
of about 13 rocky islets, stacks and wave-lashed rocks in the Pacific subantarctic, at 
47°40’S, 179°10’E. No human interference. No vascular species (D. Given, 1984, in litt.). 


Brazil 


Area 8,511,965 sq. km 
Population 132,648,000 


Floristics Prance (1979) estimates over 55,000 species of flowering plants, 
considerably more than any other country in the world; of these, 25,000 to 30,000 occur 
only in Amazonia (G. Prance, pers. comm., quoted in Gentry, 1977, cited under Ecuador); 
in Bahia alone there are 129 genera and 850-950 species of Leguminosae (G. Lewis, 1984, 
pers. comm.). 


Vegetation The main vegetation types of this vast country are Amazon rain 
forests, Caatinga, Cerrado, Pantanal and Atlantic coastal forests. 


The Brazilian part of the Amazon forest covers 5,057,490 sq. km (Prance, 1979), 63% of 
the total Amazon forest and nearly 60% of Brazil; the largest extent of primary tropical 
rain forest in the world and botanically the least known part of Brazil; species composition 
very varied; besides the forests on high, non-flooded ground (‘‘terra firme’’), which 
occupies 90% of the area, are ‘‘savannas, Amazonian campinas on white sand, campina 


... forests of the upper Rio Negro, swamp forest, transition forest, and montane forest’’ 
(Prance, 1977). 


In the northeast is the caatinga, a semi-arid region dominated by succulents, drought- 
resistant deciduous thorny trees and shrubs. Central Brazil is mainly cerrado, which varies 
from dense evergreen lowland forest to medium-tall grassland with broadleaved evergreen 
trees; on the mountain chain up east central Brazil, above 900 m, is the floristically rich 
Campo Rupeste, mainly herbaceous vegetation on outcropping rocks and on sites of 


42 


Brazil 


restricted drainage. Between the Amazon and the Chaco, on the border of Bolivia and 
reaching south to Paraguay and Argentina, is the Pantanal, a large swampland of c. 
100,000 sq. km drained by the Rio Paraguay; it is a mixture of open swamp, flooded and 
deciduous forest, Cerrado and Chaco; little known botanically (Prance and Schaller, 
1982). Along the Atlantic coast from north of Pérto Alegre south to Bahia is a strip of 
species-rich rain forests, reduced to relicts covering only 2-4% (S.J. Mayo, 1984, pers. 
comm.) of original extent; perhaps the most endangered tropical rain forests in the world. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 13,600 sq. km/annum, out 
of a total of 3,562,800 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) 
gives an analysis of the complex figures for deforestation in Brazil. 


Checklists and Floras The part of Brazil north of the Tropic of Capricorn is 
covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica, described in 
Appendix 1. The only published country-wide Flora is: 


Martius, K.F.P., Eichler, A.W, and Urban, I. (1840-1906). Flora Brasiliensis. Facsimile 
reprint by Cramer, New York (1965). 


More recent works are: 


Angely, J. (1965). Flora Analitica do Parana. Edicées Phyton, Curitiba, Parana. 
728 pp. (Annotated list of 5287 species.) 

Angely, J. (1969-1970). Flora Analitica e Fitogeographica do Estado de Sao Paulo, 
6 vols. Edicdes Phyton, Sao Paulo. (7251 species listed with dot maps.) 

Flora Ecologica de Restingas do Sudeste do Brasil (1965-1978) (Various authors). 
Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. (23 fascicles covering 24 families so far.) 

Harley, R.M. and Mayo, S.J. (1980). Towards a Checklist of the Flora of Bahia. Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew. 250 pp. (A progress report on the Kew-CEPEC expeditions 
to Bahia in 1974 and 1977; systematic list of 1596 species; predicts ‘‘a total of 
10,000 species for Bahia seems a conservative estimate’’.) 

Luis, I.T. (1960). Flora Analitica do Pérto Alegre. Instituto Geobioldgico ‘‘La Salle’’. 
(Not seen.) 

Pabst, G.F.J. and Dungs, F. (1975-1977). Orchidaceae Brasilienses, 2 vols. Briicke- 
Verlag K. Schmersow, Hildesheim, Germany. 926 pp. In Portuguese, German and 
English. (Watercolours of selected species.) 

Reitz, P.R. (Ed.) (1965- ). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense. Herbario ‘‘Barbosa 
Rodrigues’’, Itajai, Santa Catarina. (Includes dot maps; by 1983 had covered 2759 
species in 109 families (117 fascicles), including Bromeliaceae, 1983.) 

Rizzo, J. (1981- ). Flora do Estado de Goids, Colecdo Rizzo. Universidade Federal de 
Goias, Goiania. 4 vols so far - Plan of Collection; Meliaceae by L. Graga Amaral; 
Araliaceae by A.B. Peixoto; Myristicaceae by W. Rodrigues. (Dot maps.) Author 
estimates 9605 species (1978, quoted in Toledo, 1985, cited in Appendix 1.) 

Schultz, A.R.H. and Homrich, M.H. (1955-1977). Flora Ilustrada do Rio Grande do 
Sul. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Pérto Alegre. 12 vols. Complete. 
(Dot maps.) 

Sobrinho, R.J. and Bresolin, A. (Eds) (1970-1977). Flérula da Ilha de Santa Catarina. 
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina. 18 fascicles so far. 

Teodoro Luis, I. (1960). Flora Analitica de Pérto Alegre. Instituto Geobiologica ‘‘La 
Salle’’. Canoas. (Unpaged.) 


In 1976 Brazil started Programa Flora, an inventory of vegetation and a computerized 
label data bank of Brazilian herbaria. The Programme is divided into regional projects: 
Projeto Flora Amaz6nica begun in 1977 and some 20 expeditions between then and 1983 


43 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


have collected over 45,000 numbers; Projeto Flora Nordeste has also begun. The data 
bank for the Amazonian herbaria is now functional and enquiries about Amazonian plants 
can be made through the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e 
Technoldgico in Brasilia. 


Toledo (1985, cited in Appendix 1) reports as ‘‘in progress’’ a Flora of Minas Gerais, 
by J. Angely, for a reported 11,156 species. 


Field-guides 
Centro de Pesquisas Florestais e Conservacéo da Natureza (1960, 1965). Flores da 
Restinga (54 pp.); Arboreto carioca (4 vols). CPFCN, Rio de Janeiro. 
Ferri, M. Guimaraes (1969). Plantas do Brasil: Espécies do Cerrado. Edgard Bliicher, 
Sao Paulo. 239 pp. (Illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book; in 1985 
FBCN (see below) start work on preparing a threatened plant list, grant-aided by 
IUCN/WWFE (Project 3310). 8 plants are listed as threatened, with explanatory notes, in 
Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited in Appendix 1, whereas 45 plant 
species are listed in the annex to the Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife 
Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (1940). Threatened plants are mentioned in 
several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular D. de 
Andrade-Lima on preservation of the flora of north-eastern Brazil (pp. 234-239), 
J.T. Mickel on rare and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore Jr. on 
endangerment in palms (pp. 267-282), P. Ravenna on endangered bulbous species 
(pp. 257-266). 


Other references: 


Carvalho, J.C.M. (1968). Lista das espécies de animais e plantas ameacadas de extincao 
no Brasil. Fundacao Brasil. Conserv. Natureza, Bol. Inform. 3: 11-16. (13 species 
listed.) 

Casari, M.B. et al. (1980). Nove espécies ameacadas ou em perigo de desaparecimento 
no Brasil. Resumos do 31 Congresso Nacional de Botanica. Sociedade Botanica do 
Brasil, Ilhéus. p.123. 

Cavalcanti, D.F. (1981). Plantas em extingao no Brasil. Funda¢do Brasil. Conserv. 
Natureza, Bol. Inform. 16: 115-119. 

Liddell, R. (1980). Collections and conservation of Brazilian orchids. In Sukshom, 
M.R. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th World Orchid Conference. Amarin Press, 
Thailand. Pp. 283-285. 

Mori, S., Boom, B. and Prance, G. (1981). Distribution patterns and conservation of 
eastern Brazilian coastal forest tree species. Brittonia 33(2): 233-245. 


Many individual case studies on endangered plants have been published in Cadernos 
FEEMA Ser. Trab. Techn., the Bulletin of the Centro de Botanica do Rio de Janeiro, e.g. 
Scaevola plumieri in 18: 7-11 (1982); Bumelia obtusifolia in 18: 1-9 (1982); Ficus 
lanuginosa in 18: 3-35 (1982); Dorstenia in 1: 29-65 (1982). 


Laws Protecting Plants Portaria No. 303 of 29 May 1968 is a regulation to 
implement the principal wildlife law in force (Lei No. 5197 of 3 January 1967); all trade, 
transport or export of 13 listed plants is prohibited, with the exception of scientific 
collection, for which a license is required from IBDF. The principal forestry law (Lei No. 
4771 of 15 September 1965) covers trade in live plants and plant products; it is 
administered by IBDF (Fuller and Swift, 1984, cited in Appendix 1; lists the 13 species). 


44 


Brazil 


Voluntary Organizations 

Associacao de Defesa do Meio Ambiente (ADEMA), Rua Pedroso Alvarenga 1245-4°, 
and Sao Paulo, SP 04.531. 

Associagao Gaticha de Protegao ao Ambiente Natural (AGAPAN), Caixa Postal 1996, 
Pérto Alegre, RS 90.000. 

Associacao de Preservacao da Flora e da Fauna (APREFFA), Caixa Postal 1176, 
Curitiba, PR 80.000. 

Centro de Conservacao da Natureza de Brasilia, Edificio Ant6nio Venancio da Silva, 
sala 512, Brasilia, D.F. 

Centro para Conservacado da Natureza de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 2475, Belo 
Horizonte, MG 30.000. 

Fundacao Brasileira para a Conservacéo da Natureza (FBCN), Rua Miranda Valverde 
103, CEP 22281, Rio de Janeiro. 

Unido dos Defensores da Terra (OIKOS), Caixa Postal 51.570, Sado Paulo, SP 01.000. 


Botanic Gardens 

Horto Botanico, Divisaéo de Botanico do Museu Nacional, Quinta da Béa Vista, Rio de 
Janeiro, Guanabara. 

Jardim Botanico da Fundac¢éo Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul (FZM), Caixa Postal 
1188, Pérto Alegre, RS 90.000. 

Jardim Botanico, Instituto Basico de Biolégia Médica e Agricola (IBBMA), Caixa 
Postal 526, 18.610 Botucatu, Sao Paulo. 

Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Jardim Botanico 1.008, 22.460 Rio de 
Janeiro. 

Jardim Botanico de Sado Paulo, Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 4005, 01000 Sao 
Paulo. 

Museu de Historia Natural, Rua Gustavo da Silveira, 1035 Horto, Belo Horizonte, 
Minas Gerais. 

Museu Paraense ‘‘Emilio Goeldi’’, Av. Magalhaes Barata 376, Caixa Postal 399, 
66.000 Belém, Para. 

Parque Botanico do Morro Bau, Av. Marcos Ronder 800, 88.300 Itajai, Santa 
Catarina. 

Reserva Ecolégia de IBGE, Edificio Venancio II, 2° Andar, 70.302 Brasilia, D.F. 


Useful Addresses 

FEEMA-DECAM, Herbario A. Castellanos, Estrada da Vista Chinesa 741, Alto da 
Béa Vista, 20531 Rio de Janeiro. 

Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF), Esplanada dos Ministerios, 
Brasilia 70.000. 

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Amazonia (INPA), CP 478, Manaus, Amazonas, 
69.000. 

Museo Nacional, Quinta da Béa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP 20940. 

SEMA, Ministerio do Interior, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Brasilia, D.F. 70054. 

CITES Management Authority: Departamento de Parques Nacionais e Reservas 
Equivalentes, IBDF, Sain-Av. L4 Norte, Brasilia, D.F. 

CITES Scientific Authority (for flora): Jardim Botanica do Rio de Janeiro, see above. 


Additional References 
Ducke, A. and Black, G.A. (1953). Phytogeographical notes on the Brazilian Amazon. 
An. Acad. Brasil. Ciéncias 25(1): 1-46. 
Eiten, G. (1972). The cerrado vegetation of Brazil. Bot. Rev. 38: 301-341. 


45 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Gentry, A. (1979). Extinction and conservation of plant species in Tropical America: a 
phytogeographical perspective. In Hedberg, I. (Ed.), Systematic Botany, Plant 
Utilization and Biosphere Conservation. Almqvist & Wiksell International, 
Stockholm, Sweden. Pp. 110-126. (Includes map of principal vegetation types.) 

Pires, J.M. (1973). Tipos de vegetacdo de Amaz6nia. Publ. Avulsas Museu Goeldi. 
Belém 20: 179-202. 

Pires, J.M. (1978). The forest ecosystems of the Brazilian Amazon: description, 
functioning and research needs. In Unesco/UNEP/FAO, Tropical Forest 
Ecosystems. Unesco, Paris. Pp. 607-627. (Substantial bibliography.) 

Prance, G.T. (1977). The phytogeographic subdivisions of Amazonia and their 
influence on the selection of biological reserves. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. 
(Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 195-213. 

Prance, G.T. (1979). The present state of botanical exploration: South America. In 
Hedberg, I. (Ed.), Systematic Botany, Plant Utilization and Biosphere Conservation. 
Almavist & Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden. Pp. 55-70. 

Prance, G.T. and Schaller, G.B. (1982). Preliminary study of some vegetation types of 
the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Brittonia 34: 228-251. 

Rizzini, C.T. (1976, 1979). Tratado de fitogeografia do Brasil. Sao Paulo. 
HUCITEP/USP. 2 vols. 

Veloso, H.P. (1966). Atlas Florestal do Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Rio de 
Janeiro. 82 pp. 


British Indian Ocean Terri- 
tory (Chagos Archipelago) 


The British Indian Ocean Territory is situated to the south of the Maldive Islands between 
latitudes 5-10°S and longitudes 70-75°E. It includes the coral islands of the Chagos 
Archipelago (60 sq. km) of which Diego Garcia (47 sq. km) is the largest. Population 2000. 
Approximately 150 species of vascular plants (Fosberg and Bullock, 1971), of which about 
100 are indigenous, mostly with pantropical or Indo-Pacific distributions. The vegetation 
consists of Casuarina woodland, mixed coconut woodland (‘‘Cocos Bon-Dieu’’), Scaevola 
scrub, marshland and relict broadleaved woodland with Ficus, Morinda, and Terminalia; 
some areas cleared for coconut plantations. 


Three checklists of the flora are: 


Fosberg, F.R. and Bullock, A.A. (1971). List of Diego Garcia vascular plants. In 
Stoddart, D.R. and Taylor, J.D. (Eds), Geography and ecology of Diego Garcia 
Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. Afoll Res. Bull. 149. 143-160. (Annotated list of 142 
taxa from Diego Garcia.) 

Willis, J.C. and Gardiner, J.S. (1901). The botany of the Maldive Islands. Annals 
Royal Botanic Gardens Peradeniya |: 45-164. (Includes annotated list of 359 species 
recorded from Chagos Archipelago, Laccadives and Maldives.) 

Willis, J.C. and Gardiner, J.S. (1931). Flora of the Chagos Archipelago. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Zoology 19: 301-306. (Annotated checklist.) 


46 


British Virgin Islands 


A Dependent Territory of the U.K., comprising 30 small islands, mostly uninhabited. The 
largest is the mountainous island of Tortola, 19 km long by 5.6 km wide. Other principal 
islands are Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke and Anegada. The islands are hilly and volcanic, 
except for Anegada which is flat and formed of limestone and sand. 


Area 153 sq. km 
Population 13,000 


Floristics No estimate for number of plant species. The Smith manuscript (see 
below) includes an analysis of the endemic taxa. Anegada has floristic affinities with 
Barbuda and Anguilla. 


Vegetation Severely modified by man to mostly dry scrub woodland; scrub, 
principally of Croton spp. and thorny bushes are dominant where there is heavy grazing of 
feral goats and cattle; on higher ground ‘xerophytic rain forest’, a reduced type of 
evergreen forest; on Gorda Peak a better developed forest than anywhere else on the 
islands; vegetation of Anegada reduced to sandy scrub in the west and limestone scrub in 
the east (C. Pannell, 1976, in litt.); 6.7% forested (FAO, 1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras 
Britton, N. and Wilson, P. (1923-1930). Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 
Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 5 (626 pp.) and 6 (663 pp.). 
New York Academy of Sciences, New York. (Keys, descriptions, general ranges and 
distributions by island.) 


J. Smith, of Treasure Island Botanic Garden, Tortola, has prepared a manuscript entitled 
Native and naturalised flowering plants of the British Virgin Islands. It includes an outline 
of the vegetation, descriptions of endemic plants and summary of recorded species. 


See also: 


D’Arcy, W.G. (1967). Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, Virgin 
Islands. Rhodora 69: 385-450. 

D’Arcy, W.G. (1975). Anegada Island: Vegetation and Flora. Afoll. Res. Bull. 188. 

40 pp. (Illus. and maps.) 

Liogier, A.H. (1965). Nomenclatural changes and additions to Britton and Wilson’s 
‘‘Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands’. Rhodora 67(772): 315-361. 

Liogier, A.H. (1967). Further changes and additions to the flora of Porto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands. Rhodora 69 (779): 372-376. 

Little, E.L., Jr. and Wadsworth, F.H. (1964). Common trees of Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook No. 249, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, 
Washington, D.C. 548 pp. (Keys, mainly to families; descriptions, illus., 

_ distributions.) Spanish edition by authors and J. Marrero, Editorial UPR, Puerto 
Rico, 1967. 

Little, E.L., Jr. et al. (1974). Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Second 
volume. Agriculture Handbook No. 449, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Washington, 
D.C. 1024 pp. (2nd vol. to Little and Wadsworth, 1964, above; includes endemic, 
rare and endangered tree species.) 

Little, E.L., Jr., Woodbury, R.O. and Wadsworth, F.H. (1976). Flora of Virgin Gorda 
(British Virgin Islands). U.S. Forest Service Research Paper 21. Institute of Tropical 
Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. 36 pp. (Illus. and map.) 


47 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Little, E.L., Jr. (1969). Trees of the Jost Van Dyke (British Virgin Islands). U.S. 
Forest Service Research Paper 9. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto 
Rico. 12 pp. (Illus., checklist of 69 native and 18 introduced tree species, with notes 
on vegetation.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 

Ayensu, E.S. and DeFilipps, R.A. (1978). Endangered and Threatened Plants of the 
United States. Smithsonian Institution and WWF-U.S., Washington, D.C. 
Pp. 225-232 (Lists 102 ‘Endangered’ and ‘Threatened’ taxa from Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands, both U.S. and British, with a useful bibliography; 9 of them 
from the British Virgin Is.) 

Little, E.L., Jr. and Woodbury, R.O. (1980). Rare and Endemic Trees of Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands. Conservation Research Report No. 27, U.S.D.A. Forest 
Service, Washington, D.C. 26 pp. 


Voluntary Organizations 
The Virgin Islands Conservation Society (address not known). 


Additional References 

Anon (1960). Forestry. Extract from Report: British Virgin Islands, H.M.S.O., London 
1957/58, (24). (A brief account of the preservation and conservation of the few 
existing fragments of forest.) 

Fraser, H. (1958). Forest conservation in the British Virgin Islands. In Willan, R.L., 
Forestry Development in the British Virgin Islands. FAO, Rome. 26 pp. 

Pannell, C. (1976). Section on vegetation. In Report of the Cambridge Ornithological 
expedition to the British Virgin Islands 1976. Cambridge University. Pp. 26-38. 


Brunei 


Area 5765 sq. km 
Population 269,000 


Floristics No overall figure for size of flora, but an estimated 2000 tree species 
(M. Jacobs, quoted in Unesco, 1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Vegetation Tropical evergreen rain forest, rich in dipterocarps, up to 1300 m; 
tropical montane rain forest to 1800 m; heath (kerangas) forest usually on sandy alluvial 
soils and high-altitude sandstone ridges (Briinig, 1974; Whitmore, 1975b, cited in 
Appendix 1); mangrove and peat swamp forest (with Shorea albida) occupy almost the 
entire coastline. Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 50 sq. km out 
of a total of 3230 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) estimates 
c. 4300 sq. km are still covered by relatively undisturbed primary forest, while secondary 
forests cover a further 1170 sq. km. 


Brunei is included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958), and on the 
vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora Malesiana region at 
scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Brunei is included in the incomplete, but very detailed 
Flora Malesiana (1948- ), cited in Appendix 1. National accounts include: 


48 


Brunei 


Ashton, P. (1965). Manual of the Dipterocarp Trees of Brunei State. Oxford Univ. 
Press. 242 pp. (Keys, descriptions, notes on distribution.) 

Browne, F.G. (1955). Forest Trees of Sarawak and Brunei and Their Products. Govt 
Printer, Kuching, Sarawak. 369 pp. (Descriptions of timber trees with notes on 
distribution and wood properties.) 

Pukul, H.B. and Ashton, P.S. (1966). A Checklist of Brunei Trees. Govt of Brunei 
State. 132 pp. (List of trees, not including dipterocarps, arranged alphabetically by 
vernacular name; botanical names and notes on distribution within Brunei.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Additional References 

Anderson, J.A.R. (1963). The flora of the peat-swamp forests of Sarawak and Brunei, 
including a catalogue of all recorded species of flowering plants, ferns and fern 
allies. Gard. Bull. Singapore 20: 131-228. (Enumeration of 33 pteridophytes and 395 
flowering plant species; short descriptions and notes on distribution.) 

Ashton, P.S. (1964). Ecological Studies in the Mixed Dipterocarp Forests of Brunei 
State. Oxford Forestry Memoirs 25. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 75 pp. 

Briinig, E.F. (1974). Ecological Studies in the Kerangas Forest of Sarawak and Brunei. 
Borneo Literature Bureau, Kuching, Sarawak. 237 pp. 


Bulgaria 


Area 110,912 sq. km 
Population 9,182,000 


Floristics 3500-3650 native vascular species estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 53 endemics (IUCN figures). Elements: Atlantic, 
Central European and alpine, with Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean influence in the 
south. 


Areas of high endemism: Mt Slavjanka; Mt Pirin; Rhodope mountains; Stara Planina; 
north-eastern Bulgaria; Thracian Plain; Black Sea coast; Strandja Mts; Tundza hill region; 
and Mt Rila (Polunin, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Many Tertiary relicts (e.g. Haberlea 
rhodopensis), especially in Rhodope Mts and Strandja and Slavyanka Mts (Stefanov, 
1936). 


Vegetation To the north of the Stara Planina (mountains running east-west 
across Bulgaria), Central European vegetation with steppe elements (Stipa, Astragalus, 
Phlomis spp.). On the Stara Planina, coniferous forest to 2000-2300 m with juniper and 
pine-scrub at higher altitudes and alpine flora (Dryas, Empetrum and Salix spp.). 
Deciduous oak and beech forests extend from the north-west with conifer forests of Pinus 
heldreichii and P. peuce in the south and south-west. Forests of P. peuce particularly well- 
developed in Bulgaria, forming pure stands above 1700 m in the Rila, Pirin and western 
Rhodope Mts. They cover 11,600 ha, about 3% of the country’s conifer forests (Polunin 
and Walters, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). To the south, in the plain of Thrace, sub- 
Mediterranean maquis of Quercus coccifera, Phillyrea, Cistus. 


49 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras Bulgaria is covered by the completed Flora Europaea 
(Tutin et al., 1964-1980) and the Med-Checklist (both cited in Appendix 1). National 
Floras: 


Jordanov, D. et al. (Ed.) (1963- ). Flora Reipublicae Popularis Bulgaricae, 8 vols. 
Bulgarskata Akad., Sofiya. (Incomplete, a further 2-3 vols planned; vol. 1 contains 
an extensive historical account of Bulgarian floristic research; introductory text also 
in English; habitat and ecology details; line drawings.) 

Stojanov, N. and Stefanov, B. (1966-1967). Flora na Balgariya, 4th Ed. by B. Kitanov. 
2 vols. Nauka i Izkustvo, Sofia. (Includes habitat and ecological details; illus.) 


For a bibliography see: 


Kitanov, B. (1975). Literature about the Flora and Plant Geography of Bulgaria. 
1959-1968. Bulgarische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sofia. 270 pp. (In Bulgarian.) 


National botanical journal: Jzvestiya na Botanicheskiya Institut (Bulletin of the Institute 
of Botany), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. 


Field-guides 

Delipavlov, D. et al. (1983). Opredelobal na Rastenijaba v Balgeorija. Zemisdat, Sofia. 
431 pp. 

Gramatikov, D. (1974). Identification of Wild and Cultivated Trees and Shrubs in 
Bulgaria. Sofia. (In Bulgarian.) 

Stojanov, N. and Kitanov, B. (1966). Plants of the High Mountains in Bulgaria. 
Nauka, Izkustvo, Sofia. 149 pp. (In Bulgarian; illus.) 

Valev, S., Gancev, I. and Velcev, V. (1960). Exskurzionna Flora na Balgarija. Narodna 
Prosveta, Sofia. 736 pp. (Native, naturalized and commonly cultivated plants; 
covers c. 2250 species.) 


Also see Polunin (1980), cited in Appendix 1. 
Information on Threatened Plants The national plant Red Data Book is: 


Velchev, V., Kozuharov, S., Bondev, I., Kuzmanov, B. and Markova, M. (1984). Red 
Data Book of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria. Volume 1. Plants. Bulgarian 
Academy of Sciences, Sofia. 447 pp. (Describes 763 threatened species; includes data 
about distribution, habitats, ecology; maps; line drawings.) 


See also: 


Kuzmanov, B. (1978). About the ‘‘Red Book of Rare Bulgarian Plants’’. Phytology 
(Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) 9: 17-32. (In Bulgarian, English summary; lists 150 
rare Bulgarian plants.) 


Other relevant publications include: 


Dimitrov, D. (1977). Rare plant species of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Priroda 
26(3): 95-96. 

Kruscheva, R. and Pirbanov, R. (1978). Album of Protected and Rare Plants. (In 
Bulgarian.) 

Kuzmanov, B. (1981a). Mapping and protection of the threatened plants in the 
Bulgarian flora. In Velcev, V.I. and Kozuharov, S.I. (1981), Mapping the Flora of 
the Balkan Peninsula. 247 pp. (Not seen.) 

Kuzmanov, B. (1981b). Balkan endemism and the problem of species conservation, 
with particular reference to the Bulgarian flora. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 102(1-4): 255-270. 
(Lists Bulgarian and Balkan endemic vascular species; maps; illus.) 


50 


Bulgaria 


Stanev, S. (1975). The Stars are Becoming Extinct in the Mountains: Stories about our 
Rare Plants. Zemizdat, Sofia. 129 pp. (In Bulgarian; stories describing searches for 
rare plants.) . 

Stefanov, B. and Bankov, M. (1978). Plants that are very rare in Bulgaria or that have 
recently disappeared and the cause of their decline. Gorskostoponska Nauka 15(6): 
3-10. 

Veltchev, V. and Stoeva, M. (1985). Population approach to the investigation of the 
threatened and rare species in the Bulgarian flora in connection with their 
conservation. In: MAB, Conservation of Natural Areas and the Genetic Material 
they Contain, International Symposium under Project 8 - MAB, 23-28 September 
1985, Sofia. (In Bulgarian; English summary.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:4, V:10, 
R:18, 1:8, K:2, nt:10; doubtfully endemic taxa - R:3, nt:3; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - V:16, R:23, I:10 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants The 1967 Law on Nature Protection prohibits the 
picking, damage, sale of, destruction to or digging up of 67 listed plant species. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Bulgarian Botanical Society, Institute of Botany, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Garden, University of Sofia, ul. Moskowska 49, P.O. Box 157, 1090 Sofia. 
Hortus Botanicus Academia Scientiarum Bulgaricae, Str. ‘‘Akad. G. Bontshev,’’ Clou 
I, 1113 Sofia. 


Useful Addresses 

Committee for Environmental Protection, Council of Ministers of the People’s 
Republic of Bulgaria, 1000 Sofia. 

Committee for Protection of Nature and Environment, State Council of Bulgaria, 
Trijadita 2, Sofia. 

Concept for the Protection of the Natural Flora and Vegetation, Institute of Botany, 
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 13 Sofia. 

Ministry of Forests and Protection of the Natural Environment, 17 Antim I Street, 
4000 Sofia. 

National Council for Nature Protection, Vitoshastz 18, 1000 Sofia. 

Research Co-ordinating Centre for Conservation and Reproduction of the 
Environment, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia. 


Additional References 

Kozuharovy, S. (1975). On the endemism in the Bulgarian flora. In Jordanov, D. et al. 
(Eds), Problems of Balkan Flora and Vegetation. Proceedings of the Ist 
International Symposium on Balkan Flora and Vegetation, Varna, June 7-14 1973. 
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. Pp. 162-168. 

Stefanov, B. (1936). Remarks upon the causes determining the relict distribution of 
plants. Spis. Bulg. Acad. Sci. 53: 133-179. 

Stefanoff, B. and Jordanoff, D. (1931). Topographische Flora von Bulgarien. Bot. 
Jahrb. 64(5): 388-536. 

Stoilov, D. et al. (1981). Protected Natural Sites in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria. 
Committee on Environmental Protection, Council of Ministers of the People’s 
Republic of Bulgaria, Sofia. 31 pp. (Translated from Bulgarian by I. Saraouleva.) 


51 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Stojanov, N. (1965). Phytogeographic elements in the flora of Bulgaria. Rev. Roum. 
Biol. (Sér. Bot.) 10(1-2): 69-70. 

Velcev, V., Bondev, I. and Kozuharov, S. (1975). The problem of protection of the 
natural flora and vegetation in Bulgaria. In Jordanov, D. et al. (Eds), Problems of 
Balkan Flora and Vegetation. Proceedings of the Ist International Symposium on 
Balkan Flora and Vegetation, Varna, June 7-14 1973. Bulgarian Academy of 
Sciences, Sofia. Pp. 431-435. 


Burkina Faso 


Area 274,122 sq. km 
Population 6,768,000 


Floristics 1096 species from 618 genera in National Herbarium (it is assumed that 
all of these occur in Burkina Faso); degree of endemism unknown. 


Floristic affinities predominantly Sudanian, but also Sahelian in extreme north. 


Vegetation Acacia woodland in north; Sudanian woodland with Jsoberlinia in 
south-west; large areas of more densely populated region in centre have been transformed 
into park-like savanna woodlands dominated by Parkia biglobosa, Butyrospermum parkii 
and Acacia albida; other dominants also occur. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Burkina Faso is included in the Flora of West Tropical 
Africa, cited in Appendix 1. 


Aubréville, A. (1959), cited under Ivory Coast. Although not actually including 
Burkina Faso, includes many of the same species. 

IRBET (1983). Inventaire de l’Herbier du CNRST de la Haute Volta. CNRST, 
Ouagadougou. 


Field-guides 
Maydell, H.J. von (1983). Arbres et Arbustes du Sahel. Gesellschaft fiir Technische 
Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn 4, F.R.G. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Laws Protecting Plants 15-20 species of economically important woody plants 
are given special protection. 


Botanic Gardens 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CNRST), B.P. 7047, 
Ouagadougou. 


Useful Addresses 
Centre National de Semances Forestiéres (CNSF), B.P. 2682, Ouagadougou. 
Equipe Ecologie et Foréts, Comite Permanent Interetats de Lutte contre la Secheresse 
dans la Sahel (CILSS), B.P. 7049, Ouagadougou. 
Institute de Recherche en Biologie et Ecologie Tropicale (IRBET)/CNRST, B.P. 7047, 
Ouagadougou. 
Ministére de l’Environnement et Tourisme, Ouagadougou. 


52 


Burkina Faso 


Additional References 
Terrible, M. (1976 or 1978). Végétation de la Haute Volta au millionéme: carte et 
notices provisoires. In Contribution a la Connaissance de la Haute Volta. Bobo- 
Dioulasso. 
Terrible, M. (1984). Essai sur l’Ecologie et la Sociologie d’Arbres et Arbustes de Haute 
Volta. Librairie de la Savane, Bobo-Dioulasso. 


Burma 


Area 678,031 sq. km 
Population 38,513,000 


Floristics About 7000 flowering plant species, including about 200 exotic species 
(Hundley and Chit Ko Ko, 1961). 1071 endemic vascular plant species (D. Chatterjee, 
1939, quoted by Legris, 1974). 


Vegetation Tropical lowland evergreen rain forest, mainly in south (Myers, 1980, 
cited in Appendix 1); tropical hill evergreen rain forest and temperate evergreen rain forest 
above 900 m in east, north and west; semi-evergreen rain forest in a narrow belt bordering 
arid central plain; mixed deciduous forest with teak (Tectona grandis) and dry dipterocarp 
forest in central Burma, under increasing pressure especially in the lowlands; coniferous 
forests in Shan and Chin States, with Pinus khasya between 1200-2500 m on dry slopes; 
oak and rhododendron forests on wetter slopes; 90,000 sq. km of bamboo forests 
throughout (Nao, 1974); dry forest and scrub formations where rainfall below 1000 mm, _ 
including ‘than-dahat forest’ with Terminalia and Tectona, thorn scrub with Acacia and 
Ziziphus, and ‘indaing scrub forest’ on lateritic soils, with Pentacme siamensis and Shorea 
oblongifolia. 


According to government publications, forests cover 57% of Burma; however, analysis of 
recent satellite and air photographs by the FAO National Forest Inventory Project shows 
forest cover reduced to 42% by 1980 (Blower, 1985). This figure includes ‘‘degraded 
forests’’. According to Hundley (1984, in /itt.), evergreen forests comprise 40% of the 
total forest cover; mixed deciduous forest 39%. There are 3650 sq. km of tropical lowland 
evergreen rain forests. Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 1015 
sq. km/annum out of a total of 311,930 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Myers (1980, quoting 
Forest Department figures) states that about 1420 sq. km/annum of primary forest are 
modified, if not transformed, by shifting cultivation. 


For vegetation map see: 


Stamp, L. (1924). Notes on the vegetation of Burma. Geographical J. 64(3): 272. 
(Includes vegetation map, scale 1:8,000,000.) 


Checklists and Floras Southern Burma is covered by the Flora of British India 
(Hooker, 1872-1897), cited in Appendix 1. National accounts include: 


Hundley, H.G. and Chit Ko Ko, U. (1961). List of Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Principal 
Climbers, etc. Recorded from Burma with Vernacular Names, 3rd Ed. Govt Printing 
Press, Rangoon. 532 pp. 


53 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Kurz, S. (1874-1877). Contributions towards a knowledge of the Burmese flora. 
J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 43(2): 39-141; 44(2): 128-190; 45(2): 204-310; 46: 49-258. 
(Incomplete enumeration with notes on habitats and localities.) 

Kurz, S. (1877). Forest Flora of British Burma, 2 vols. Govt Printer, Calcutta. (c. 2000 
woody species and 2500 herbaceous species described; introductory chapter on 
vegetation. Reprinted by Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 1974.) 


Information on Threatened Plants A preliminary list of plants under 
consideration for threatened plant status includes 12 species, mainly trees. All orchids, 
Dioscorea and Panax are also under consideration (Hundley, in /itt.). See also: 


Blower, J. (1985). Conservation priorities in Burma. Oryx 19(2): 79-85. (Deals mainly 
with deforestation, protected areas and fauna; refers to 2 threatened trees.) 


Laws Protecting Plants The Burma Forest Act, 1902 as amended to date, protects 
habitats of 22 species, as well as all smooth-barked Dipterocarpus in Kanyin, Lower 
Burma. 


Botanic Gardens 
Agri-Horticultural Society of Burma (Kandawgalay), Rangoon. 
Government Botanical Gardens, Maymo. 


Useful Addresses 
Botany Department, Rangoon Arts and Sciences University, Rangoon. 
Burma Forest School, Maymo. 
Director General Forests of Burma, No. 62 Randeria Building, Rangoon. 
Forest Research Institute, Yezin. 


Additional References 

Chatterjee, D. (1939). Studies on the endemic flora of India and Burma. J. Royal 
Asiatic Soc. Bengal Sci. 5: 19-67. 

Legris, P. (1974). Vegetation and floristic composition of humid tropical continental 
Asia. In Unesco, Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources 
Research 12. Paris. Pp. 217-238. (Includes bibliography of literature and vegetation 
maps.) 

Nao, T.V. (1974). Forest resources of humid tropical Asia. In Unesco, Natural 
Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources Research 12. Paris. 

Pp. 197-215. 

Rao, A.S. (1974). The vegetation and phytogeography of Assam-Burma. In Mani, M.S. 

(Ed.), Ecology and Biogeography of India. Junk, The Hague. Pp. 204-246. 


Burundi 


Area 27,834 sq. km 
Population 4,503,000 


Floristics 2500 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1). Levels of 
endemism unknown, but unlikely to be high. Brenan (1978, cited in Appendix 1) gives a 


figure of 26 species endemic to Rwanda and Burundi, out of ac. 39% sample of the Flore 
du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. 


54 


Burundi 
Floristic affinities with Lake Victoria and Afromontane regions. 


Vegetation Mostly mosaic of East-African evergreen bushland and secondary 
Acacia wooded grassland. Large areas of Afromontane communities in the west. 
Brachystegia-Julbernardia (Miombo) woodland along south-east border. Small patches of 
transitional rain forest in north-west. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed 
broadleaved forest 4 sq. km/annum out of 140 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Burundi is included in the incomplete Flore du Congo 
Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi (cited in Appendix 1), continued since 1972 as Flore d’Afrique 
Centrale (Zaire - Rwanda - Burundi). Burundi’s plants of high altitudes are listed in 
Afroalpine Vascular Plants (Hedberg, 1957), cited in Appendix 1. 


Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi 
occidental. Université Officielle de Bujumbura. Cyclostyled. 84 pp. (c. 1700 species 
and infraspecific taxa listed.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 54 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no 
categories assigned. 


Additional References 

Devred, R. (1958). La végétation forestiére du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Bull. 
Soc. R. For. Belg. 65: 409-468. (With vegetation map.) 

Lebrun, J. (1956). La végétation et les territoires botaniques du Ruanda-Urundi. 
Natural. Belges 37: 230-256. 

Lewalle, J. (1968). Burundi. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 127-130. 

Lewalle, J. (1972). Les étages de végétation du Burundi occidental. Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Nat. Belg. 42: 1-247. (With ten black and white photographs.) 

Reekmans, M. (1980a). La flore vasculaire de l’Imbo (Burundi) et sa phénologie. 
Lejeunia, n.s. 100: 1-53. 

Reekmans, M. (1980b). La végétation de la plaine de la Basse Rusizi (Burundi). Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 50: 401-444. 


There is a series of vegetation and soil maps covering Zaire, Rwanda and Burundi in c. 25 
parts, published between 1954 and c. 1970 by the Institut National pour |’Etude 
Agronomique du Congo (INEAC); each is accompanied by a descriptive memoir, and 
several of the maps are to different scales. The series is called: Carte des Sols et de la 
Végétation du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, or, more recently: ... du Congo, du 
Rwanda et du Burundi. 


Cameroon 


Area 475,500 sq. km 

Population 9,467,000 

Floristics c. 8000 species (Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1; certainly between 
8000 and 10,000 (R. Letouzey, 1984, in /itt.); 156 endemic species (but see below), with 


55 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


c. 45 on Mt Cameroun (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). This makes Cameroon one of 
the richest countries floristically in Africa. 


Floristic affinities Sudanian in north, and Guinea-Congolian in south. Mt Cameroun and 
several other upland areas north-east from it hold Afromontane species. The lowland 
forests of south-west Cameroon are especially rich in endemics, with a number of diverse, 
species-rich communities. 


Vegetation Extensive lowland rain forest interspersed with secondary grassland 
and cultivation, but considerable area of Sudanian woodland in northern part of country 
and sub-sahelian wooded grassland in extreme north. Also mangrove forest along coast. 
Inland, in a band more or less SW-NE, extensive Afromontane communities, including 
montane forest and grassland. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 800 sq. km/annum out of 
179,200 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) quotes 
the following estimates for the amount of primary forest remaining: 175,000 sq. km (Dept 
of Forestry); 130,000 sq. km (Unesco, 1978). A further 60,000 sq. km have been given out 
as timber concessions. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Mt Cameroun is included in Hochgebirgsflora (Engler, 
1892), cited in Appendix 1. 


Aubréville, A. et al. (Eds) (1963- ). Flore du Cameroun. Ministére de l’Enseignement 
Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, Yaoundé; Muséum National d’Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. (27 fascicles so far; Flora less than half published.) 

Letouzey, R. et al. (1978-1979). Flore du Cameroun: Documents Phytogéographiques, 
Nos. 1 & 2. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National 
d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. (2 portfolios: introduction, maps 1:5,000,000, and 
information on tree species of which the generic name begins with the letters ‘‘A’’ 
and ‘‘B’’.) 


Field-guides Letouzey (1969-1972), cited in Appendix 1, contains information 
about the forests of Cameroon. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 389 (see above) species and infraspecific taxa believed to be 
endemic: V:22, R:17, 1:34, K:237, nt:79. 


Laws Protecting Plants There is legislation forbidding the removal of trees less 
than a certain diameter, and the collection of some rare plants. 


Botanic Gardens 
Victoria Botanic Gardens, Limbe. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Direction of Wildlife and National Parks, General 
Delegation for Tourism, Yaoundé. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Wildlife College, B.P. 271, Garoua; and: Delegate General 
for Scientific Technological Research, B.P. 1457, Yaoundé. 


Additional References 
Letouzey, R. (1968a). Etude Phytogéographique du Cameroun. Lechevalier, Paris. 
511 pp. (With 60 black and white photographs and several small-scale maps.) 


56 


Cameroon 


Letouzey, R. (1968b). Cameroun. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 115-121. 


Campbell Islands 


A group consisting of Campbell Island, of area 113 sq. km, and a number of offlying islets 
and rocks, c. 700 km south of New Zealand, in the South Pacific Ocean. The islands are 
remnants of a dissected volcanic dome; the highest point is Mount Honey (567 m). The 
islands were declared a Reserve for Preservation of Fauna and Flora in 1954 and are 
administered by the Department of Lands and Survey, New Zealand. 


Area 114 sq. km 


Population No permanent residents; 10-12 staff of the meteorological station on 
Campbell Island (Clark and Dingwall, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


Floristics 223 native vascular plant taxa, and 85 introduced taxa (Meurk and 
Given, in prep.). 3 endemics (Flora of New Zealand, 1961, cited under New Zealand). 


Vegetation Tussock grassland on steep coastal slopes; Dracophyllum and 
Coprosma scrub found in sheltered gullies to 180 m; above 300 m, Bulbinella and rush 
communities dominate an underturf of grasses, bryophytes and lichens. Virtually the 
whole island is covered by thick peat deposits, often over 1 m deep; in wetter areas, 
sphagnum bog and peat moors. The offshore islets have Poa foliosa grassland and 
herbaceous communities. On Campbell Island, introduced sheep, and the burning of scrub 
for pasture, has modified the vegetation, and has led to the erosion of peatlands. Cattle 
have been completely removed and there is a programme to reduce the number of sheep 
(Clark and Dingwall, in prep., cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras The Campbell Islands are included in the Flora of New 
Zealand (1961, 1970, 1980), cited under New Zealand. 


Information on Threatened Plants See Given (1981a), cited under New Zealand. 
Latest IUCN statistics: world threatened non-endemic taxa - R:1 (world category). 


Laws Protecting Plants It is illegal to collect or introduce plants without a permit. 


Useful Addresses 
Department of Lands and Survey, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand. 


Additional References 

Godley, E.J. (1969). Additions and corrections to the flora of the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands. N.Z. J. Bot. 7: 336-348. (Covers 45 taxa.) 

Meurk, C.D. (1975). Contributions to the flora and plant ecology of Campbell Island. 
N.Z. J. Bot. 13: 721-742. (62 new plant records.) 

Meurk, C.D. and Given, D.R. (in prep.). The vascular flora and plant communities of 
Campbell Island. 

Sorenson, J.H. (1951). Botanical investigations on Campbell Island, 2: an annotated 
list of the vascular plants. N.Z. DSIR, Cape Exped. Ser. Bull. 7: 25-38. 


57 


Canada 


Based upon material by G.W. Argus 


Area 9,922,387 sq. km 
Population 25,302,000 


Floristics About 3220 native species of vascular plants and about 880 introduced 
species (Scoggan, 1978-1979). Most of the flora has recently reoccupied a landscape that 
was covered by ice sheets. There are, however, Pleistocene refugia on northern Ellesmere 
Island, central and northern Yukon, the mountains of Labrador and the Gaspe Peninsula, 
Quebec, the eastern coastal plain (now inundated), and the Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia. The most floristically diverse regions are southern British Columbia and 
southwestern Ontario. 


Vegetation North of the tree-line, arctic tundra; on western mountains above the 
tree-line (which is at 900-2500 m, depending on latitude) alpine tundra; over about three- 
quarters of Canada coniferous forest, dominated by White Spruce (Picea glauca) and 
Black Spruce (P. mariana) extending from Newfoundland to Alaska; in British Columbia 
a complex assemblage of subalpine, montane and coastal coniferous forests; in a narrow 
band across central and western Canada, just north of the U.S. border, grassland - this 
includes fescue grassland, tall grass prairie (largely destroyed by agriculture and now 
confined to Manitoba), mixed grass and short grass prairie (southern Saskatchewan and 
Alberta), and Palouse Prairie (dry interior valleys of British Columbia); between the 
prairie and coniferous forest, in Central Canada, a transition zone characterized by 
Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides); between the coniferous forest and the tundra, 
transitional Taiga, characterized by open spruce woodlands with lichen ground cover; in 
eastern Canada, around the Great Lakes region, mainly deciduous forest, e.g. of maple, 
oak and other hardwood trees, but predominantly of conifers in some areas. (Partly from 
Skoggan, 1978, who outlines other plant communities). 


Checklists and Floras The national Flora is: 


Scoggan, H.J. (1978-1979). The Flora of Canada, 4 vols. National Museum of Natural 
Sciences, Ottawa. Publications in Botany 7. (Complete.) 


North American checklists that include Canada are cited under the United States, which 
does not have a National Flora. Regional and provincial Floras and checklists include: 


Boivin, B. (1967-1979). Flora of the Prairie Provinces: a handbook to the flora of the 
provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Phytologia 15: 121-159, 329-446; 
16: 1-47, 219-261, 265-339; 17: 57-112; 18: 281-293; 22: 315-398; 23: 1-140; 42: 1-24, 
385-414; 43: 1-106, 223-251. 

Calder, J.A. and Taylor, R.L. (1968). Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part 1, 
Systematics of the vascular plants. Canada Dept Agriculture, Research Branch, 
Monogr. 4(1). 659 pp. 

Gleason, H.A. and Cronquist, A. (1963). Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern 
United States and Adjacent Canada. Van Nostrand, Princeton, New Jersey. 810 pp. 
(Covers New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and parts of Ontario and Quebec 
south of the 47th parallel.) 

Hultén, E. (1968). Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: a manual of the 
vascular plants. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif. 1008 pp. (Covers Yukon and 
northwestern British Columbia.) 


58 


Canada 


Marie-Victorin, E.C. (1964). Flora Laurentienne. Les Presses de l’Université de 
Montréal, Montréal, Québec. 925 pp. 

Moss, E.H. (1983). Flora of Alberta, 2nd Ed. revised by J.G. Packer. Univ. Toronto 
Press. 687 pp. (Includes dot maps.) 

Porsild, A.E. and Cody, W.J. (1980). Vascular Plants of Continental Northwest 
Territories, Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. 667 pp. (Includes line 
drawings and dot maps; area covered is between 60th parallel and Arctic Ocean, and 
from Yukon-Mackenzie border to west coast of Hudson Bay.) 

Roland, A.E. (1947). The flora of Nova Scotia. Proc. Nova Scotia Inst. Sci. 21: 
94-642. (2nd Ed. in 2 parts by A.E. Roland and E.C. Smith, 1966, 1969.) 

Scoggan, H.J. (1957). Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 
140. 619 pp. 

Taylor, R.L. and MacBryde, B. (1977). Vascular Plants of British Columbia: A 
descriptive resource inventory. Botanical Garden, Univ. of British Columbia, 
Vancouver, Tech. Bull. No. 4. 754 pp. 

Welsh, S.L. (1974). Anderson’s Flora of Alaska and Adjacent Parts of Canada. 
Brigham Young Univ. Press, Provo, Utah. 724 pp. (Covers Yukon and northwestern 
British Columbia.) 


Information on Threatened Plants The Rare and Endangered Plants Project 
(address below) is publishing rare plant lists for the Canadian provinces and territories. 
These are annotated lists, in English and French, of taxa with notes on habitat and 
distribution but with only limited indications of degree of threat. Dot maps are included 
except for the Ontario and Alberta lists. For further details of the programme see Argus 
(1977). 


Argus, G. W. and White, D. J. (1977). The rare vascular plants of Ontario. Syllogeus 14. 
Argus, G.W. and White, D.J. (1978). The rare vascular plants of Alberta. 
Syllogeus 17. 

Argus, G.W. et al. (Eds) (1982- ). Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. First 
two parts edited by G.W. Argus and D.J. White (1982, 1983), 3rd part by 
G.W. Argus and C.J. Keddy (1984), 4th and final part by G.W. Argus and 
K. Pryer (in prep.). National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario. 
(Supercedes Argus and White, 1977.) 

Bouchard, A.D., Barabé, D., Dumais, M. and Hay, S. (1983). The rare vascular plants 
of Quebec. Syllogeus 48. 

Douglas, G.W., Argus, G.W., Dickson, H.L. and Brunton, D.F. (1981). The rare 
vascular plants of the Yukon. Syllogeus 28. 

Hinds, H. (1983). The rare vascular plants of New Brunswick. Syllogeus 50. 

Maher, R.V., Argus, G.W., Harms, V.L. and Hudson, J.H. (1979). The rare vascular 
plants of Saskatchewan. Syllogeus 20. (Reviewed in Threatened Plants Committee - 
Newsletter, No. 5: 11, 1980.) 

Maher, R.V., White, D.J., Argus, G.W. and Keddy, P.A. (1978). The rare vascular 
plants of Nova Scotia. Syllogeus 18. 

Taylor, R.L., Douglas, G.W. and Straley, G. (in press). The rare vascular plants of 
British Columbia. Syllogeus. 

White, D.J. and Johnson, K.L. (1980). The rare vascular plants of Manitoba. 
Syllogeus 27. 


A computerized list of the rare and endangered vascular plants in Canada was compiled at 
the University of Waterloo and last updated in 1978. Abbreviated version published as: 


59 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Kershaw, L.J. and Morton, J.K. (1976). Rare and potentially endangered species in the 
Canadian flora - A preliminary list of vascular plants. Can. Bot. Assoc. Bull. -9(2): 
26-30. 


The complete list was included as an appendix in: 


Kershaw, L.J. (1976). A Phytogeographical Survey of Rare, Endangered and Extinct 
Plants in the Canadian Flora. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario. 


Also relevant: 


Guppy, G.A. (1977). Endangered plants in British Columbia. Davidsonia 8: 24-30. 
Isnor, W. (1981). Provisional Notes on the Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals 
of Nova Scotia. Curatorial Report No. 46, Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer 
Str., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3A6. (Notes on identification, distribution, habitat 

and vulnerability for 82 vascular plants, with dot maps.) 


The IUCN Plant Red Data Book includes 7 species for Canada. No IUCN statistics; there - 
are c. 500 species that are rare throughout Canada. 


The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), a 
committee established in 1977 of the Canadian Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference, is 
charged with preparing status reports and assigning status to Canadian species in jeopardy 
(Haber, 1983). This has been done for 19 plant species, including 7 ‘endangered’, 8 
‘threatened’ and 4 ‘rare’. The status reports are available at cost from Canadian Nature 
Federation (see below). 


Laws Protecting Plants Complex and numerous; mostly at provincial level; for 
details see Argus (1977). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Canadian Nature Federation, 75 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIL 8B9. 
Nature Conservancy of Canada, 22 Hillside Drive S., Toronto, Ontario M4K 2M2. 
WWF-Canada, 60 St Clair Ave. E., Suite 201, Toronto, Ontario M4T INS. 


Botanic Gardens The following Canadian botanic gardens subscribe to the IUCN 
Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body. 


Devonian Botanic Garden, University of Alberta, Room B-414, Biological Sciences 
Centre, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9. 

Jardin Botanique de la ville de Montréal, 4101 rue Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec 
H1X 2B2. 

Oxen Pond Botanic Park, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, 
Newfoundland A1C 5S7. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, P.O. Box 3990, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3H8. 

University of British Columbia Botanical Garden, 6501 Northwest Marine Drive, 
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1WS. 

University of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, Ontario NIG 2W1. 


Useful Addresses 
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Canadian 
Wildlife Service, Dept of the Environment, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0E7. 
National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario 
K1iA 0M8. 
Rare and Endangered Plants Project, Botany Division, National Museum of Natural 
Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OM8. 


60 


Canada 


CITES Management Authority: The Administrator, CITES, Canadian Wildlife Service, 
Dept of Environment, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E7. 


Additional References 

Argus, G.W. (1977). Canada. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 17-29. 

Argus, G.W. and McNeill, J. (1974). Conservation of evolutionary centres in Canada. 
In Maini, J.S. and Carlisle, A., Conservation in Canada: A Conspectus. Dept of 
Environment, Canadian Forest Service Publication 1340. Pp. 131-141. 

Haber, E. (1983). A report on the work of COSEWIC. The Plant Press 1(3): 45-47. 

Morton, J.K. (Ed.) (1976). Proceedings of the Symposium: Man’s Impact on the 
Canadian Flora. Canadian Botanical Association Bulletin, Suppl. to Vol. 9, No. 1. 

Scudder, G.C.E. (1979). Present patterns in the fauna and flora of Canada. In Danks, 
H.V., Canada and its insect fauna. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 108: 87-179. 

Soper, J.H. (1979). Nature conservation in Canada. In Hedberg, I. (Ed.), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 143-146. 


Canary Islands 


An archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean off the north-west coast of Africa, between Madeira 
and the Cape Verde Islands and belonging to Spain. Comprises the 2 Spanish metropolitan 
provinces of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Las Palmas 
province includes Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote together with 3 islets - 
Alegranza, Graciosa, Lobos - and several uninhabited rocks. Santa Cruz de Tenerife 
province comprises the islands of Tenerife, La Palma, Gomera and Hierro. 


Area 7273 sq. km 
Population 1,394,288 (local figures, 1979) 


Floristics About 2000 species of native and introduced vascular plants (D. 
Bramwell, 1985, pers. comm.), mostly of native Mediterranean species and introduced 
weeds and aliens. This includes a remarkable endemic flora of over 500 taxa (IUCN 
figures), with 19 endemic genera (Bramwell, 1976). 


Generally considered to be a relict flora, with affinities to Tertiary Mediterranean flora; 
many endemics have their nearest relatives in South and East Africa, and even South 
America, being considered to be relicts of an African Tertiary ‘Rand’ flora (Bramwell, 
1974, 1976 and 1985 pers. comm.). 


Vegetation In the western and central islands extensive woods; in the eastern 
islands mostly xerophytic scrub, reflecting the more arid climate of North Africa. 
Bramwell (1974) lists 6 vegetation types, which show striking altitudinal zonation: semi- 
desert succulent scrub (0-700 m); juniper scrub (south slopes, 400-600 m); tree heath and 
evergreen forest, the former of Erica arborea, the latter of Lauraceae, forming the famous 
and species-rich laurel forests, of which only small areas remain (400-1300 m); savanna of 
Pinus canariensis (800-1900 m); montane scrub (1900-2500 m); and subalpine scrub (only 
on Pico de Teide, Tenerife, c. 2600 m). In Gran Canaria the laurel forest is now less than 
1% of its original extent; on Tenerife about 10%. 


61 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras The Canaries are covered by the Flora of Macaronesia 
checklist (Hansen and Sunding, 1979, cited in Appendix 1). There is no Canarian Flora, 
but see: 


Kunkel, G. (1974- ). Flora de Gran Canaria. 10 vols projected, 4 completed. Excmo. 
Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas. (1 - arboles y arbustos arbéreos; 2 - 
enredaderas, trepadoras y rastreras; 3 - las plantas suculentas; 4 — los subarbustos; 
illus.) 

Lid, J. (1967). Contributions to the Flora of the Canary Islands. Universitetsforlaget, 
Oslo. 212 pp. (Annotated list of species with keys.) 

Santos Guerra, A. (1983). Vegetacién y Flora de La Palma. Editorial Interinsular 
Canaria, Tirso de Molina 8, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 348 pp. (Includes catalogue of 
flora with distribution maps for most of the Macaronesian and Canarian endemics; 
maps of actual and potential vegetation; colour illus.) 


The Jardin Botanico ‘‘Viera y Clavijo’’ is creating a computer database on the Canarian 
flora, developed from the Flora of Macaronesia checklist. 


Three Canarian journals contain numerous articles on the flora: Botanica Macaronésica, 
published by Jardin Botanico ‘‘Viera y Clavijo’’, Cuadernos de Botanica Canaria, 
published privately, now discontinued, and Vieraea, published by Museo Insular de 
Ciencias Naturales, Tenerife. 4 


Field-guides 

Bramwell, D. and Z.I. (1974). Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands.-Stanley Thornes, 
London. 261 pp. (Keys, descriptions, illus., mostly of the endemics; also describes 
areas of botanical interest.) Spanish edition as Flores Silvestres de las Islas Canarias, 
2nd Ed., 1983, Editorial Rueda, Porto Cristo 13, Alcorcon, Madrid; German edition 
as Kanarische Flora: Illustrierter Fiihrer, 1983, Editorial Rueda (without the keys 
and descriptions). 

Kunkel, G. (1981). Arboles y Arbustos de las Islas Canarias: Guia de Campo. 
Coleccion Botanica Canaria, Vol. 1. 138 pp. (Line drawings.) 


The Caja Insular de Ahorras de Gran Canaria, with the Jardin Botanico ‘‘Viera y 
Clavijo’’, have prepared a set of data cards with colour illustrations of Canarian plants, 
mostly endemic and threatened. 


Information on Threatened Plants A national threatened plant list has recently 
been published: 


Barreno, E. et al. (Eds) (1984). Listado de Plantas Endemicas, Raras o Amenazadas de 
Espafia. Informacion Ambiental. Conservacionismo en Espana. No. 3. (Includes 
separate lists for peninsula Spain, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands; for the latter 
578 threatened endemic taxa are listed; compiled with the agreement of numerous 
authoritative Spanish botanists, it is now the definitive list.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1. Latest IUCN statistics based upon Barreno (1984): endemic taxa - Ex:1, 
E:126, V:119, R:132, 1:5, K:26, nt:160; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:1, 
V:17, R:2, I:1 (world categories). See also: 


Bramwell, D. and Perez, J.P. (1982). Prioridades para la conservacién de la diversidad 
genética en la flora de las Islas Canarias. Botdnica Macaronesica 10: 3-17. (Classifies 
the species from the 1980 IUCN list in terms of the priorities of the World 
Conservation Strategy.) 


62 


Canary Islands 


Kunkel, G. (Ed.) (1975). Inventario de los Recursos Naturales Renovables de la 
Provincia de las Palmas. Excmo. Cabildo Insular, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. 
156 pp., maps. (Results of IUCN/WWF Project 817, undertaken by Asociacién 
Canaria para la Defensa de la Naturaleza.) 


The Environment Department of the Autonomous Government of the Canary Islands is 
preparing a protected area programme for the Canarian flora. 


Voluntary Organizations Several local ecology groups, the most important being: 


Asociacion Canaria para la Defensa de la Naturaleza (ASCAN), c/o Presidente Alvear 
50, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico ‘‘Viera y Clavijo’’, Apto de Correos 14 de Tafira Alta, 35017 Las 
Palmas de Gran Canaria. 
Jardin de Aclimatacion de la Orotava, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife. 


Useful Addresses 
Gobierno de Canarias, Consejeria de Obras Publicas, Ordenacién de Teritorio y Medio 
Ambiente, Edificio Hamilton, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 


Additional References 

Bramwell, D. (1976). The endemic flora of the Canary Islands; distribution, 
relationships and phytogeography. In Kunkel, G. (Ed.), see below. Pp. 207-240. 

Ceballos, L.C. and Ortufio, F. (1976). Estudio sobre la Vegetacién y Flora Forestal de 
las Canarias Occidentales, 2nd Ed. Excmo. Cabildo Insular, Sta Cruz de Tenerife. 
433 pp. (Covers Gomera, Hierro, La Palma, Tenerife; illus., vegetation maps.) 

Hernandez, P.H. (1979). Natura y Cultura de las Islas Canarias, 3rd Ed. La Cultura, 
Apto de Correos, 1012 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. 

Kunkel, G. (Ed.) (1976). Biogeography and Ecology in the Canary Islands. Junk, The 
Hague. 511 pp. (Includes essays on the Hierro laurisilva by E. Schmid (pp. 241-248), 
the introduced elements in the flora by G. Kunkel (pp. 249-266), the influence of 
man on Hierro vegetation by F. Kammer (pp. 327-346) and on conservation by 
M. Sutton (pp. 479-483).) 

Sunding, P. (1973). A Botanical Bibliography of the Canary Islands, 2nd Ed. Botanical 
Garden, Univ. of Oslo. 46 pp. 


Canton and Enderbury 
Islands ~ 


Canton (9 sq. km) and Enderbury (6.5 sq. km) are low coral atolls 2620 km south-west of 
the Hawaiian islands and north of the Phoenix Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The islands 
are jointly administered by the United States and United Kingdom. There are no 
permanent inhabitants. 


Canton (2°50’S, 171°40’W) has 14 native species and over 150 introduced weeds 
(Hatheway, 1955). Most of the flora consists of wide-ranging Indo-Pacific strand plants. 
The vegetation consists mainly of Scaevola and Tournefortia scrub, Portulaca herbaceous 
communities and a few Cordia trees and coconuts. Hatheway (1955) reported that 23% of 


63 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


the land surface of Canton had little or no natural vegetation, and a further 40% consisted 
of disturbed ground. 


References 

Degener, O. and I. (1959). Canton Island, South Pacific (Resurvey of 1958). Atoll Res. 
Bull. 64. 24 pp. (Includes notes on flora.) 

Degener, O. and Gillaspy, E. (1955). Canton Island, South Pacific. Atoll Res. Bull. 41. 
51 pp. (Checklist of introductions and notes on 68 species on Canton.) 

Hatheway, W.H. (1955). The natural vegetation of Canton Island, an equatorial 
Pacific atoll. Atoll Res. Bull. 43. 9 pp. 

Luomala, K. (1951). Plants of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands. Occ. Papers Bernice P. 
Bishop Mus. 20(11): 157-174. (59 taxa listed.) 


Cape Verde 


The Cape Verde Islands, 445 km off the west coast of Africa, consist of two groups of 
volcanic islands: Windward (Santo Antao, Sao Vicente, Santa Luzia, Sao Nicolau, Sal and 
Boa Vista) and Leeward (Maio, Sao Tiago, Fogo and Brava). They occupy 14°48’- 
17°12’N, 22°44’-25°22’W. The highest point is 2829 m on Fogo. 


Area 4033 sq. km 
Population 317,000 


Floristics c. 659 species of vascular plants including introductions (Sunding, 
1973, 1974); 92 endemics (Humphries, 1979). 


Lowland species with tropical affinities; mountain species with Macaronesian or 
Mediterranean affinities. 


Vegetation Original vegetation almost totally destroyed and potential vegetation 
impossible to assess. Mostly now lowland arid pastures with large numbers of goats, and 
agricultural crops and plantations on fertile slopes. More arid pastures above c. 1400 m, 
and more or less bare rocky summits at the highest altitudes on Fogo and Santo Antao. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Cape Verde is included in the Flora of Macaronesia 
checklist (Hansen and Sunding, 1979), cited in Appendix 1. 


Chevalier, A. (1935a). Les iles du Cap Vert. Géographie, biogéographie, agriculture. 
Flore de l’Archipel. Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 15: 733-1090. (Includes annotated 
checklist, pp. 867-1074.) 

Chevalier, A. (1946). Additions a la flore des Iles du Cap Vert. In Contribution a 
(Etude du Peuplement des Iles Atlantides, Mém. Soc. Biogéogr. 8: 349-356. 

Sunding, P. (1973). Check-list of the Vascular Plants of the Cape Verde Islands. 
Botanical Garden, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo. 36 pp. (Includes distributions.) 

Sunding, P. (1974). Additions to the vascular flora of the Cape Verde Islands. Garcia 
de Orta, Sér. Bot. 2(1): 5-30. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Cape Verde 


Useful Addresses 
Ministério de Desenvolvimento Rural, C.P. 50, Praia, S. Tiago. 


Additional References 

Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1968a). L’archipel du Cap-Vert. In Hedberg, I. and O. 
(1968), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 94-97. 

Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1968b). Vegetation. In Bannerman, D.A. and W.M. (Eds), 
History of the Birds of the Cape Verde Islands. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 

Pp. 58-61. (Birds of the Atlantic Islands, vol. 4.) 

Chevalier, A. (1935b). Apercu sur la végétation des files de Cap Vert. Compt. Rend. 
Somm. Séanc. Soc. Biogéogr. 99: 21-24. 

Humphries, C.J. (1979). Endemism and evolution in Macaronesia. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 171-199. 

Sunding, P. (1977). A botanical bibliography of the Cape Verde Islands. Bol. Mus. 
Munic. Funchal 31: 100-109. 

Sunding, P. (1979). Origins of the Macaronesian flora. In Bramwell, D. (Ed.), Plants 
and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 13-40. 

Teixeira, A.J. da Silva and Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1958). A agricultura do 
Arquipélago de Cabo Verde. Mem. Junta Invest. Ultram., Sér. 2 2, and Mem. Trab. 
No. 26, Ministério do Ultramar, Lisboa. 178 pp. (With 10 maps in colour, 
1:50,000-1:100,000; 77 plates of photographs.) 


Cargados Carajos 


A group of 22 coralline islands c. 350 km NNE of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, 16°20’S, 
59°20’E; made up of sand banks, shoals and islets. Total land area probably c. 4 sq. km. 
Also called St Brandon, after the name of the principal reef complex. Total 41 species, 
including 11 cultivated species, 13 weeds and 17 indigenous pantropical species. No 
endemics. (Staub and Guého, 1968; Renvoize, 1979.) The vegetation consists mostly of 
littoral scrub and herb mat; trees more or less absent except for a few stunted individuals. 


References 
Renvoize, S.A. (1979). The origins of Indian Ocean island floras. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 107-129. 
Staub, F. and Guého, J. (1968). The Cargados Carajos shoals or St Brandon: 
resources, avifauna and vegetation. Proc. Roy. Soc. Arts Sci. Mauritius 3(1): 7-46. 
(Includes annotated checklist of plants.) 


Caroline Islands 


An archipelago of 70 islands in the west Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Philippines, and 
extending for over 2500 km, between latitudes 5°-10°N and longitudes 130°-165°E. In the 
west, the Palau Islands comprise volcanic islands, raised limestone islands and low coral 
atolls, including several hundred islets within a single reef system. The Yap Islands, north- 
east of the Palau Islands, are mainly metamorphic and old volcanic islands surrounded by 


65 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


broad fringing reefs. Further east are the Truk and Ponape Islands which include high 
volcanic islands surrounded by barrier reefs. The highest point is 791 m, on the island of 
Ponape. The Caroline Islands form part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands administered by the United States. 


Area 1170 sq. km 
Population 85,910 (1980 estimate) 


Floristics No overall figure for the size of the flora, but 992 taxa are 
dicotyledons, of which 609 are native, including 267 endemics (Fosberg, Sachet and 
Oliver, 1979, cited in Appendix 1). 201 native fern taxa, of which 26 are endemic; one 
native non-endemic gymnosperm (Cycas circinalis) (Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1982, 
cited in Appendix 1). Most of the flora of the Carolines is related to that of Indo-Malesia 
and Melanesia-New Guinea. 


Vegetation Evergreen rain forest and savanna woodlands on the Yap Islands; 
lowland rain forest, with Campnosperma, Manilkara, Calophyllum, Eugenia, Ficus, and 
tree ferns on the Palau, Truk and Ponape Islands; mixed forests on limestone on Fais, in 
the Yap group, and in southern Palau; montane rain forest on Ponape and Kusaie, in the 
Ponape group, and on the summit of Mt Winibot (480 m) on Tol, in the Truk group; 
mangrove forest on south-west and south-east coasts of Ponape, and south and north-west 
coasts of Kusaie. 


Much of the natural vegetation has been cleared for coconut plantations (e.g. on Yap and 
Puluwat, in the Yap group) or disturbed by phosphate mining (e.g. on the raised coral 
island of Fais). Few areas of native vegetation remain on the Truk Islands, except on the 
high volcanic islands of Moen, Dublon, Uman, Fefan, Udot and Tol. Although the 
lowland forests on the Ponape Islands have been much disturbed, both Kusaie and the 
island of Ponape retain upland forests. See Fosberg (1973, cited in Appendix 1) for 
description of forests and conservation problems. 


Checklists and Floras The Carolines are included in Flora Micronesica 
(Kanehira, 1933), the regional checklists of Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver (1979, 1982), and 
will be covered in the Flora of Micronesia (1975- ), all cited in Appendix 1. Separate 
accounts for individual islands include: 


Alkire, W.H. (1974). Native classification of flora on Woleai Atoll. Micronesica 10(1): 
1-5. (Lists 84 species with vernacular names.) 

Fosberg, F.R. (1969). Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 132. 
13 pp. (Includes annotated checklist of 6 native fern species; 97 angiosperm taxa, of 
which 46 introduced.) 

Fosberg, F.R. and Evans, M. (1969). A collection of plants from Fais, Caroline 
Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 133. 15 pp. (Includes annotated checklist of 3 native fern 
species; 117 angiosperm taxa, of which 59 introduced.) 

Fosberg, F.R., Otobed, D., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R.L., Powell, D.A. and Canfield, 
J.E. (1980). Vascular Plants of Palau with Vernacular Names. Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp. (Checklists; exotics indicated.) 

Glassman, S.F. (1952). The flora of Ponape. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 209. 

152 pp. (Ponape has 249 indigenous angiosperms, 8 endemic.) 

Glassman, S.F. (1957). The vascular flora of Ponape and its phytogeographical 

affinities. In Proc. 8th. Pacific Science Congress - Botany. Pp. 201-213. 


66 


Caroline Islands 


Marshall, M. (1975). The natural history of Namoluk Atoll, eastern Caroline Islands. 
Atoll Res. Bull. 189. 53 pp. (Includes annotated list of 113 taxa; notes on 
vegetation.) 

St John, H. (1948). Report on the flora of Pingelap Atoll, Caroline Islands, 
Micronesia, and observations on the vocabulary of the native inhabitants. Pacific 
Plant Studies 7. Pacific Science 2: 96-113. (Annotated checklist of 57 taxa, 32 
indigenous.) 

Stone, B.C. (1959). Flora of Namonuito and the Hall Islands. Pacific Science 13: 
88-104. (Annotated checklist of 94 species, 52 indigenous.) 

Stone, B.C. (1960). Corrections and additions to the Flora of the Hall Islands and to 
the Flora of Ponape. Pacific Science 14: 408-410. 


Information on Threatened Plants 4 vascular plant species are listed as 
‘Endangered’ in Territorial Register 2(1), 4 December 1976. (Adopted Regulations Title 45 
- Fish, Shellfish and Game.) 


Cayman Islands 


A Dependent Territory of the U.K. comprising three islands - Grand Cayman (the largest 
— 35.5 km by 13 km at its widest), Cayman Brac and Little Cayman. They lie 240 km north- 
west of Jamaica and 772 km south of Miami. They are relatively flat and low-lying except 
for Cayman Brac, which is bordered by cliffs and reaches 43 m above sea-level. 


Area 259 sq. km 
Population 18,000 


Floristics Just over 600 species of vascular plants, of which 102 are either 
cultivated or naturalized from cultivation (Proctor, 1984); 18 endemic species and 3 
endemic varieties; affinities with other Antillean islands rather than Central America 
(Proctor, 1984). 


Vegetation Little true woodland remains on Grand Cayman; a few isolated 
patches of dry evergreen forest (in the east of Grand Cayman and on Cayman Brac); in the 
uplands dry evergreen thicket, often reduced to pasture; littoral thicket on northern and 
eastern shores, grading inland to dry evergreen bush (much of western end of Grand 
Cayman); mangrove (mainly Grand Cayman); seasonal grassland swamp (West Bay area 
of Grand Cayman). 


Checklists and Floras 
Proctor, G.R. (1980). Checklist of the plants of Little Cayman. Afoll Res. Bull. 241: 
71-80. 
Proctor, G.R. (1984). Flora of the Cayman Islands. Kew Bulletin Additional Series X1. 
834 pp. (Includes section on environment and plant associations by M.A. Brunt.) 


Cayman Island records are also included in the Jamaican Flora by Adams (1972) and 
Proctor (1982), cited under Jamaica. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


67 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Additional References 
Sauer, J.D. (1982). Cayman Islands Seashore Vegetation: A Study in Comparative 
Biogeography. University of California Publications Geography Vol. 25. Univ. 


California Press, Berkeley. 161 pp. 


Central African Republic 


Area 624,977 sq. km 
Population 2,508,000 


Floristics Flora very poorly known. 3600 species (Sillans, 1958); almost certainly 
too low. Of these, c. 1000 occur in the rain forest with c. 10 endemic, and 2600 in the 
savanna with c. 90 endemic (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). Endemics concentrated 
on mountain range in north-east. 


Floristic affinities predominantly Sudanian, but also Guinea-Congolian in south. 


Vegetation Mostly Sudanian woodland with Jsoberlinia, Terminalia and 
Combretum, but also Sahelian woodland with Acacia in extreme north, and lowland rain 
forest interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivation in southern quarter of 
country. Very large area of unexploited moist forest round Bangassou south-east of centre 
of country. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 50 sq. 
km/annum out of 35,900 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras 
Boulvert, Y. (1980?). Catalogue de la Flore de |’Empire Centrafricaine, 2 vols. 
ORSTOM, 20 rue Monsieur, Paris. 
Guigonis, G. (1970). Liste des arbres et arbustes vivant dans la forét dense et les 
galeries de la Republique Centrafricaine. Cyclostyled. 30 pp. (Lists 645 species.) 
Tisserant, C. (1950). Catalogue de la flore de l’?Oubangui-Chari. Mem. Inst. Etud. 
Centrafricaines 2. 165 pp. Imprimerie Julia, Toulouse. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 117 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no 
categories assigned. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Direction des chasses, B.P. 830, Bangui. 


Additional References 
Aubréville, A. (1964). La forét dense de la Lobaye. Cah. Maboké 2(1): 5-9. 
Boulvert, Y. (1980). Végétation forestiére des savanes Centrafricaines. Bois Foréts 
Trop. 191: 21-45. (With several maps and black and white photographs.) 
Guigonis, G. (1968). République Centrafricaine. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 107-111. 
Lanly, J.P. (1966). La forét dense centrafricaine. Bois Foréts Trop. 108: 43-55. 
Sillans, R. (1958). Les Savanes de l’Afrique Centrale Francaise. Lechevalier, Paris. 
423 pp. (Numerous illustrations throughout.) 


68 


Chad 


Area 1,284,000 sq. km 
Population 4,901,000 


Floristics 1600 species, 1516 of which occur south of 16°N (Lebrun, 1976, cited in 
Appendix 1). The Tibesti Mountains in the extreme north are estimated to have 450 species 
(Lebrun, 1960, cited in Appendix 1; Maire and Monod, 1950). Level of endemism not 
known. 


Flora with Saharan (north), Sahelian and Sudanian (south) affinities. The Tibesti 
Mountains have Mediterranean, Saharan, Sahelian and Afromontane elements. 


Vegetation Northern part of country desert with little or no permanent 
vegetation. To the south, in the Sahelian zone, which has a short wet season, semi-desert 
grassland gradually replaced by dry wooded grassland with Acacia species. Further south 
the higher rainfall in the Sudanian Region supports woodland without characteristic 
dominants. The Tibesti mountains in the north of the country support a distinct form of 
montane vegetation, floristically rich and unrelated to the surrounding lowlands; it 
consists of grassland, woodland and shrubland, with communities of Erica arborea 
confined to narrow fissures on the higher peaks. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras The northern part of Chad, north of c. 16°N, is included in 
Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and in the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des 
Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes (Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980); both of these are cited 
in Appendix 1. See also: 


Carvalho, G. and Gillet, H. (1960). Catalogue raisonné et commenté des plantes de 
l’Ennedi (Tchad Septentrional). J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 7: 49-96, 193-240, 
317-378. (With 12 black and white photographs.) 

Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. and Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes 
Vasculaires du Tchad Meéridional. Etude Botanique No. 1, Institut d’Elevage et de 
Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons-Alfort. 289 pp. (Annotated 
checklist covering only the tropical southern part of Chad, but including a useful 
botanical bibliography.) 

Lebrun, J.-P. and Gaston, A. (1976). Premier supplément au ‘‘Catalogue des Plantes 
Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional’’. Adansonia, Sér. 2, 15(3): 381-390. 

Lebrun, J.-P. and Gaston, A. (1977). Second supplément au ‘‘Catalogue des Plantes 
Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional’’. Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7-8: 109-114. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 49 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
including R:10, nt:4; no information for the rest. 


Additional References 

Gaston, A. (1980). La Végétation du Tchad (Nord-Est et Sud-Est du Lac Tchad): 
Evolutions Recentes sous des Influences Climatiques et Humaines. Institut d’Elevage 
et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons-Alfort. (Colour map 
1:1,000,000 covering about a quarter of Chad with unpublished descriptive thesis of 
333 pp.) 

Gillet, H. (1968a). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l’Ennedi (Tchad). Mém. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, n.s. B, 17. 206 pp. (With 66 black and white photographs.) 


69 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Gillet, H. (1968b). Tchad et Sahel Tchadien. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 54-58. 

Lebrun, J.-P. (1983). La flore des massifs Sahariens: espéces illusoires et endémiques 
vraies. In Killick, D.J.B. (1983), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 511-515. 

Maire, R. and Monod, Th. (1950). Etudes sur la flore et la végétation du Tibesti. Mém. 
IFAN 8. 140 pp., plus appendix. 

Pias, J. (1970). La Végétation du Tchad: Ses Rapports avec les Sols; Variations 
Paléobotaniques au Quaternaire. Trav. Doc. ORSTOM 6. 47 pp. (With coloured 
vegetation map 1:1,500,000.) 

Quézel, P. (1958). Mission botanique au Tibesti. Mém. Inst. Rech. Sahariennes 4. 

357 pp. (Notes on the distribution of over 500 species, description of vegetation; 30 
black and white photographs.) 


Chatham Islands 


An isolated group of islands c. 800 km east of South Island, New Zealand. The main 
islands (Chatham and Pitt) are surrounded by numerous islets, some of which are no more 
than precipitous rocks. Chatham (963 sq. km) is mostly low lying but reaches about 270 m 
in the south. It is geologically heterogenous, with schists, sandstones, limestones, and 
basaltic tuffs in the south. Pitt Island is more rugged and mainly basaltic. Blanket peat 
covers much of both Chatham and Pitt; several peat domes on Chatham. Some of the 
outlying islets, and parts of Pitt Island, are nature reserves. The Chatham Islands are 
administered by the New Zealand Department of Maori and Island Affairs. 


Area 1235 sq. km 
Population 751 (1981) 


Floristics c. 300 vascular plant species (Devine, 1982); 35-40 endemic taxa (Given, 
1984, in litt.); 2 endemic genera (Embergeria and Myosotidium). 


Vegetation The original vegetation was probably a mosaic of Karaka 
(Corynocarpus) forest, swamp forest, and Tarahinau (Dracophyllum) forest in the 
lowlands, with mixed broadleaved forests in the uplands. Sporadanthus moorland and 
bogs were also extensive. Relatively intact natural vegetation occurs on the Southern 
Tablelands of the main island, but elsewhere vegetation has mostly been cleared for 
agriculture, or modified by draining, grazing and fires. By the end of the 1960s some 57 sq. 
km of Tarahinau forest remained, mainly on Chatham Island, together with 22 sq. km of 
Sporadanthus bog (Devine, 1982). 


Checklists and Floras The Chatham Islands are included in the Flora of New 
Zealand (1961, 1970, 1980), cited under New Zealand. See also: 


Mueller, F. (1864). The Vegetation of the Chatham-Islands. Melbourne. 86 pp. 
(Includes descriptive accounts of 87 vascular plant species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Given (1976, 1977, 1978), cited under New 
Zealand, includes 8 data sheets on threatened species from the Chatham Islands. The Red 
Data Book of New Zealand (Williams and Given, 1981), cited under New Zealand, 
includes data sheets on 9 species. Myosotidium hortensia is included in The IUCN Plant 
Red Data Book (1978). See also: 


70 


Chatham Islands 


Given, D.R. (1983). Monitoring and science - the next stage in threatened plant 
conservation in New Zealand. In Given, D.R. (Ed.), Conservation of Plant Species 
and Habitats. Nature Conservation Council, Wellington. Pp. 83-101. (Lists 7 
‘endangered’ and 8 ‘vulnerable’ Chatham Island taxa, including non-endemics; 
population sizes indicated.) 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:6, V:4, R:6; non-endemic taxa rare or threatened 
worldwide - V:4, R:1, I:1 (world categories). 


Additional References 
Cockayne, L. (1902). A short account of the plant-covering of Chatham Island. Trans. 
N.Z. Inst. 34: 243-325. 
Devine, W.T. (1982). Nature conservation and land-use history of the Chatham 
Islands, New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 23: 127-140. 


Several surveys have been undertaken since 1970, and are the subject of a number of 
unpublished reports by the Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch, including: 


Given, D.R. and Williams, P.A. (1985). Conservation of Chatham Island Flora and 
Vegetation. DSIR, Christchurch, 123 pp. 

Kelly, G.C. (in prep.). Distribution and ranking of remaining areas of indigenous 
vegetation in the Chatham Islands. Department of Land and Surveys Resource 
Inventory. (Includes map with extended legend; not seen.) 


Chile 


Area 751,626 sq. km 
Population 11,878,000 


Floristics Over 5500 species of vascular plants (M. Mujfioz, 1984, pers. comm.). 
Endemism over 50% at specific level (Fuenzalida, 1984), and 16% at generic level (Mufioz, 
pers. comm.). (Toledo, 1985, cited in Appendix 1, quoting from Gajardo-Michell, 1983, 
reports 4758 recorded species, 2698 of them endemic.) Floristic affinities with California, 
New Zealand, Tasmania and New Caledonia (Mufioz, pers. comm.). 


Vegetation Very diverse due to Chile’s extreme north-south length and high 
altitudes. In the north, a very dry region, which includes the Atacama Desert; vegetation 
varies from none on the northern coast to the Loma Formation (see under Peru) and 
deciduous scrub on the western side of the Andes; at high altitudes and on high plateaux, 
very dry puna and salt marsh communities. In Central Chile a Mediterranean climate 
permits growth of broadleaved evergreen shrubland in the south, and lowland and 
submontane forest on the Andean slopes. Much of central Chile is cultivated. In the 
southern third of the country, the only temperate rain forest in South America, the 
Valdivian forest, which is dense and rich in epiphytes (Unesco, 1981, cited in Appendix 1). 
In the extreme south, including Tierra del Fuego, temperate and subpolar evergreen moist 
forest and high Andean meadows. Native forests, home of many of the endemic plants, 
now cover only 10% of the country (Fuenzalida, 1984). 


Checklists and Floras That part of Chile north of the Tropic of Capricorn (nearly 
1500 km, from just north of Antofagasta) is covered by the family and generic 
monographs of Flora Neotropica, described in Appendix 1. Chilean Floras are: 


71 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Johow, F. (1948). Flora de Zapallar. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 49: 1-566. 

Muifioz P., C. (1959). Sinopsis de la Flora Chilena: Claves para la identificacién de 
familias y géneros. Edit. Univ. Chile, Santiago. 500 pp. (Generic vascular flora, but 
including 248 illus. of species; includes botanical bibliography of Chile.) 

Reiche, K.F. (1886-1911). Flora de Chile. Cervantes, Santiago. (6 vols, incomplete.) 


See also: 


Moore, D.M. (1983). Flora of Tierra del Fuego. Nelson, U.K., and Missouri Botanical 
Garden, U.S.A. 396 pp. 

Navas Bustamente, L.E. (1973-1979). Flora de la Cuenca de Santiago de Chile, 3 vols. 
Edit. Univ. Chile, Santiago. 

Rodriguez, R.R., Matthei, O. and Quezada, M. (1983). Flora Arborea de Chile. 
Universidad de Concepcién. 408 pp. (87 species described including their uses; 
vegetation types and their endemics.) 


See also Boelcke, Moore and Roig (1985), under Argentina. 


Field-guides 

Donoso, C. (1974). Dendrologia: Arboles y Arbustos Chilenos. Facultad de Ciencias 
Forestales, Universidad Austral de Chile. Manual 2. 142 pp. 

Donoso, C. (1981). Arboles Nativos de Chile: Guia de Reconocimiento. Alborada, 
Valdivia, Chile. (51 species listed with distribution maps.) 

Hoffmann, A. (1980, 1982). Flora Silvestre de Chile: Zona Central (1980); Zona 
Austral (1982). Fundacién Claudio Gay, Santiago. 255 pp. (Colour illus., plants 
arranged by flower colour.) 

Muiioz P., C. (1966). Flores Silvestres de Chile. Edit. Univ. Chile. 245 pp. (51 colour 
photos.) 

Muijioz Schick, M. (1980). Flora del Parque Nacional Puyehue. Edit. Univ. Santiago. 
557 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants See below, in particular Mujfioz P. (1973): 


Mujfioz P., C. (1973). Chile: Plantas en Extincién. Edit. Univ. Chile, Santiago. 248 pp. 
(58 species described with illustrations, uses.) 

Muifioz P., C. (1967). La extincién de especies vegetales en Chile. In La Conservacion 
de la Naturaleza y la Prensa en la America Latina. Instituto Mexicano de Recursos 
Naturales Renovables, México. Pp. 75-82. 

Muiioz P., C. (1975). Especies vegetales que se extinguen en nuestro pais. In Capurro, 
L. and Vergara, R. (Eds), Presente y Futuro del Medio Humano. Capitulo XI: 
161-179. Edit. Cont. CECSA, México. 


F.M. Schlegel of the Institute of Silviculture, Valdivia, has prepared a list of the areas high 
in endemism and diversity most urgently needing conservation. Threatened plants are 
mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular C. 
Mufioz Pizarro on endangered plants of Chile (pp. 252-256), H.E. Moore Jr. on 
endangerment in palms (pp. 267-282), P. Ravenna on threatened bulbous plants 
(pp. 257-266). 


Unpublished lists also include: 


Marticorena, C. (1980). Threatened plants and areas of Chile. Universidad de 
Concepcion. (List of threatened plants of the continent and the Islas of Mas a 
Tierra, Mas Afuera, Santa Clara, San Felix and San Ambrosio.) 


72 


Chile 


Muifioz P., C. (1975). I. Areas Naturales: localidas y regiones de Chile dignas de 
proteccion. II. La extincién de especies vegetales. In 2a Jorn. Latinoam. de Parques 
Nacionales. SAG, Minist. Agric., Vifia del Mar. 23 pp. 

Schlegel Sachs, F.M. (1982). Especies Chilenas Amenazadas. Univ. Austral de Chile. 
(List of threatened plants including Ex:9, E:53, V:15, R:42.) 


Laws Protecting Plants Two plant species are protected as Natural Monuments: 
Araucaria (Araucaria araucana) under Law No. 29, 9 February 1976, published 26 April 
1976, and Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides) under Law No. 490, 1 October 1976, published 5 
September 1977. Several laws on the exploitation of species are mentioned in Mufioz P. 
(1973), cited above. The U.S. Government has determined Fitzroya cupressoides, confined 
to Chile and Argentina, as ‘Threatened’ under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Comité Nacional pro Defensa de la Fauna y Flora, Casilla 3675, Huerfanos 972, 
Oficina 508, Santiago. 
Instituto de Ecologia y Evolucién, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia. 
Sociedad de Vida Silvestre, Valdivia. 


Botanic Gardens 

Arboretum (Institute of Silviculture), Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 853, 
Valdivia. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Carl Skottsberg’’, Instituto de la Patagonia, Casilla 102-D, Punta 
Arenas, Magallanes. 

Jardin Botanico Hualpen, Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcién, 
Casilla 1367, Concepcion. 

Jardin Botanico (Instituto de Botanica), Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, 
Valdivia. 

Jardin Botanico Nacional, Casilla 683, Vifia del Mar. 


Useful Addresses 

Corporaci6n Nacional Forestal (CONAF), Avenida Bulnes 285-5° Piso, Santiago. 
(Includes Departamento Areas Silvestre Protegidas.) 

Facultad de Ciencias Biolégicas y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Concepcion, 
Casilla 2407, Apdo 10, Concepcion. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 787, Santiago. 

Universidad Austral de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Casilla 853, Valdivia. 

CITES Management Authority: Autoridad Administrativa de Chile para CITES, 
Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, Avda. Bulnes 285-5° Piso, Casilla 4088, Santiago. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Comisién Nacional de Investigacién Cientifica y 
Technolégica (CONICYT), Canada 308, Santiago. 


Additional References 

Borgel O., R. (1973). The coastal desert of Chile. In Amiran, D.H.K. and Wilson, 
A.W. (Eds), Coastal Deserts: Their Natural and Human Environments. Univ. 
Arizona Press, Tucson. Pp. 111-114. 

Fuenzalida, M. (1984). Evaluation of native forest destruction in the Andes of South 
Central Chile: conservation alternatives. Project Proposal to IUCN from Comité 
Nacional Pro Defensa de la Fauna y Flora, Santiago, Chile. 

Gajardo-Michell, R. (1983). Sistema Basico de Clasificacién de la Vegetacién Nativa 
Chilena. Corporacion Nacional Forestal. Universidad de Chile. 4 partes. (Not seen.) 

Pisano, E. and Fuenzalida, H. (1950). VIII. Biogeografia. Geografia Econémica de 
Chile CORFO 1: 271-428. (Includes one vegetation map.) 


73 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Ramirez, C, (1984). Bibliografia vegetacional de Chile. Universidad Austral, Valdivia. 
Veblen, T.T., Delmastro, R.J. and Schlatter, J.E. (1976). The conservation of Fitzroya 
cupressoides and its environment in southern Chile. Envir. Conserv. 3(4): 291-301. 

Veblen, T., Schlegel, F. and Oltremari, J. (1983). Temperate broadleaved evergreen 
forest of South America. In Ovington, J.D. (Ed.), Temperate Broadleaved 
Evergreen Forest. Elsevier. Pp. 5-31. 

Yudelevich, M., Brown, C.H., Elgueta, H. and Calderon, S. (1967): Clasificacién 
preliminar del bosque nativo de Chile. Inst. Forestal, Inf. Téc. 27: 1-16. (2 maps.) 


China 


Area 9,597,000 sq. km 
Population 1,051,551,000 


Floristics About 30,000 vascular plant species (Yii, 1979), including about 7000 
tree species (quoted in NCC, 1982). 15,000 species occur in tropical and subtropical 
regions, of which 7000 are in Yunnan (NCC, 1982). Of the 2980 flowering plant genera, 
214 are endemic (including 9 gymnosperm genera). Centres of endemism include eastern 
Sichuan/western Hubei, south-east Yunnan/western Guangxi, and the western 
Sichuan/north-west Yunnan centre abutting Burma, Laos and Viet Nam (Ying Tsiin-Shen 
and Zhang Zhi-Song, 1984). Western Yunnan and south-east Tibet are particularly rich in 
Rhododendron and Primula spp. 


Vegetation Tropical evergreen rain forest in lowland parts of Yunnan and 
Guangdong Provinces and on eastern side of Hainan Island. Mangrove forests along the 
southern coasts (Chien, Wu and Chen, 1956). Temperate deciduous forests, subtropical 
evergreen and monsoon forests in the south; evergreen, semi-evergreen and mixed 
broadleaved deciduous forests on limestone in the tropical and subtropical zones of the 
south; various types of subarctic -coniferous forest (‘taiga’) and cold temperate mixed 
forests in the north. The most extensive tracts of natural forest are in the north-east and 
the south-western provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. Western China, the vast plains of 
north-east China and Inner Mongolia are largely semi-arid grassland whereas there are 
deserts and semi-deserts in the Gobi and Tibetan regions. North China, including southern 
Dongbei and parts of Inner Mongolia, are mainly arable. Northern Dongbei is steppe 
grassland though converted in part to farmland. Fuelwood cutting, overgrazing and 
deforestation have left only remnants of primary forest cover in more remote areas and on 
steep terrain. There are over 1.2 million sq. km of ‘‘fully-stocked forests’’ including 
afforested areas (FAO, 1982); probably more land has recently been afforested than in any 
other country in the world (see Smil, 1983, for a report on the afforestation programme). 


For a more comprehensive account of vegetation, and map at scale 1:14,000,000, see Hou 
(1983). For more detailed vegetation map see: 


China Vegetation Commission (1979). Vegetation Map of China (1:4,000,000) and 
accompanying booklet, Legend to the ‘‘Vegetation Map of China’’ (edited by H.Y. 
Hou). Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Beijing. 12 pp. 


74 


China 


Checklists and Floras 

Chen, Y. (1957). Illustrated Manual of Chinese Trees and Shrubs. Science Technology 
Press, Shanghai. (Revised edition, in Chinese; accounts of 2100 native and 
introduced taxa.) 

Chinese Academy of Sciences (1971-1976). Iconographia Cormophytorum Sinicorum, 
5 vols. Science Press, Beijing. (Keys, line drawings, descriptions of 8000 of the more 
common and economically important species; in Chinese. 2 Supplements - 1982, 
1983.) 

Flora Plantarum Herbacearum Chinae Boreali-Orientalis (1958- ). 8 vols so far. (Keys, 
line drawings, descriptions of herbaceous plants; in Chinese.) 

Inner Mongolia Botanical Records Compiling Group (1977-1982). Flora 
Intramongolica, 6 vols. Typis Intramongolicae Popularis, Huhhot. (In Chinese.) 

Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (1959- ). Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. 
Science Press, Beijing. (80 vols planned, 93 families treated so far in 33 volumes; in 
Chinese.) 

Shun-Ching Lee (1935). Forest Botany of China. Commercial Press, Shanghai. 
Supplement (1973). Chinese Forestry Association Taipei, Taiwan. (In English.) 


Xinjiang and Gansu are covered in Grubov (1963- ), cited in Appendix 1. The north-west 
steppe region is included in Norlindh (1949, cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants Sheng Cheng-kui, of the Hortus Botanicus 
Nanjing, reports on a preliminary national threatened plant list compiled under the joint 
auspices of the Environment Protection Agency, the Chinese Botanical Society and the 
Editorial Commission of the Chinese Floras (in Threatened Plants Committee - Newsletter 
No. 7: 5-6, 1981). 


A First National List of Chinese Threatened Plants was published in April 1982 under the 
auspices of the National Environmental Protection Agency and the Botanical Institute of 
Academia Sinica. It lists 354 species of vascular plants, organized in three sections. The 
first lists the species in conservation rating order (1, 2 or 3), the second in systematic order, 
the third geographically, by Provinces. 


A Red Data Book of Chinese rare and endangered species is due to be published in 1985 
(English translation). The book will cover the 354 species (9 ferns, 68 gymnosperms and 
277 angiosperms) with details on their distribution, ecology, present status in the wild and 
conservation measures, with colour plates and a map for each species. 


Voluntary Organizations 
WWFE-China Joint Committee, c/o The Environmental Protection Office of the State 
Council, Beijing. 


Botanic Gardens 
Beijing Botanical Garden, Academia Sinica, Beijing, Hebei. 
Desert Botanical Garden, Minching, Gansu. 
Gangnan Arboretum, Shongyu, Jiangxi. 
Guilin Botanical Garden, Yanshan, Guilin, Guangxi. 
Hangzhou Botanical Garden, Yuquan, Hangzhou, Zhejiang. 
Heilongjiang Forestry Botanical Garden, Renjiaqiao, Harbin, Heilongjiang. 
Kunming Botanical Garden, Academia Sinica, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan. 
Lushan Botanical Garden, Hanpoku, Lushan, Jiangxi. 
Shanghai Botanical Garden, Longwu Road, Shanghai 201102. 
Shenyang Botanical Garden, Shenyang, Liaoning. 


18) 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


South China Botanical Garden, Academia Sinica, Longyandong, Guangzhou, 
Guangdong. 

Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Botanical Garden, Nanjing, Jiangsu. 

Wuhan Botanical Garden, Wuhan, Hubei. 

Xi’an Botanical Garden, Ciuhua Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi. 

Xishuang Banna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, Xishuang Banna, Yunnan. 

Zhejiang Institute of Subtropical Crops, Wenzhou, Zhejiang. 


For an illustrated account of Chinese botanical gardens and arboreta see: 


Yu Dejun (Ed.) (1983). The Botanical Gardens of China. Science Press, Beijing. 
319 pp. (Covers 21 gardens and arboreta.) 


See also: 


Sheng Cheng-kui (1981). Directory of Chinese botanical gardens. Hortus Botanicus 
Nanjingensis. (Lists 16 gardens with details of size, number of taxa, research 
interests, publications and associated herbaria. 15 other gardens, arboreta and plant 
introduction stations are also listed.) 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: The People’s Republic of China, Endangered Species 
of Wild Fauna and Flora Import and Export Administrative Office, Ministry of 
Forestry, Hepingli, Beijing. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Endangered Species Scientific Commission of the People’s 
Republic of China, 7 Zhongguancun Lu, Haidian, Beijing. 


Additional References 

Bohlin, B. (1949). A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Distribution of Vegetation 
in Inner Mongolia, Kansu and Ching-Hai. Report of the Scientific Expedition to 
NW Provinces, China, 33. Stockholm. 95 pp. 

Chien, S.S., Wu, C.Y. and Chen, C.T. (1956). The vegetation types of China. Acta 
Geogr. Sinica 22: 87-92. 

Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. (1985). Medicinal Plants of China, 2 vols. Reference 
Publications, Algonac, Michigan. 670 pp. (Covers 1240 species; includes English and 
Chinese names; notes on uses; line drawings.) 

FAO (1982). Forestry in China, FAO Forestry Paper 35. FAO, Rome. 305 pp. 

Hou, H.-Y. (1983). Vegetation of China with reference to its geographical distribution. 
Annals Missouri Bot. Gard. 70(3): 509-549. 

NCC (1982). Nature Conservation Delegation to China, 4-24 April 1982. Nature 
Conservancy Council, London. 44 pp. (See in particular M.E.D. Poore on 
vegetation, pp. 29-33 and D.A. Ratcliffe on nature conservation, pp. 34-37.) 

Smil, V. (1983). Deforestation in China. Ambio 12(5): 226-231. (Causes and extent of 
forest losses; analysis of afforestation projects.) 

Walker, E.H. (1941). Plants collected by R.C. Ching in southern Mongolia and Kansu 
Province, China. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 38(4): 563-675. 

Wang, Chi-Wu (1961). The Forests of China with a Survey of Grassland and Desert 
Vegetation. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 313 pp. 

Ward, F. Kingdon (1935). A sketch of the geography and botany of Tibet, being 
materials for a Flora of that country. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 50: 239-265. (Useful 
introduction to botany and vegetation of Tibet.) 

Wu Zheng-Yi ef al. (Eds) (1980). Vegetation of China. Science Press, Beijing. (In 
Chinese.) 


76 


China 


Ying Tsiin-Shen and Zhang Zhi-Song (1984). Endemism in the flora of China - studies 
on the endemic genera. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22(4): 259-268. (In Chinese, 
with English summary; maps showing distribution of endemic genera.) 

Yi, T.-T. (1979). Special report: status of the Flora of China. Syst. Bot. 4(3): 257-260. 


Christmas Island 


An External Territory of Australia, situated in the eastern Indian Ocean, at 10°30’S and 
105°30’E. It consists of an elevated series of coral limestone and volcanic rocks. The 
central plateau is mostly 150-250 m above sea-level but rises to 361 m in a series of cliffs 
and terraces. 16 sq. km of the island were declared a National Park in 1979. 


Area 135 sq. km 
Population 3184 (1980 estimate, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics c. 380 flowering plant species, of which c. 280 native species; about 15 
endemic flowering plant species (L. Forman, 1984, pers. comm.). The flora has affinities 
with Java, S.E. Asia, Australia and the western Pacific Islands. 


Vegetation Mixed closed forest above 180 m and occasionally extending down to 
coastal terraces, with Tristiropsis, Dysoxylon, Cryptocarya and Barringtonia in the main 
canopy, and Eugenia, Planchonella and Hernandia as emergents; Celtis, Terminalia and 
Pisonia forest on coastal terraces. Mining of phosphate deposits has devastated much of 
the island’s rain forests (Mitchell, 1974). 


Checklists and Floras Christmas Island will be covered in a forthcoming volume 
of the Flora of Australia (1981- ), cited under Australia. Forman et al. have prepared a 
checklist of the flowering plants (1984, manuscript, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). See 
also: 


Baker, E.G., Rendle, A.B., Gepp, A., Blackman, V.H. and Lister, A. (1900). Botany. 
In Andrews, C.W. (Ed.), A Monograph of Christmas Island. British Museum 
(Natural History), London. Pp. 171-200. 

Mitchell, B.A. (1974). The forest flora of Christmas Island. Commonwealth Forestry 
Review 53(1): 19-29. 

Ridley, H.N. (1906). The botany of Christmas Island. J. Straits Branch Royal Asiatic 
Soc. 45: 156-271. (Lists 34 endemic species, many subsequently reduced to 
synonymy. For additional notes see ibid., 48: 107-108.) 


Information on Threatened Plants A preliminary list of endemic taxa with notes 
on their conservation status is given in Leigh ef a/. (1981), cited under Australia. In 1983, 
D. Powell prepared a preliminary list of endemics with notes on distribution and status. 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:1, V:1, R:11, I:1, K:2. 


Additional References 
Gray, H.S. (1981). Christmas Island Naturally: The Natural History of an Isolated 
Oceanic Island. Gray, Geraldton, W. Australia. (Covers fauna, vegetation, impact 
of man.) 


77 


Clipperton Island 


The most easterly of the French Polynesian islands in the south-east Pacific. It is a remote 
uninhabited atoll of 5 sq. km at longitude 10°18’N and latitude 109°13’W. The nearest 
atoll is Pukapuka in the Tuamotu Archipelago, about 2500 km to the south-west. 
Clipperton is a low coral limestone ring enclosing a lagoon with a 29 m high volcanic plug. 
Parts of the island have been mined for phosphate (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 


31 flowering plant taxa, all of which are widespread herbs, apart from introduced 
coconuts (Sachet, 1962 a & b). 


References 
Sachet, M.-H. (1962a). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton Island. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci. IV, 31(10): 249-307. (Includes enumeration of native and introduced species; 
notes on localities and distributions.) 
Sachet, M.-H. (1962b). Geography and land ecology of Clipperton Island. Atoll Res. 
Bull. 86. 115 pp. (Includes plant list.) 


Coco, Isla del 


Isla del Coco or Cocos Island is an uninhabited island of area 24 sq. km, with several 
offshore islets, 670 km south-west of Costa Rica and 630 km west of the Galapagos in the 
eastern Pacific Ocean, 5°32’N 87°04’W. It is an outcrop of the Cocos Ridge, comprising 
volcanic basalts and marine sediments which have been uplifted by tectonic activity. The 
highest point is 849 m (Cerro Iglesias). Isla del Coco is administered by Costa Rica. 


Floristics 155 vascular plant taxa, including introductions; c. 10% species 
endemism (figures quoted by Fournier, 1966). The flora is related to that of Central 
America, the Caribbean and the Galapagos Islands. 


Vegetation The main island has closed tropical rain forest with Cecropia, 
Brosimum, Ochroma (Balsa), epiphytes and lianas; cloud forest above 500 m with 
Lauraceae, bromeliads, orchids and ferns; littoral communities with Erythrina and 
introduced coconuts; extensive Nephrolepis scrub near the shore and small areas of 
brackish marshes. The offshore islets are sparsely vegetated. 


Although Isla del Coco was declared a National Park in 1978, introduced plants and 
grazing animals continue to be a threat to the native flora. 


Checklists and Floras 

Fosberg, F.R. and Klawe, W.L. (1966). Preliminary list of plants from Cocos Island. 
In Bowman, R.I. (Ed.), The Galapagos: Proceedings of the Galapagos International 
Project of 1964. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp 187-189. (Checklist of 
148 vascular plant taxa; separate list of lower plants.) 

Stewart, A. (1912). Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos 
Islands, 1905-1906. V. Notes on the botany of Cocos Island. Proc. California Acad. 
Sci., 4. 1: 375-404. (Enumeration of 22 taxa of ferns and 52 flowering plants 
collected during expedition; list of further 9 ferns and 6 flowering plants recorded 
from the island.) 


78 


Coco, Isla del 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Useful Addresses 
Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agriculture y Ganaderia, CP 10094, San 
José, Costa Rica. 


Additional References 
Fournier, L.A. (1966). Botany of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. In Bowman, R.I. (Ed.), 
The Galapagos: Proceedings of the Galapagos International Project of 1964. 
University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp 183-186. (Notes on vegetation and 
origin of flora.) 


Coco Islands 


The Coco Islands comprise Table Island, Great Coco and Little Coco, c. 175 km north of 
the Andaman Islands in the Eastern Indian Ocean, between latitudes 13-15°N and at 
longitude 93°21’E. The highest point is 100 m, on Great Coco. Total land area c. 5 sq. km. 
The islands are dependencies of Burma. 


Prain (1891) recorded dense tropical rain forest on all islands, with coconuts and 
Pandanus along the coasts, and mangrove swamps along creeks. No details of current 
status. 


296 flowering plant taxa, one gymnosperm (Cycas rumphii) and 10 fern taxa; most are 
widespread throughout South East Asia (Prain, 1891). 


References 
Prain, D. (1891). The vegetation of the Coco group. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 60: 
283-406. (Vegetation, floristic analyses, annotated list with notes on distributions.) 


Cocos Islands 


The Cocos Islands are an External Territory of Australia, situated in the east Indian 
Ocean. They are coral atolls 3700 km west of Darwin and 300 km south of Java. Area 14 
sq. km; population 487 (1980 census, Times Atlas, 1983). 


Cocos I. (12°S, 96°E) is mainly covered by coconut plantations; Keeling I. has a mixture 
of coconuts, Pisonia grandis and Cordia subcordata scrub. 57 vascular plant species of 
which c. 43 indigenous (Renvoize, 1979, quoting figures by Wood-Jones, 1912). The 
Cocos Islands will be included in a forthcoming volume of the Flora of Australia (1981- ), 
cited under Australia. 


References 
Hemsley, W.B. (1885). List of plants from the Keeling or Cocos Islands. In Report on 
the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 
1873-76. Botany, vol. 1, part 2. HMSO, London. (List of 19 flowering plant species, 
p. 113.) 


i 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Renvoize, S.A. (1979). The origins of Indian Ocean island floras. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 107-129. 
Wood-Jones, F. (1912). Coral and Atolls. Reeve, London. 


Colombia 


Area 1,138,914 sq. km 
Population 28,110,000 


Floristics Prance (1977) estimates 45,000 species of flowering plants; 3000 species 
of Orchidaceae alone (Ospina, 1969). Areas rich in endemics are the Sierra Nevada de 
Santa Marta, the Guajira Peninsula, La Macarena, many parts of the Andes, and, above 
all, the Choco Region in western Colombia; this is the wettest and possibly the richest rain 
forest in the neotropics, with both high species diversity and high endemism, concentrated 
in two or three distinct centres (Gentry, 1982). Some 1500 endemic species have been 
recorded and many new species are being discovered with additional exploration. 


According to E. Forero (1984, pers. comm.), destruction or conversion of tropical forests 
is causing high rates of extinction in the Sierra de la Macarena, in the Pacific coastal 
region, in the Sierra Nevada d’ Santa Marta from sea level to the paramo and the slopes of 
the Andes. 


Vegetation Extending the length of the Pacific coast is very wet tropical rain 
forest (includes Choco region). The Atlantic coast varies from humid forest near Panama 
to dry forest and desert at Guajira Peninsula. Extending inland to 250 km, vegetation 
ranges from mangroves (along Uraba coast), grassland/savanna to scattered thorn thickets 
and cactus scrub (Espinal and Montenegro, 1963). This region has been heavily disturbed 
by grazing and agriculture. Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) gives estimates for present 
forest extent; Myers also quotes Gentry to state that a considerable area has been disturbed 
at the southern end of the Choco and where the northern extension borders Panama at the 
Darien Gap. 


Central highlands: great variation in vegetation types; submontane forest to 2000 m; at 
2400-3600 m cloud forests rich in epiphytes; above, very humid montane forest to paramo; 
above 4500 m, on the high peaks of the Central and Eastern Cordilleras, alpine tundra rich 
in endemics (‘superparamo’). 


Eastern plains: in the northern region to the Venezuelan border, tall grassland with 
broadleaved evergreen trees along river corridors. 


In the south, Amazonian forest, little disturbed and little known botanically (Forero, pers. 
comm.). Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) quotes estimates of entent varying from 
386,000 sq. km (1972) to 270,000 sq. km (1977). According to FAO/UNEP (1981), 
estimated rate of deforestation (for Colombia overall) of closed broadleaved forest 8200 
sq. km/annum out of 464,000 sq. km. 


Checklists and Floras Colombia is covered by the family and generic monographs 
of Flora Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). 


80 


Colombia 


In 1982, the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, began a multi-volume 
Flora of Colombia. Published so far are Vol 1, Magnoliaceae, by G. Lozano-C. (1983) and 
Vol. 2, Connaraceae, by E. Forero (1983). 


Individual family treatments include: 


Cuatrecasas, J. (1958- ). Prima Flora Colombiana. Webbia 12, 13, 15, 24. 
(Burseraceae, Malphigiaceae, Compositae-Astereae.) 

Idrobo, J.M. (1954). The Xyridaceae of Colombia. Caldasia 6: 183-260. (345 species.) 

Leonard, E.C. (1951-1958). The Acanthaceae of Colombia. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 31: 
1-781. 

Smith, L.B. (1957). The Bromeliaceae of Colombia. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 33: 1-311. 

Smith, L.B. and Fernandez-Perez, A. (1954). The Violaceae of Colombia. Caldasia 6: 
83-181. 

Smith, L.B. and Schubert, B.G. (1946). The Begoniaceae of Colombia. Caldasia 4: 
3-38, 77-107, 179-209. 

Standley, P.C. (1931). The Rubiaceae of Colombia. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 7: 
1-175. 


See also: 


Castaneda, R.R. (1965). Flora del centro de Bolivar. Universidad Nacional de 
Colombia, Bogota. 437 pp. (Line drawings.) 

Espinal T., L.S. (1964). Algunos Aspectos de la Vegetacién del Oriente Antiogueno. 
1.G.A.C., Bogota. 74 pp. (Describes 31 trees and shrubs of Antioguefio region, 
photos, uses of woods.) 

Garcia Barriga, H., Forero, E. et al. (1966-1979). Catalogo Ilustrada de las Plantas de 
Cundinamarca, 7 vols. Universidad Nacional, Bogota. 

Machecha Vega, G. and Echeverri Restrepo, R. (1983). Arboles del Valle del Cauca. 
Lithografia Arco, Bogota. 208 pp. 


Since 1973, the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Institute for Natural Sciences at the 
National University of Colombia have carried out collaborative field work in the western 
Choco region. E. Forero and A.H. Gentry are now completing a plant checklist for the 
Choco Department. The Institute, with the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, Netherlands, have 
been undertaking a survey of montane Colombia. Details of other floristic work in 
Colombia is given by Prance (1979, cited in Appendix 1). Floristic knowledge of the Choco 
region is summarized by Gentry (1978), cited in Appendix 1. 


Toledo (1985, cited in Appendix 1) refers to the following regional Floras as in progress: 
Paramo de Oroque by H. Garcia-Barriga, Santander del Sur by F. Llanos and A. Renteria, 
and Providencia by D.D. Soejarto. 


In 1964 the governments of Colombia and Spain agreed to publish the Flora de Mutis, 
consisting of illustrations prepared by the Real Expedicion Botanica del Nueva Reyno de 
Grenada between 1783 and 1816. 7 vols completed so far, an additional 93 vols expected by 
1992. 


Information on Threatened Plants The National University of Colombia is 
preparing an endangered species list for Colombia, described, with many examples, in: 


Fernandez-Pérez, A. (1977). The preparation of the endangered species list of 
Colombia. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 117-127. 


Threatened plants are mentioned in several other papers in: 
81 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular J.T. 
Mickel on rare and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore Jr. on 
endangerment in palms (pp. 267-282), P. Ravenna on rare and threatened bulbs 
(pp. 257-266). 


Laws Protecting Plants Decreto Ley No. 2811 of 18 December 1974, the National 
Renewable Natural Resources and Environment Protection Code (D.O. 27 January 1975) 
authorizes INDERENA, the government conservation agency, to establish rules for the 
use, trade and conservation of wild plants (and animals). Acuerdo No. 38, promulgated by 
INDERENA on 10 September 1973, establishes rules governing conservation and 
utilization of wild plants, including licensing requirements for collection and commerce, 
and rules for propagation (Fuller and Swift, 1984, cited in Appendix 1). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Asociacién Nacional para la Defensa de la Naturaleza, Apdo Aéreo 6227, Cali. 
Sociedad Colombiana de Ecologia, Calle 59 No. 13-83, Of. 302, Bogota. 


Botanic Gardens 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Guillermo Pifieres’’, Apto Aéreo 5456, Cartagena. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Joaquin Antonio Uribe’’, Carrera 52 No. 73-298, Apto Aéreo 
51-407, Medellin, Antioquia. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘José Celestino Mutis’’, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Carrera 66-A 
No. 56-84, Bogota. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Juan Maria Céspedes’’, Tulua, c/o Instituto Vallecaucano de 
Investigaciones Cientificas (INCIVA), Apto Aéreo 5660, Cali. 

Jardin Botanico Universidad de Tolima, Ibague, Colombia. 

Jardin de la Facultad Agronomia, Universidad de Caldas, Apto Aéreo 275, Manizales, 
Caldas. 


Useful Addresses 

Asociacién Colombiana de Herbarios, c/o Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, 
Apto Aéreo 1226, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. (19 Colombian 
herbaria are members.) 

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Apdo Aéreo 7495, Bogota. 

Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente 
(INDERENA), Gerente General, Diagonal 34, Numero 5-18, Apdo Aéreo 13458, 
Bogota. 

CITES Management Authority: INDERENA, see above. 


Additional References 

Cuatrecasas, J. (1958). Aspectos de la vegetacién natural de Colombia. Rev. Acad. 
Colombiana Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 10(40): 221-268. (Lists vegetation 
types, major representative species, photos.) 

Espinal T., L.S. and Montenegro M., E. (1963). Formaciones Vegetales de Colombia: 
Memoria Explicativa sobre el Mapa Ecolégico. Instituto Geografico ‘‘Agustin 
Codazzi’’, Bogota. 201 pp. (Includes descriptions of vegetation types, locations, 
photos, diagrams and 4 vegetation maps at 1:1,000,000, each covering a quarter of 
the country.) Updated 1977 as Zonas de vida o Formaciones Vegetales de Colombia 
(Map in 21 ‘planchas’ at 1:500,000.) 

Gentry, A.H. (1982). Phytogeographic patterns as evidence for a Chocé Refuge. In 
Prance, G.T. (Ed.) (1982), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 112-136. 


82 


Colombia 


Ospina, M. (1969). Colombian orchids and their conservation. In Corrigan, M.J. (Ed.), 
Proceedings of the 6th World Orchid Conference. Sydney, New South Wales, 
Australia. Pp. 95-98. 

Prance, G.T. (1977). Floristic inventory of the tropics: where do we stand? Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 64(4): 659-684. 

Schultes, R.E. (1951). La riqueza de la flora Colombiana. Rev. Acad. Colombiana 
Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 8(30): 230-242. 


Comoro Islands 


The Comoro Islands, an archipelago of four small islands (Njazidja, Mayotte, Anjouan, 
and Mohéli), together with numerous islets and coral reefs, lie between the east African 
coast and northern Madagascar, roughly 300 km from each, 11°20’-12°40’S, 43°-45°E. 
The islands are volcanic in structure; Mt Karthala on Njazidja (Grande-Comore) is still 
active and is the highest peak at 720 m. One of the islands, Mayotte, is a collectivité 
territoriale of France. 


Area 2238 sq. km 
Population 443,000 


Floristics 935 species (416 indigenous), with 136 endemic (Voeltzkow, 1917). 
Floristic affinities with Madagascar. 


Vegetation Native lowland plants almost all completely destroyed on all four 
islands. Very little intact upland forest remains on Anjouan and Mayotte islands. 
However, there is considerable forest on upper slopes of Njazidja and Mohéli, but much 
of this is badly degraded (Fosberg and Sachet, 1972, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras The Comoros are included in the incomplete Flore de 
Madagascar et des Comores, cited under Madagascar. 


Voeltzkow, A. (1917). Flora und Fauna der Comoren. In Reise in Ostafrika in den 
Jahren 1903-1905. Wiss. Ergeb. 3(5): 429-480. (Checklist with distributions; the only 
important inventory for the archipelago.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Additional References 
Legris, P. (1969). La Grande Comore. Climats et végétation. Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. 
Inst. Franc. Pondichéry 3(5): 1-28. (With coloured vegetation map 1:100,000.) 


Congo 


Area 342,000 sq. km 
Population 1,695,000 


Floristics Flora very poorly known; c. 4000 species (Bouquet, 1976); insufficient 
evidence for assessment of endemism, but likely to be comparable with Gabon (c. 22%). 


83 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


The western portion of the northern forests are said to be especially diverse (Myers, 1980, 
cited in Appendix 1). 


Floristic affinities Guinea-Congolian. 


Vegetation Large areas of both lowland rain forest and swamp forest, and forest 
interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivation. Estimated rate of deforestation for 
closed broadleaved forest 220 sq. km/annum out of 213,400 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 
However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1), quoting Unesco (1978), gives a figure of 
100,000 sq. km of forest, of which 30,000 sq. km is evergreen. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras 
Descoings, B. (1961). Inventaire des plantes vasculaires de la République du Congo 
déposées dans I’herbier de |’Institut d’Etudes Centre-Africaines 4 Brazzaville. 
Institut d’Etudes Centre-Africaines (ORSTOM), Brazzaville. 63 pp. (Unpublished 
mimeograph; list of 1600 names.) 


Bouquet (1976) mentions a new checklist in preparation, due to be finished in 1975 (his 
paper was presented in 1974), but it is not clear if this was ever published. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 17 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no 
categories assigned. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Secrétariat Général aux Eaux et Foréts, B.P. 98, 
Brazzaville. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Secrétariat Général 4 l’Economie Forestiére, B.P. 98, 
Brazzaville. 


Additional References 
Bouquet, A. (1976). Etat d’avancement des travaux sur la Flore du Congo-Brazzaville. 
In Miége, J. and Stork, A.L. (1975, 1976), cited in Appendix 1. P. 581. 
Farron, C. (1968). Congo-Brazzaville. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 112-115. 


Cook Islands 


The Cook Islands, a self-governing territory associated with New Zealand, comprise 15 
islands and atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, between latitudes 17-25°S and longitudes 
155-165°W. The southern Cooks are over 1000 km south-east of the Samoan Archipelago. 
Area 241 sq. km; population 19,000. 


The northern Cooks are low atolls, some of which still retain areas of native vegetation, 
e.g. Palmerston I., Penrhryn (Tongareva), Rakahanga and Suwarrow (Douglas, 1969, 
cited in Appendix 1). The southern Cooks are mainly volcanic, reaching 643 m at Te 
Manga on Rarotonga. Upland forests above 250 m are largely intact (Sykes, 1983). 
‘Makatea’ (raised limestone) surrounds most of the low islands in the Ngaputoru Group 
and Mangaia, supporting open forest. Lowland forests almost totally destroyed. Coconuts 


84 


Cook Islands 


abundant on all islands especially the atolls and lower areas of volcanic islands (W.R. 
Sykes, 1984, in litt.). 


No overall figure for the Cook Islands but 560 vascular species recorded on Rarotonga 
(Wilder, 1931). No endemic genera (van Balgooy, 1970, cited in Appendix 1). Floristic 
affinities to the Society Islands. No information on threatened plants. 


References 

Brownlie, G. and Philipson, W.R. (1971). Pteridophyta of the southern Cook Group. 
Pacific Science 25: 502-511. (Annotated list of 80 taxa; notes on habitats, 
frequency.) 

Cheeseman, T.F. (1903). The flora of Rarotonga, the chief island of the Cook Group. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot., Ser. 2 6: 261-313. 

Fosberg, F. R. (1972). List of vascular plants of Rarotonga. Atoll Res. Bull. 160: 9-14. 
(Checklist of 50 vascular plant taxa collected in 1969.) 

Philipson, W.R. (1971). Floristics of Rarotonga. Bull. Roy. Soc. N.Z. 8: 49-54. 

Stoddart, D.R. and Fosberg, F.R. (1972). Reef islands of Rarotonga. List of vascular 
plants. Atoll Res. Bull. 160. 14 pp. 

Sykes, W.R. (1983). Conservation on South Pacific islands. In Given, D.R. (Ed.), 
Conservation of Plant Species and Habitats. Nature Conservation Council, 
Wellington, N.Z. Pp. 37-42. 

Wilder, G.P. (1931). Flora of Rarotonga. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop. Mus. 86. 113 pp. 


Coral Sea Islands 


The Coral Sea Islands are a scattered group of 32 coral sand islands (cays) and coral reefs 
c. 300 km east of the Queensland coast and c. 200 km east of the Great Barrier Reef. The 
islands are situated in the Coral Sea between 147°-152°E and 12°-25°S. The highest point 
is 7 m, on Willis Island (150°E 16°S). None of the islands have a resident population, but 
there is a storm warning station on Willis Island (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). The 
islands are an External Territory of Australia. 


Most of the islands have no vegetation; a few are covered by scrub (Douglas, 1959, cited in 
Appendix 1). The only published checklist of the flora is that of 7 vascular plant taxa 
collected from Willis Island (Davis, 1923). 


References 
Davis, J.K. (1923). Willis Island, a Storm Warning Station in the Coral Sea, 5. 199 pp. 
Critchley Parker, Melbourne. (Geography, climatology; checklist of vascular plants 
with notes on distribution. Not seen; citation from Frodin.) 


85 


Costa Rica 


Area 50,899 sq. km 
Population 2,534,000 


Floristics Costa Rica, for its size, may have the most diverse plant life anywhere 
in the world. It is a biogeographical land bridge where the floras of North and South 
America meet. Gentry (1978, cited in Appendix 1) estimates 8000 higher plant species; 
L.D. Gomez P. (1984, pers. comm.) estimates 10,000, of which 1500 are orchids and 1800 
trees; 1393 taxa are believed endemic (IUCN figures). Even more staggering is-that the 
730 ha La Selva Reserve contains 1500 recorded species of vascular plants (Hammel and 
Grayum, 1982). 


Vegetation Accounts of the vegetation are given by Janzen (1983), who 
distinguishes 14 major tropical plant formations, and Gomez (1983b), who identifies 40 
vegetational units in Costa Rica. Natural vegetation is entirely forest and woodland except 
for the high paramo on the highest peaks of the Cordillera de Talamanca and for the 
savannas on unusual volcanic soils. Moist and wet tropical forests occupy 48% of the 
forested land, mainly along the cordilleras and on Peninsulas Nicoya and Osa. Other types 
of forest are the semi-deciduous tropical dry forest (in the northwestern Pacific lowlands) 
and the floristically diverse montane forests. Also present are mangrove and swamp 
forests. 


By the 1960s logging and deforestation had destroyed over half the natural forest; 
estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 650 sq. km/annum out of 
16,380 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981); 5671 sq. km (11%) protected in parks and reserves, 
one of the highest percentages in the world. 


Checklists and Floras Costa Rica is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, 
described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). The country Floras are: 


Burger, W. (Ed.) (1971- ). Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana Bot. 35, 40; and Fieldiana 
Bot. new series 4, 13. (34 families so far.) 

Standley, P.C. (1937-1938). Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 
18(1-4). 1616 pp. (Complete systematic list of gymnosperms and flowering plants.) 


See also: 


Hartshorn, G.S. and Poveda, L.J. (1983). Checklist of Trees. In Janzen, D.H. (Ed.), 
Costa Rican Natural History. Univ. of Chicago Press, Illinois. Pp. 158-183. 
(Vegetation map and checklist of trees.) 

Holdridge, L.R. and Poveda, L.J. (1975). Arboles de Costa Rica, Vol. 1. Centro 
Cientifico Tropical, San José. 546 pp. 

Janzen, D.H. and Liesner, R. (1980). Annotated checklist of plants of lowland 
Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, exclusive of grasses and non-vascular 
cryptograms. Brenesia 18: 15-90. 


Field-guides 
Allen, P.H. (1956). The Rain Forests of Golfo Dulce. Univ. of Florida Press, 
Gainesville. 417 pp. (Keys to 433 species, mainly trees, in southern Costa Rica, some 
illustrated.) 


There are also a few illustrated field guides to trees in national parks. 


86 


Costa Rica 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The List of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa - Ex:4, E:53, V:205, R:135, 1:10, K:907, nt:79; non-endemics rare and 
threatened worldwide - E:7, V:33, R:18, I:2 (world categories). 


43 threatened plants are listed in Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited in 
Appendix 1. Threatened plants are also mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104), J.T. Mickel on rare 
and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore Jr. on endangerment in palms 
(pp. 267-282). 


Laws Protecting Plants Fuller and Swift (1984, cited in Appendix 1) outline legal 
controls on the export of ornamental plants and their parts. They also report that the 
Departamento de Vida Silvestre is currently reviewing draft legislation to regulate exports 
of wild orchids. The U.S. Government has determined Jatropha costaricensis, a plant 
confined to Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica, as ‘Endangered’ under the U.S. 
Endangered Species Act. 


Voluntary Organizations 

Asociacion Costarricense para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza (ASCONA), Apdo 
8-3790, 1000 San José. 

Centro Agrondémico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE), Turrialba. 

Fundacion de Parques Nacionales, Apdo 236, Cod. 1002, San José. 

Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San 
José. 

Programa Patrimonio Natural de Costa Rica, c/o Fundacion de Parques Nacionales, 
Apdo 236, Cod. 1002, San José; and Apdo 103, Plaza Gonzalez Viquez, San José. 

Tropical Science Center, Apdo 8-3870, San José. 


Botanic Gardens 
Lankester Botanical Garden, Escuela de Biologia Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad 
Universitaria ‘‘Rodrigo Facio’’, San José. 


Useful Addresses 
Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica, Museo Nacional, P.O. Box 749, San José. 
CITES Management Authority: Direccién General Forestal, Departamento de Vida 
Silvestre, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Apdo 10094, San José. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Colegio de Biologos de Costa Rica, Universidad de Costa 
Rica, Ciudad Universitaria “‘Rodrigo Facio’’, San José. 


Additional References 

Beebe, S. (1984). A model for conservation. The Nature Conservancy News 34(1): 4-7. 

Burger, W.C. (1980). Why are there so many kinds of flowering plants in Costa Rica? 
Brenesia 17: 371-388. (Summary of recent papers on floristic diversity in Costa Rica, 
with references.) 

Gomez P., L.D. (1983a). Vegetation and Climate of Costa Rica, 2 vols. Editorial 
Universidad Estatal a Distancia (EUNED), San José. (18 maps, 1:200,000.) 

Gomez P., L.D. (1983b). Vegetation map of Costa Rica, 1:200,000. Fundacion Parques 
Nacionales, San José. 

Hammel, B.E. and Grayum, M.H. (1982). Preliminary report on the Flora Project of 
La Selva Field Station, Costa Rica. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69: 420-425. 


87 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Janzen, D. (1983). Costa Rican Natural History. Univ. of Chicago Press, Illinois. 
816 pp. 

Knight, P. (1964). The great oaks of Costa Rica. IUCN Bull., new series No. 13, 
Oct/Dec. Pp. 6-7. 

Tosi, J.A., Jr. (1969). Republica de Costa Rica Mapa Ecolégico. Instituto Geografico 
Nacional, San José. 


Cuba 


Area 114,524 sq. km 
Population 9,966,000 


Floristics 7000 species of gymnosperms and flowering plants of which 4000 are 
endemic (Conde, 1952); 6000 species, almost 50% endemic (Alain, 1962, pers. comm., 
quoted in Prance, 1977). 


Vegetation Semi-desert of thornbush and savannah vegetation up to the 
mountain edges; siliceous savannah in the west; montane evergreen and tropical cloud and 
rain forest with pine forest in the east and in the west. Species-rich pine forests on 
serpentine soils. Submontane rain forest along north-east, and semi-dry mountain forest 
along the south-east coast, with mangrove and tropical salt marsh along the west coast. 
11% forested (FAO, 1974, cited in Appendix 1); estimated rate of deforestation for 
broadleaved closed forest 20 sq. km/annum, from a total of 12,550 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 
1981); according to Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1), about 16,000 sq. km of tropical 
moist forest remain. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). The Flora is: 


Leon, H. and Alain, H. (1946-63). Flora de Cuba, 5 vols and suppl. (by A.H. Liogier). 
Published variously: Vols 1-3 - Cultural, SA La Habana; Vol. 4 - Museo de 
Historia Natural de la Salle, La Habana; Vol. 5 - Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio 
Piedras. (In Spanish; some black and white photographs.) Additional species are 
listed as a series ‘Novedades de la Flora Cubana’ in various publications including 
Rev. Soc. Cubana Bot. 5 (1948); Phytology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 11: 
47-53 (by B.P. Kitanov, 1979); Contr. Mus. Hist. Nat. Col. la Salle, No. 9: 1-24 
(1950); Candollea 17: 99-111, 113-121 (1960); there are also Polish, E. German, 
Hungarian and Russian references subsequent to Vol. 5 of the Flora.) 

Mufiiz, O. and Borhidi, A. (1982). Catalogo de las Palmas de Cuba. Acta Botanica 
Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 28(3-4): 309-345. 


See also: 


Borhidi, A. and Kerezty, Z. (1979). New names and new species in the Flora of Cuba 
resp. Antilles. Continued as: New names and new species in the Flora of Cuba II, 
by A. Borhidi (1980); New names and new species in the Flora of Cuba and Antilles 
III, by A. Borhidi (1983). Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 
25(1-2): 1-37; 26(3-4): 255-275; 29(1-4): 181-215. 

Borhidi, A. and Mufiiz, O. (1979). Notas sobre taxones criticos o nuevos de la flora de 
Cuba. Acta Botanica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25(1-2): 39-52. 


88 


Cuba 


Duek, J.J. (1971). Lista de las especies Cubanas de Lycopodiophyta, Psilotophyta, 
Equisetophyta y Polyodiophyta (Pteridophyta). Adansonia, ser. 2, 11: 
559-578, 717-731. 


For an account of botanical work in Cuba, with bibliography of botanical papers 
1960-1976, addresses of herbaria and reports of a new Flora, see: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Current work on the flora of Cuba - A commentary. Taxon 
26: 417-423. 


Current work on the flora of Cuba is also published in the following journals: 


Revista del Jardin Botdnico Nacional, Habana. 1980, Vol. 1-. 
Wiss. Zeitschr. Univ. Jena Mat. -Naturwiss. (28: 541-724 in particular). 


The papers of the 3rd Symposium on the Flora of Cuba, and a working report, will be 
published in Feddes Repertorium 96(7-10), due out by the end of 1985. 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Borhidi, A. and Muiiiz, O. (1983). Catalogo de Plantas Cubanas Amenazadas o 
Extinguidas. Edit. Academia. 85 pp. (Lists 959 species of gymnosperms and 
flowering plants threatened or extinct, including 832 endemics, with their 
distribution by provinces and assignment into categories ‘rare’, ‘endangered’ and 
‘extinct’ - non-compatible with IUCN categories.) 


The IUCN Plant Red Data Book has two data sheets for Cuba, on Cereus robinii and 
Microcycas calocoma. Threatened plant conservation is also discussed in: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Conservation and the endangered species of plants in the 
Caribbean islands. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 105-11 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico de Cienfuegos, Apto 414, Cienfuegos. 
Jardin Botanico de la Habana, Calle 26 e/c Puentes Grandes y Ave. Boyeros, Habana. 
Jardin Botanico Nacional de Cuba, Universidad de la Habana, Carretera del Ricio Km 
3.5, Calabazar, Habana. 


Additional References 

Borhidi, A. and Mufiz, O. (1980). Die Vegetationskarte von Kuba. Acta Botanica 
Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 26(1-2): 25-53. (In German.) 

Borhidi, A., Mufiiz, O. and Del Risco, E. (1979). Clasificacién fitocenologica de la 
vegetacién de Cuba. Acta Botanica Scientiarum Hungaricae 25(3-4): 263-301. (In 
Spanish.) 

Borhidi, A., Muniz, O. and Del Risco, E. (1983). Plant communities of Cuba, 1. Acta 
Botanica Hungarica 29(1-4): 337-376. 

Conde, J.A. (1952). La Flora de Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia 
Natural. Univ. Habana. Organo Oficial de Museo Poev. Facultad de Ciencias. 

Vol. 21 no. 1. (In Spanish.) 

Friedrich Schiller Universitat (1979). Zur Flora von Kuba. Wiss. Zeitschr. Univ. Jena 
Mat.-Naturwiss 28: 541-724. (Collection of 28 papers on aspects of the Cuban flora, 
in German and Spanish, and bibliography of papers published since 1975 by 
members of the Flora-Cuba Project.) 

Muniz, O. (1970). Endemismo en la Flora. In Atlas Nacional de Cuba. Havana. (The 
Atlas contains a vegetation map and a lengthy discursive description of the 
vegetation.) 


89 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Prance, G.T. (1977). Floristic inventory of the tropics: Where do we stand? Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 64(4): 659-684. 

Samek, V. (1968). La proteccién de la naturaleza en Cuba. Ser. Transform. Natur. 7: 
1-23. Acad. Cienc. Cuba. (Not seen.) 

Smith, Earl, E. (1954). The Forests of Cuba. Maria Moors Cabot Foundation 
Publication No. 2. 98 pp., 3 maps. (Includes classification of forests based on 
floristic, edaphic and moisture criteria; descriptions of regional forests with species 
lists; illus.) 


Cyprus 


Area 9254 sq. km 
Population 659,000 


Floristics c. 2000 vascular plant species, including naturalized aliens, calculated 
from the Flora of Cyprus (Meikle, 1977, 1985). 116 endemic vascular taxa (IUCN figures). 


Vegetation Dominant natural vegetation outside agricultural land is heavily 
grazed garigue, with occasional patches of taller maquis. Remaining forest (c. 17% of land 
area, Meikle, 1977, 1985) restricted to the mountains: the precipitous limestone Kyrenia 
(northern) range supports large stands of Pinus brutia/Cupressus sempervirens forest on 
the upper slopes and well-developed maquis on much of the northern slope; the 
predominantly igneous Troddos (southern) range is also well forested with Pinus brutia on 
lower slopes, replaced by Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana at higher levels. The Troddos also 
supports many Cypriot endemics. Other important areas of floristic diversity: Akamas and 
Karpas Peninsulas, in extreme north-west and north-east of the island respectively. The 
few remaining wetlands, especially near Phasouri and Syrianokhori, support an interesting 
aquatic flora. 


Checklists and Floras Cyprus has benefited from one of the most detailed and 
comprehensive Floras of recent years: 


Meikle, R.D. (1977, 1985). Flora of Cyprus, 2 vols. Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, U.K. 832 pp, 1137 pp. 


Cyprus will also be covered under the Med-Checklist (cited in Appendix 1). See also: 


Chapman, E.F. (1949). Cyprus Trees and Shrubs. Cyprus Government Printing Office, 
Nicosia. 88 pp. (Keys and descriptions.) 

Osorio-Tafall, B.F. and Seraphim, G.M. (1973). List of the Vascular Plants of Cyprus. 
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Nicosia. 


Field-guides 
Matthews, A. (1968). Lilies of the Field: A Book of Cyprus Wild Flowers. Published 
by the author, P.O. Box 180, Limassol. 54 pp. (Colour photographs with text 
describing c. 50 species, mostly common, a few endemic.) 
Megaw, E. and Meikle, D. (1973). Wild Flowers of Cyprus. Phillimore, London. (A 
handsome quarto book of 41 colour paintings of Cypriot plants by Elektra Megaw, 
with short descriptive text by D. Meikle.) 


Cyprus 


Information on Threatened Plants No national Red Data Book, but the Ministry 
of Agriculture and Natural Resources have prepared a list of 41 ‘rare plant species’ (M.A 
Daniel, 1982, pers. comm.). 


Cyprus is also included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 
1983, cited in Appendix 1). The section on Cyprus is reprinted in Leon, 1983. Latest IUCN 
statistics, based on the former: endemic taxa - E:10, V:9, R:22, 1:5, K:24, nt:46. 


Laws Protecting Plants No legislation directly protects wild plants in Cyprus, 
except those in State Forests which are protected by Forest Law No. 14 of 1967. Section 
13(2) of this Law prohibits cutting, uprooting, collecting, or removal from State Forests of 
any produce without authorization. ‘Forest produce’ includes timber and branches and all 
parts of wild plants, mosses, fungi and lichens. According to the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Natural Resources, ‘‘almost all’’ the 41 species on their rare plant list occur in State 
Forests and so receive protection. 


Outside these Forests only 4 species of crop plants have been granted any form of 
protection: Rhus coriaria (Sumach), used in tanning Moroccan leather; 2 species of sage, 
Salvia fruticosa (S. cypria, S. triloba) and S. willeana (S. grandiflora auct.). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Association for the Protection of the Cyprus Environment, P.O. Box 2444, Chanteclair 
Building, Nicosia. 


Useful Addresses 
Cyprus Forest Association, c/o Forest Department, Ministry of Agriculture and 
Natural Resources, Nicosia. 
Cyprus Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Nicosia. 
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Forest Department, Nicosia. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authority: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural 
Resources, Nicosia. 


Additional References 
Holmboe, J. (1914). Studies on the vegetation of Cyprus. Bergens Museums Skrifter. 
NY Raekke 1(2). 344 pp. 
Ionnides, O. (1973). Nature conservation in Cyprus. Nature in Focus 14: 16-17. 
Leon, C. (1983). [Cyprus:] Important Botanical Areas of High Conservation Value. 
14 pp. Unpublished report, available from IUCN-CMC. 


Czechoslovakia 


Area 127,870 sq. km 
Population 15,588,000 


Floristics 2600-2750 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 10 endemics (IUCN figures), ‘at least 15’ according 
to J. Holub (1984, in litt.). Centres of endemism include the Tatra Mts, KrkonoSe Mts, 
Velka Fatra Mts and the karstic region of Slovensky Kras. Elements: Central European, 
Pannonian and alpine. 


91 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Vegetation Largely an agricultural and heavily industrialized landscape. The 
remaining area, supporting semi-natural vegetation, largely covered by forests, mostly of 
pine, oak and beech. Beechwoods well-developed, in Slovakia forming 32% of forest 
cover (Polunin and Walters, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). Altitudinal vegetation zones still 
apparent: at lowest levels relicts of riverine forest give way to broadleaved deciduous 
woodland, but the latter extensively re-afforested by spruce and pine; at higher levels, 
mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland; in subalpine zone montane pine, giving way to 
alpine meadows. In warmer areas, steppe vegetation. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). National Floras: 


Dostal, J. (1948-1950). Kvétena CSR. (Flora of Czechoslovakia.) Prirodovédecké 
Nakladatelstvi, Praha. 2269 pp. (An illustrated key for all vascular plants; revised 
edition in prep.) 

Dostal, J. (1958). Klié k uplné kvétené CSR (Key to the complete flora of 
Czechoslovakia), 2nd Ed. Ceskoslovenska Akademie Véd, Prague. 982 pp. 
(Essentially a revised and condensed version of Dostal, 1948-1950; illus.) 


Floras are also being prepared for the 2 Socialist Republics that comprise Czechoslovakia, 
namely the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR - Bohemia and Moravia) and the Slovak 
Socialist Republic (SSR - Slovakia): 


Futak, J. (Ed.) (1966- ). Fidra Slovenska (Flora of Slovakia), 4 vols. Slovenska 
Akadémia and Veda, Bratislava. (Incomplete; 1 - a morphological vocabulary; 2 - 
pteridophytes and gymnosperms; 3 - angiosperms, edited by J. Futak and L. 
Bertova; 4(1) - angiosperms, edited by L. Bertova.) 

Hejny, S. and Slavik, B. (Eds) (in prep.). Fléra CSR (Flora of the Czech Socialist 
Republic), 8 vols planned. Academia, Prague. 


Checklists: 


Dostal, J. (1982). Seznam cévnatych rostlin kvéteny Ceskoslovenské. Prazska botanicka 
zahrada, Praha. 408 pp. 

Novacky, I.M. (1954). Slovenska Botanickad Nomenklatura. Slovenska Akadémia Vied, 
Bratislava. 227 pp. 


See also: 


Holub, J. (1974). Taxonomic and floristic progress on the Czechoslovak flora and the 
contribution of Czechoslovak authors to knowledge of the European flora 
(1961-1972). Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(1): 173-352. 

Slavik, B. (1972). Preparation of the phytogeographical atlas of the Czech Socialist 
Republic. Acta Ecol. Natur. Region 1: 24-28. (In Czech.) 


Bibliographies: 


Botanical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ed.) (1978, 1980 and 
1982). Bibliographia botanica Cechoslovaca 1973-1974, 1975-1976 and 1977-1978, 
12 vols. Botanicky Ustav CSAV, Pruhonice. 563, 272 and 590 pp. (2 consecutive 
authors: Z. Neuhcuslova-Novotna and D. Guthova-Jarkovska.) 

Futak, J. and Domin, K. (1960). Bibliografia k flédre CSR. Slovenské Akadémia Vied, 
Bratislava. 883 pp. (References to botanical literature published up to 1952.) 


92 


Czechoslovakia 


National botanical journals: Preslia, Journal of the Czechoslovak Botanical Society 
(address below) and Zprdvy Ceskoslovenské botanické spoleénosti, pti CSAV, Praha 
(summaries in English). 


Field-guides 
Majovsky, J. and Krejéa, J. (1966-1977). Obrdzkovd kvétena Slovenska (Illustrated 
Flora of Slovakia), 5 vols. Obzor, Bratislava. (Colour illus. for each species.) 
Novak, F.A. and Svolinsky, K. (1940-1946). Rostliny (Wild flowers), 2 vols. Vesmir, 
Praha. 


Information on Threatened Plants Published threatened plant lists for both CSR 
and SSR and a Red Data Book for CSR are listed below. These will provide the basis for 
the national Red Data Book. 


Czech Socialist Republic: 


Cerovsky, J., Holub, J. and Prochazka, F. (1979). Cerveny seznam flory CSR (The 
Red List of the CSR Flora). Pamdtky a Priroda 4: 361-378. (First draft list of 
threatened vascular plants in the Czech Socialist Republic; includes 37 ‘extinct’ and 
39 ‘missing’ taxa, 267 ‘critically threatened’ plants, 240 ‘strongly threatened’, 239 
‘threatened’ and 330 rare taxa ‘in need of further study’; English summary.) 

Holub, J., Prochazka, F. and Cefovsky, J. (1979). Seznam vyhynulych, endemickych a 
ohrozZenych taxont vyssich rostlin kvéteny CSR (1. verze). (List of extinct, endemic 
and threatened taxa of vascular plants of the flora of the Czech Socialist Republic 
(first draft).) Preslia 51(3): 213-237. (English abstract and summary; same list as 
previous paper; reviewed in Threatened Plants Committee - Newsletter, No. 6: 13, 
1980.) 

Prochazka, F., Cefovsky, J. and Holub, J. (1983). Chranéné a ohrozené druhy kvéteny 
CSR (Protected and endangered species in the flora of CSR). UDPM, Praha. 

103 pp. 


Slovak Socialist Republic: 


Maglocky, S. (1983). Zoznam vyhynutych endemickych a ohrozenych taxdnov vySSich 
rastlin flory Slovenska (List of extinct, endemic and threatened taxa of vascular 
plants of the flora of Slovakia). Biolégia 38: 825-852. 


See also: 


Cerovsky, J. and Podhajska, Z. (1981). Registrace kriticky ohrozenych druhu vySsich 
rostlin v CSR (Registration of critically endangered plant species in the Czech 
Socialist Republic). Pamdtky a Priroda 6: 577-583. 

Hendrych, R. (1977). Zaniklé nebo nezvéstné rostliny nai kvéteny (Extinct or missing 
plants of our flora). Ziva 25(3); 84-85. 

Holub, J. (Ed.) (1981). Mizejici fléra a ochrana fytogenofondu v CSSR (The vanishing 
flora and protection of the gene pool in Czechoslovakia). Proceedings from a 
conference. Studie CSAV, 20. Academia, Prague. (See for example papers in Slovak 
by: J. Futak on endemic plants of the SSR (pp. 45-49); in Czech by E. Hadaé on 
endemic plants of the CSR (pp. 41-43); J. Holub on protection of the floristic 
diversity from the aspect of taxonomy and phytogeography (pp. 27-39); K. Kubat on 
threatened species in north-west Bohemia (pp. 133-137); F. Prochazka on extinct 
species in the Czechoslovak flora (pp. 13-15); and L. Vané¢kova on extinct and 
endangered species in the Moravian karst (pp. 139-141).) 


93 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Somsak, L. (1977). Ohrozené a zriedkavé taxony horskych a vysokohorskych poloh 
Slovenska (The threatened and rare taxa of the mountain range of Slovakia). 
Bratislava. 


Since 1981, the Nature Conservation Section of the State Institute for Protection of 
Monuments and Conservation of Nature (address below) have co-ordinated a project 
entitled Conservation of Rare and Endangered Plants and Animal Species. Aims include 
issuing new species conservation decrees, ensuring all critically endangered species are 
safeguarded in protected areas, re-introduction, using rare and threatened plants in soil 
reclamation projects and ex situ conservation in botanic gardens (Cefovsky, 1982). 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - E:2, R:3, 1:2, 
nt:3; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:1, V:19, R:11, I:6 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants Legislation prohibiting the uprooting of selected wild 
species was passed for CSR by Decree No. 54 of 14 April 1958 and for SSR by Decree No. 
211 of 23 December 1958. In the CSR, 108 taxa of ferns and flowering plants are so 
protected; 100 of them receive complete protection and 8 partial protection. Some 
complete genera are also covered (e.g. Aconitum, Orchis, Pulsatilla, Stipa). In the SSR, 
88 taxa receive complete protection and 8 partial protection. In addition 40 species and 
genera (Oxytropis, Salix) and one family (Orchidaceae) receive special legal protection 
within the High Tatra National Park. 


Furthermore, the districts of Dé¢in, Litoméfice and Usti nad Labem in the North 
Bohemian region have passed their own legislation, which includes the protection of 
several species not covered by the national legislation. 


Relevant literature: 


Bosackova, E. (n.d.). Chranené rastliny na Slovensku a podmienky ich ochrany 
(Protected plants in Slovakia and protective measures). Vydalo VPL pre 
Poverenictvo SNR pre kulturu a informacie. 6 pp. 

Magic, D., Bosackova, E., Krejéa, J. and Usak, O. (1979). Atlas chranenych rastlin 
(Field-guide of protected plants). Obzor, Bratislava. 260 pp. (Slovakia only.) 

Prochazka, F. et al. (1983) cited in full above. 

Randuska, D. and Krizo, M. (1983). Chranené rastliny (Protected plants). Priroda, 
Bratislava. 430 pp. 

Somsak, L. and Slivka, D. (1981). Chrdanené rastliny Slovenska (Protected plants in 
Slovakia), 2nd Ed. Bratislava. (Illus.) 

Vesely, J. (1961). Chranéné rostliny (Protected Plants), 2nd Ed. Orbis, Praha. 85 pp. 
(Lists protected species and includes conservation status; colour illus.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
Ceskoslovenska botanicka spoleénost (Czechoslovak Botanical Society), Benatska 2, 
128 01 Prague 2. 
Cesky svaz ochrancu prirody (Czech Union of Nature Conservationists), Staroméstské 
nam. 12, 110 00 Prague 1. 
Slovensky zvaz ochrancov prirody a krajiny (Slovak Union of Nature and Landscape 
Conservationists), Leningradska 1, 811 01 Bratislava. 


Botanic Gardens Many, as listed in Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1, 
although none subscribe to the IUCN Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body. 
Relevant references: 


94 


Czechoslovakia 


Setelova, V. et al. (1977). Botanické zahrady (Botanic Gardens). SPN, Prague. 280 pp. 

Som8ak, L. (1979). The role of botanic gardens in the conservation of rare and 
threatened plants in Slovakia. In Synge, H. and Townsend, H. (Eds), Survival or 
Extinction. Proceedings of a Conference: The Practical Role of Botanic Gardens in 
the Conservation of Rare and Threatened Plants, 11-17 September 1978. Bentham- 
Moxon Trust, Kew. Pp. 107-112. 

Vyskoéil, J. (1980). Chranéné rostliny v botanickych zahradach, jejich péstovant, 
zakladani sbirek a vyuzivant v kulturné vychovné Cinnosti (Protected plants in 
botanic gardens, their cultivation and use in educational activities). Proceedings of a 
symposium 16-17 October 1980. Prazska botanicka zahrada, Praha-Troja. 135 pp. 


Useful Addresses 
Botanicky ustav CSAV (Botanical Institute, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences), 252 
43 Pruhonice. 
Institute of Experimental Biology and Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 885 34 
Bratislava, Sienkiewiczova 1. 

Statni ustav pamatkové péée a ochrany piirody (State Institute for Protection of 
Monuments and Conservation of Nature), Valdstejnské nam. 4, 118 01 Prague 1. 
Ustredie Statnej ochrany prirody (Centre of State Nature Conservancy - Slovakia), 031 

01 Liptovsky MikulaS. 


Additional References 

Cefovsky, J. (1982). Botanisch-okologische Probleme des Arten-schutzes in der CSSR 
unter Berucksichtigung der praktischen Naturschutzarbeit (Botanical and ecological 
problems of species preservation in the CSSR with regard to practical conservation 
work). Berichte der ANL 6: 90-92. 

Hendrych, R. (1981). Bemerkungen zum Endemismus in der Flora der 
Tschechoslowakei (Observations on endemism in the flora of Czechoslovakia). 
Preslia 53(2): 97-120. (In German; English abstract; maps.) 

Holub, J., Hejny, S., Moravec, J. and Neuhéusl, R. (1967). Ubersicht der hoheren 
Vegetationseinheiten der Tschechoslowakei. Rozpravy CSAV, Rada Matematickych 
a Prirodnich Véd 77(3): 1-75. (Phytosociological account.) 

Plesnik, P. (1976). Die Vegetationsstufen in der Slowakei. 18 pp. (Maps.) 

Prochazka, F. (1980). Soucasné zmény vychodoéeské fléry a poznadmky k rozsirent 
chranénych druhu rostlin (Contemporary changes in the flora of eastern Bohemia 
and notes on the distribution of protected species). Krajské Muzeum Vychodnich 
Cech, Hradec Krdalové. 134 pp. 

Vesely, J. (1961). Priroda Ceskoslovenska, jeji vyvoj a ochrana (Nature in 
Czechoslovakia, its development and conservation). Osveta, Bratislava. 146 pp. 


Denmark 


Area 43,075 sq. km 
Population 5,141,000 


Floristics c. 1000 native vascular species (Lajtnant, 1984, in litt.); c. 1350-1450 
estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; this 
discrepancy principally due to a recent assessment that many species in Denmark, hitherto 


95 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


believed native, are now recognized as longstanding introductions; 1 endemic species, | . 
endemic subspecies (IUCN figures). Elements: Atlantic. 


Vegetation 90% of land surface extensively modified, 70% by agriculture. 
Remaining pockets of semi-natural vegetation include forests of oak (Quercus petraea and 
Q. robur) and beech in the south and east, sand-dunes and salt-marshes mainly along the 
west coast, scattered inland heaths, peat bogs, swamps and lakes. Wetlands are considered 
to have suffered the greatest species loss and disturbance. Forests occupy about 10%, but 
most are spruce and pine plantations (Poore and Gryn-Ambroes, 1980, cited in 
Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras Included in the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). National Floras: 


Christiansen, M.S. (1958-1961). Danmarks Vilde Planter, 2 vols. Branner og Korch, 
Kgbenhavn. (Colour and line drawings.) 

Hansen, K. (Ed.) (1984). Dansk Feltflora, 2nd Ed. Gyldendal, Kgbenhavn. 757 pp. 
(Illus.) 

Raunkiaer, C. (1950). Dansk Ekskursions-Flora, 7th Ed. by K. Wiinstedt. Gyldendal, 
Kgbenhavn. 380 pp. 

Rostrup, E. and Jorgensen, C.A. (1973). Den Danske Flora, en Populaer Vejledning til 
at Laere de Danske Planter at Kende, 20th Ed. revised by A. Hansen. Gyldendal, 
Copenhagen. 664 pp. (Line drawings.) 


See also Lindman (1964), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Hagerup, O. and Petersson, V. (1956-1960). Botanisk Atlas, 2 vols. Munksgaard, 
Kobenhavn. (Line drawings only; 1 - angiosperms; 2 - bryophytes, pteridophytes, 
gymnosperms; English edition published in 1963, Copenhagen.) 


For a regional plant atlas see Hultén (1971), cited in Appendix 1, and the results of the 
Danish Topographical-Botanical Investigation, published in Botanisk Tidskrift, 1935 
onwards, containing dot maps for most Danish higher plants. 


Relevant journals: Botanisk Tidskrift, Kobenhavn (now replaced by Nordic Journal of 
Botany); Flora og Fauna, Naturhistorisk Museum, Aarhus; Urt (popular journal 
published by the Danish Botanical Society; addresses below). 


Information on Threatened Plants National plant Red Data Book: 


Lojtnant, B. and Worsge, E. (1977). Forelabig Status over den Danske Flora. Reports 
from the Botanical Institute University of Aarhus, No. 2. 341 pp. (Detailed survey 
of status of over 200 native vascular plants in Denmark; line drawings; English 
summary.) 


For a revision of the above see: 


Lgjtnant, B. (1985). Radliste over Danmarks Karplanter. Kobenhavn. 23 pp. (A revised 
threatened plant list of Danish higher plants.) 


See also: 


Lgjtnant, B. (1980). Status over den danske flora. In Moller, H.S. et al. (Eds), Status 
over den Danske Plante - og Dyreverden. Proceedings of a Symposium 18-20 April 
1980. Miljoministeriet, Fredningsstyrelsen. Pp. 327-341. (Describes conservation 
status and threats to the flora.) 


96 


Denmark 


Denmark is included in the Nordic Council of Ministers’ threatened plant list and 
supplements (Ovesen ef al., 1978 and 1982) and in the European list (Threatened Plants 
Unit, 1983), both cited in Appendix 1; latest IUCN statistics, based upon the latter: 
endemic taxa - R:2; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - V:6, R:1, I:2 (world 
categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which included a data sheet on Thesium ebracteatum, Extinct in Denmark, status 
unknown worldwide. 


A computerized biological data-base is being developed by the National Agency for the 
Protection of Nature, Monuments and Sites, Kabenhavn (address below). This will include 
data about protected areas, threatened plants and habitats, as part of a larger biological 
conservation data centre. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Conservation of Nature Act (No. 297 of 26 June 
1975) provides total protection for 2 plant species and partial protection for 26 other plant 
taxa. The Ministry of the Environment may order the protection, throughout the country 
or in specified areas, of any plant species. Species in nature reserves may also be protected 
against picking, digging, etc., as part of nature reserve legislation. Some species are 
protected administratively where they grow on land owned by the State and managed by 
the National Agency for forests. For more details see Koester (1980), cited in Appendix 1. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Danmarks Botanisk Forening (Danish Botanical Society), Solvgade 83, 1307 
Kgbenhavn. 
Dansk Naturfredningsforening (Danish Nature Conservation Society), Frederiksberg 
Runddel 1, 2000 Kabenhavn. 
Verdensnaturfonden (WWF-Denmark), H.C. Andersens Boulevard 31, 1553 
Kgbenhavn. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Institute, University of Aarhus, 68 Nordlandsvej, 8240 Risskov. 
Botanisk Have, Stadsgartnerens kontor, Viborgvej 144, 8210 Aarhus V. 
Den Kgl. Veterinaer-og Landbohgjskoles Have, Biilowsvej 13, 1870 Kobenhavn V. 
Forstbotanisk Have (Forest Botanic Garden), 2920 Charlottenlund. 
Forest Botanical Garden, Aarhus. 
Heorsholm Arboretum, 2970 Hersholm. 
Keobenhavns Universitets Botaniske Have, @ Farimagsgade 2B, 1353 Kobenhavn K. 


Useful Addresses 
National Agency for the Protection of Nature, Monuments and Sites, Ministry of the 
Environment, 13 Amaliegade, 1256 Kgbenhavn. 
Naturhistorisk Museum, Universitetsparken, 8000 Aarhus C. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Fredningsstyrelsen, Miljoministeriet, 13 
Amaliegade, 1256 Kobenhavn. 


Additional References 
Gravesen, P. (1976-1983). Forelabig Oversigt over Botaniske Lokaliteter, 4 vols. 
Miljoministeriets Fredningsstyrelse i Samarbejde med Dansk Botanisk Forening, 
Kobenhavn. (1 - Sjaelland; 2 - Den Fynske Ogruppe; 3 - Lolland, Falster, Mon og 
Bornholm; 4 - Sgnderjyllands Amt (S. Jutland); describes hundreds of botanical 


97 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


localities and assesses their conservation value as part of a long-term monitoring 
programme; covers flowering plants, mosses, fungi, lichens and algae; protected 
species; photographs; maps.) 

Hansen, A. (1981). Dansk Botanisk Litteratur i 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978 og 1979. Bot. 
Tidssk. 75(4): 221-275. (Review of recent botanical literature.) 


D’Entrecasteaux Islands 


Volcanic islands reaching 2400 m, situated c 30 km to the north of the eastern tip of Papua 
New Guinea. Area 3142 sq. km; population 34,400 (1971 estimate, Encyclopedia 
Britannica, 1974). The islands are part of Papua New Guinea. 


The 3 principal islands of Normanby, Fergusson and Goodenough still have extensive 
primary tropical rain forests. The archipelago is included on the Vegetation Map of 
Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958) and on the vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), 
both covering the Flora Malesiana region at scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. 


No figure available for the size of the flora. No information on threatened plants. 


Djibouti 


Area 23,000 sq. km 
Population 354,000 


Floristics 534 species (Bavazzano, 1972). Degree of endemism unknown. In 
general flora is poorly known, but likely to be rich especially in the Goda Mountains 
(Verdcourt, 1968). 


Floristic affinities with Somalia-Masai region. 


Vegetation Mostly semi-desert grassland, shrubland and succulent scrub. Small 
areas of mangrove vegetation and coastal desert at the coast. Small patches of montane 
dry evergreen forest in Dai area of the Goda Mountains. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Djibouti is included in Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae 
Spermatophyta (Cufodontis, 1953-1972), and in Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae, both 
cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Bavazzano, R. (1972). Contributo alla conoscenza della flora del Territorio Francese 
degli Afar e degli Issa. Webbia 26: 267-364. (Short diagnoses, specimen citations.) 
Chevalier, A. (1939). La Somalie francaise. Sa flore et ses productions végétales. Revue 

Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 19: 663-687. 


Information on Threatened Plants Two species which occur in Djibouti are 
included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978): Dracaena ombet and Livistona 
carinensis (Syn. Wissmannia carinensis). 


98 


Djibouti 
Detailed information is lacking, but desertification is threatening the succulent scrub. 


Additional References 
Chedeville, E. (1972). La végétation du Territoire francais des Afars et des Issas. 
Webbia 26: 243-266. 
Pichi-Sermolli, R.E.G. (1957). Una carta geobotanica dell’ Africa orientale (Eritrea, 
Ethiopia, Somalia). Webbia 13: 15-132. (Includes map 1:5,000,000.) 
Verdcourt, B. (1968). French Somaliland. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 140-141. 


Dominica 


The most mountainous island in the Lesser Antilles, in the Windward group, equidistant 
between Guadeloupe and Martinique, 153 km south of Antigua; 47 km long by 24 km 
wide; fertile and volcanic. 


Area 751 sq. km 
Population 77,000 


Floristics About 1600 species of vascular plants (D.H. Nicolson, 1984, in litt.). 
Nicolson also reports 6 species and 2 varieties endemic to the island (1 fern, 1 
monocotyledon and 6 dicotyledons). Other reported endemics have become synonyms of 
more widespread species or have been recently found on neighbouring islands. 


Vegetation In the interior undisturbed, primary rain forest and lower montane 
rain forest, surrounded by a broad intermediate zone of cut-over secondary forest; on 
highest peaks elfin woodland; on steep slopes palm brakes; on the west (leeward) coast, a 
belt of dry scrub woodland and, north of St Joseph, grassland and open scrub with grass; 
at river mouths in north, swamp (Lonchocarpus) forest; mangrove rare, recently 
discovered in Cabrits swamp. (Mainly from Beard, 1949, cited in Appendix 1.) 46.7% 
forested, the highest percentage in the Caribbean, according to FAO (1974, cited in 
Appendix 1). The 6840-ha Morne Trois Pitons National Park, in the south of Dominica, 
includes elfin woodland, rain forest and secondary forest, and conserves the largest area of 
such forest in the Lesser Antilles (Protected Areas Data Unit). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and 
Windward Islands (only monocotyledons and ferns published so far, Howard, 1974-, cited 
in Appendix 1) and by the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica (cited in 
Appendix 1). 


A Flora of Dominica, covering dicotyledons, has been prepared by D.H. Nicolson and 
collaborators at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. and has been submitted 
for publication; one family (Compositae) still to be written. 


Ferns, gymnosperms and monocotyledons are covered in the checklist: 
Hodge, W.H. (1954). Flora of Dominica, B.W.I., Part 1. Lloydia 17 (1-3): 1-238. 


Also relevant: 


99 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Beard, J.S. (1944). Provisional list of trees and shrubs of the Lesser Antilles. 
Caribbean Forester 5(2): 48-67. (428 species assigned in a table to individual 
islands). 

Hodge, W.H. (1953). The orchids of Dominica, BWI. American Orchid Soc. Bull. 
22(12): 891-904. 

Stehlé, H. and Stehlé, M. (1947). Liste complémentaire des arbres et arbustes des 
petites Antilles. Caribbean Forester 8: 91-123. (A further 328 species to Beard, 1944, 
in similar format.) 


There are also various papers on the botany of Dominica in Smithsonian Contributions to 
Botany, particularly dealing with Algae, Lichens and Fungi. 


Local botanical activity is centered at the facilities of the Dominica National Park 
Headquarters, who have produced articles on vegetation of the Park. 


Field-guides 
Honychurch, P.N. (1980). Caribbean Wild Plants and Their Uses. Published by the 
author, Roseau, Dominica. 163 pp. (Conspicuous plants only.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Threatened plant conservation is discussed in: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Conservation and endangered species of plants in the Caribbean 
Islands. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 105-114. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Gardens, Roseau. (Largely devastated by Hurricane David in 1978, now 
recuperating.) 


Useful Addresses 
Dominica National Park Headquarters, Botanic Gardens, Roseau. 
Forestry Department, Botanic Gardens, Roseau. 


Additional References 

Anon. (1970). Dominica: A chance for a choice. The Conservation Foundation, 
Washington, D.C. 48 pp. Some considerations and recommendations on 
conservation of the island’s natural resources. 

Hodge, W.H. and Taylor, D. (1957). The ethnobotany of the Island Caribs of 
Dominica. Webbia 12(2): 513-644. 

Shillingford, C.A. (1968). Climax Forest in Dominica. M.Sc. Thesis, University of the 
West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. (Comparative study of 2 examples of lowland rain 
forest at D?Leau Gommier and Terre Ferme.) 

Thorsell, J.W. and Wood, G. (1976). Dominica’s Morne Trois Pitons National Park. 
Nature Canada 5(4): 14-16, 33-34. 

Weber, B.E. (1973). Dominica National Park. Dept. of Recreation Resources, College 
of Forestry and Natural Resources, Colorado State University. (Thesis.) (Lists some 
plants endemic to Dominica in Table 3, p. 57.) 


Dominican Republic 


A mountainous country consisting of the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola; 
west of Puerto Rico and east of Cuba. 


100 


Dominican Republic 
Area 48,442 sq. km 
Population 6,101,000 


Floristics No figures for Dominican Republic; Hispaniola has an estimated 5000 
species: 7 gymnosperms, 1087 monocotyledons and 3900 dicotyledons; with 1800 endemic 
species (Liogier, 1984). 


Vegetation In the centre of the island, along the east-west mountain ranges moist 
forest, low moist forest and high mountain hardwood forest; Pinus occidentalis dominant 
along the central ridge; extensive dry forest along the northern and southern lowlands, arid 
in parts, with savannah type vegetation; stands of tree cacti and palms in places due to 
heavy logging of hardwoods. Mangrove swamps best developed along the north-east coast 
at Samana Bay where the low moist forest comes down to sea level. 22.7% forested (FAO, 
1974, cited in Appendix 1); estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 
25 sq. km/annum, out of a total of 4440 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981); according to Myers 
(1980) (cited in Appendix 1), c. 11,000 sq. km of tropical moist forest, most disrupted or 
degraded. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). 


Liogier, A.H. (1981). Flora of Hispaniola. Part 1. Phytologia Memoirs 3: 1-218. (In 
Spanish, illus.) 

Liogier, A.H. (1982, 1984). La Flora de la Espanola, 2 vols published, the third in 
press. San Pedro de Macoris. 317 pp., 420 pp., illus. 

Moscoso, R.M. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis. New York. 732 pp. (In Spanish; 
checklist of gymnosperms and flowering plants.) 


The following provide additional information: 


Alvarez, V. (1983). Manglares de Republica Dominicana. Contribuciones 53. 
CIBIMA/UASD - see Useful Addresses, below. (Describes mangroves.) 

Dod, D.D. (1978- ). Orquideas Dominicanas Nuevas I-III. Moscosoa 1(1): 50-54; 1(2): 
39-54; 1(3): 49-63. 

Jiménez, J. de J. (1963-1967). Suplemento no. 1 al Catalogus Florae Domingensis del 
Prof. Rafael M. Moscoso. Archiv. Bot. Biogeogr. Ital. 39: 81-132; 40: 54-149; 41: 
47-87; 42: 46-97 and 107-129; 43: 1-18. 

Jiménez, J. de J. (1975). Apuntes para la flora de Santo Domingo (Hispaniola) 
Novedades III. Anuario Acad. Ciencias Republica Dominicana 1(1): 93-132a. 

Liogier, A.H. (1971a). Novitates Antillanae. IV. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 21: 107-157. 

Liogier, A.H. (1971b). Novitates Antillanae. V. Miscellaneous new species from the 
Dominican Republic. Phytologia 22(3): 163-174. 

Liogier, A.H. (1973). Novitates Antillanae. VI. Phytologia 25(5): 265-280. 

Liogier, A.H. (1976). Novitates Antillanae. VII. Plantas nuevas de la Espajfiola. 
Moscosoa 1(1): 16-49. 


The botanical journal Moscosoa includes reports of new taxa, of new records and other 
papers on the flora and vegetation of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is published by 
the Jardin Botanico Nacional ‘Dr Rafael M. Moscoso’ - see Botanic Gardens, below. 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Jiménez, J. de J. (1978). Lista tentativa de plantas de la Republica Dominicana que 
deben protegerse para evitar su extincién. Coloquio Internacional sobre la practica 
de la conservacion, Santo Domingo. CIBIMA/UASD - see Useful Addresses, 


101 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


below. (In Spanish; lists 133 species of threatened flowering plants, of which 49 are 
endemic.) 


Dr A.H. Liogier has prepared a lengthy list of endangered plants; this is not published. 


The IUCN Plant Red Data Book has one data sheet for the Dominican Republic, on 
Pseudophoenix ekmanii. Threatened plant conservation is also discussed in: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Conservation and the endangered species of plants in the 
Caribbean Islands. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 105-114. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Sociedad Dominicana de Orquidiologia, c/o Jardin Botanico Nacional ‘‘Dr Rafael M. 
Moscoso’’, Apto 21-9, Santo Domingo. 
Sociedad Ecoldgica del Cibao, Santiago. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico Nacional ‘Dr Rafael M. Moscoso’, Apto 21-9, Santo Domingo. 


Useful Addresses 
Centro de Investigaciones de Biologia Marina, Universidad Autonoma de Santo 
Domingo, Republica Dominicana (CIBIMA/UASD), Jonas E. Salk 56, Santo 
Domingo. 
Herbario Dr José de Js. Jiménez Almonte, Universidad Catdlica Madre y Maestra, 
Santiago. 


Additional References 

Hartschorn, G. et al. (1981). The Dominican Republic, country environmental profile, 
a field study. AID Contract No. AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247. JRB Associates, 8400 
Westpark Drive, Mclean, Virginia 22102, U.S.A. 109 pp. 

Holdridge, L.R., (1945). A brief sketch of the Flora of Hispaniola. In Verdoorn F. 
(Ed.), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 76-78. 

Jiménez, J. de J. and Liogier, A.H. (1977). Adiciones a los nombros vulgares de las 
Plantas en la Republica Dominicana. Moscosoa 1(2): 9-21. (See Liogier, 1974.) 

Liogier, A.H. (1974). Diccionario botdnico de nombres vulgares de la Espafiola. Jardin 
Botanico Dr R. Moscoso, Santo Domingo. 813 pp. 

Liogier, A. (1984). La Flora de la Espafiola: sus principales carateristicas. 2da. Joranda 
Cientifica Academia de Ciencias de la Republica Dominicana. Santo Domingo. 

Zanoni, T.A., Long, C.R. and Mckiernan, G. (1984). Bibliografia de la flora y de la 
vegetacion de la Isla Espafiola. Moscosoa 3: 1-61. (Extensive annotated bibliography 
of the flora and the vegetation of Hispaniola.) 


Easter Island 


Easter Island (27°S, 109°30’W) is a triangular volcanic outcrop in the western Pacific 
Ocean 3700 km west of Chile, of which it is a dependency. It is also known as Rapa-Nui 
and Isla de Pascua. Area 117 sq. km; population 1400 (1971 estimate). The highest point is 
Mt Terevaka (601 m), part of the extinct Rano Aroi volcano in the north. Rana Kao 
(457 m) and Rano Raraku (427 m) form the south-west and south-east parts of the island. 


102 


Easter Island 


Almost the entire population lives at Hanga-Roa on the west coast. Rapa-Nui National 
Park, established in 1935, covers 68 sq. km mainly around the coast. 


30 native flowering plant species of which 3 grasses and Sophora toromiro endemic 
(Skottsberg, 1922). 12 species of ferns of which 2 endemic (Christensen and Skottsberg, 
1920). Most genera and species have very wide distributions (van Balgooy, 1971, cited in 
Appendix 1). 


The vegetation is mainly Sporobolus and Stipa grassland. Sophora toromiro is the only 
tree recorded on the island in historic times. Undoubtedly there were other trees before the 
natural vegetation was modified by fires, timber cutting and the introduction of sheep. 


The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978) included Sophora toromiro as ‘‘probably 
Extinct’’, the last tree on the island having died before 1962. Subsequently it was 
discovered that small plants were in cultivation, principally at Géteborg Botanic Garden, 
Sweden (see Threatened Plants Committee - Newsletter 5: 1-2, 1980). 


References 
Skottsberg, C. (Ed.) (1920-1956). The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter 
Island, 3 vols. Almqvist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB, Uppsala. (1 - Physical 
features, geology; 2 - botany; 3 - zoology. See in particular C. Christensen and 
C. Skottsberg, 1920, on the ferns of Easter Island, ibid. 2: 47-53; C. Skottsberg, 
1922, on phanerogams, ibid. 2: 61-84; C. Skottsberg, 1951, a supplement to the 
pteridophytes and phanerogams, ibid. 2: 763-792.) 


Ecuador 


Area 461,477 sq. km 
Population 9,090,000 


Floristics Dodson and Gentry (1978) quote estimates ranging from 10,000 to 
20,000 species of vascular plants. Many scientists consider Ecuador to have more plants 
per unit area than any other country in South America; this is demonstrated by the over 
1250 species from 136 families recorded in 100 of the 167 ha plot of Pacific lowland rain 
forest at Rio Palenque Science Center; 43 are known only from the site (Dodson and 
Gentry, 1978) and, with subsequent work, about 100 are newly described (A. Gentry, 
1984, pers. comm.). Rio Palenque is within the Choco phytogeographic region, ‘‘that part 
of the coastal lowlands of western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador covered by wet 
and moist forest vegetation’’ and believed to be exceptionally rich in both endemics and 
other species (Gentry, 1982). 


Vegetation Between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, desert and semi-desert, 
savanna, deciduous forest (dominated by thorny leguminous trees with cacti), semi- 
deciduous forest (mostly now destroyed) and in the north lowland rain forest. Gentry 
(1977) separates the lowland coastal forest into a narrow strip of wet forest along the base 
of the Andes (originally small in extent, now critically endangered, the minute Rio 
Palenque site (see above) being a rare survivor), and the coastal moist forest, more 
extensive but with fewer endemics. In the Andes itself, lower montane rain forest 
(700-2500 m), cloud forest (2500-3400 m), grass paramos (3400-4000 m), shrub and 
cushion paramos (4000-4500 m) and desert paramos (4500 m to snow limit). In the 


103 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Interandean valley the length of Ecuador, little natural vegetation remains; most is now a 
mixture of steppe and scrub. In the lowlands east of the Andes, extensive lowland rain 
forest, covering 135,000 sq. km of the Amazonian forest (Unesco, 1981, cited in Appendix 
1). Most of this section from Harling (1979), which has a useful bibliography. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 3400 sq. km/annum out of 
142,300 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Ecuador is covered by the family and generic monographs 
of Flora Neotropica, as described in Appendix 1. The country Flora is: 


Harling, G. and Sparre, B. (1973- ). Flora of Ecuador. 20 vols (28 families) published 
so far, 7 vols in prep. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Géteborg, 
and the Section of Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden. 


Floristic knowledge of the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador is summarized by Gentry (1978), 
cited in Appendix 1. Floras for part of Ecuador and countrywide family accounts include: 


Dodson, C.H. and Gentry, A.H. (1978). Flora of the Rio Palenque Science Center. 
Selbyana 4(1-6): 1-628. (Tropical Wet Forest site, all species illustrated with 
descriptions and keys, frequency, habitats and related species.) 

Dodson, C., Gentry, A. and Valverde, F.M. (1984). Flora of Jauneche. Banco Central 
del Ecuador and Selbyana 8: 1-512. (Tropical Moist Forest site, all species illustrated 
with descriptions and keys, frequency, habitats and related species.) 

Dodson, C. and Gentry, A. (in press for 1985). Flora of Capeira and the Guayaquil 
region. Banco Central del Ecuador and Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. (Tropical Dry 
Forest site, all species illustrated with descriptions and keys, frequency, habitats and 
related species.) 

Dodson, C. and Marmol, P. (1980-84). Orchids of Ecuador. cones Plantarum 
Tropicarum 1-4: Plates 1-500; 5: Plates 501-600; 10: Plates 901-1000. (Illustrations 
of orchids of western Ecuador, upland Ecuador, and upland and eastern Ecuador, 
respectively, with descriptions and dot maps.) 

Gilmartin, A.J. (1972). The Bromeliaceae of Ecuador. Phanerogamarum Monographiae 
Tomus 4: 1-255. 

Hitchcock, A.S. (1927). The grasses of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Contr. U.S. Nat. 
Herb. 24(8): 291-556. 

Little, E.L. (1969). Arboles comunes de la Provincia de Esmeraldas. FAO/SF: 76/ECU 
13, Rome. 536 pp. 

Standley, P.C. (1931). The Rubiaceae of Ecuador. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 
7(2): 1-251. 

Valverde, F.M. (1980). Flora de la Peninsula Santa Elena. Univ. Guayaquil Press. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. An 
analysis of vegetation types with the most endangered species is: 


Gentry, A.H. (1977). Endangered plant species and habitats of Ecuador and 
Amazonian Peru. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 136-148. 


Threatened plants are mentioned in other papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular J.T. 
Mickel on rare and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328). 


Other relevant literature: 


104 


Ecuador 


Dodson, C. (1984). Orchids of Ecuador. (Unpublished list of 2200 orchids known to 
occur in Ecuador of which 25 are Vulnerable, 2 Endangered and 7 Rare.) 


Laws Protecting Plants Ley Forestal y de Conservacién de Areas Naturales y 
Vida Silvestre (Ley No. 74 of 14 August 1981, Registro Oficial 24 August 1981) governs 
conservation and includes plants. The Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia is responsible 
for implementation (Fuller and Swift, 1984, cited in Appendix 1). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Fundacion Natura, Jorge Juan 481, Casilla 243, Quito. 


Botanic Gardens The Ecuadorian Orchid Society is establishing a botanic garden 
outside Guayaquil. The Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia operate an orchid 
collection and sanctuary at Vilcabamba in Loja province; plans exist for a similar 
programme at Conocota near Quito. 


Useful Addresses 
Dept. de Biologia, Universidad Catdélica, Apdo 2184, Quito. 
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Central, Quito. 
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Guyaquil, Casilla 471, Guayaquil. 
Museo Ecuatoriana de Ciencias Naturales, Casa de la Cultura, Quito. 
CITES Management Authority: Director Ejecutivo del Programa Nacional Forestal, 
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Casilla 2919, Quito. 


Additional References 

Acosta-Solis, M. (1968a). Naturalistas y Viajeros Cientificos que han contribuido al 
conocimiento Floristico Fitogeografico del Ecuador. Inst. Ecuat. de Cienc. Nat. 
Contribucién 65: 1-138. (History of botanical collecting.) 

Acosta-Solis, M. (1968b). Divisiones fitogrdficas y formaciones geobotanicos del 
Ecuador. Publ. Cient. de la Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Quito. 

Gentry, A.H. (1982). Phytogeographic patterns as evidence for a Choco Refuge. In 
Prance, G.T. (Ed.) (1982), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 112-136. 

Harling, G. (1979). The vegetation types of Ecuador - a brief survey. In Larsen, K. 
and Holm-Nielsen, L.B. (Eds), Tropical Botany. Academic Press, London. 
Pp. 165-174. 

Putney, A.D. (1976). Estrategia prelimina para la conservacion de areas silvestres 
sobresalientes del Ecuador. UNDP/FAO-ECU/71/527. 61 pp. 

Svenson, H.K. (1945). Vegetation of the coast of Ecuador and Peru and its relation to 
the Galapagos Islands. Am. J. Bot. 33: 394-498. 


Egypt 


Area 1,000,250 sq. km 
Population 45,657,000 


Floristics 2085 species (Tackholm, 1974); 1095 species said to occur in the coastal 
strip (Boulos, 1975), but probably only 800-900 (M.N. el Hadidi, 1984, pers. comm.); 70 
endemics (IUCN figures). 


105 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Predominantly Saharan flora, with Mediterranean elements along the north coast (mostly 
winter annuals); Irano-Turanian element in the Sinai. The Nile valley has a distinctive 
flora with Sudanian elements in the southern part. The Gebel Elba mountain block and the 
surrounding land has a Sahelian element, which also reaches south Sinai. Prominent 
centres of endemism are the mountains of Sinai, Gebel Elba and Gebel Uweinat, and some 
oases in the western desert. Oases often have a Mediterranean weed element. 


Vegetation Mostly desert with little or no perennial vegetation except for 
scattered desert shrubs; oases consist mostly of the cultivated Date palm Phoenix 
dactylifera. Coastal strip of overgrazed and badly degraded land. Also of interest is the 
rich aquatic and riverine flora associated with the Nile. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Egypt is included in the computerized Atlas der 
Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes (Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980), 
Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and is being covered in Med-Checklist, all of which are 
cited in Appendix 1. 


Tackholm, V. (1974). Students’ Flora of Egypt, 2nd Ed. Cairo Univ., Cairo. 888 pp. 
(Keys, diagnoses, distributions, line drawings.) 

Tackholm, V. and Boulos, L. (1972). Supplementary notes to Students’ Flora of Egypt, 
Second Edition. Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 5: 1-135. (16 plates of black and white 
photographs.) 

Tackholm, V. and Boulos, L. (1977). Additions and corrections to the second edition 
of Students’ Flora of Egypt. Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7/8: 211-218. 

Tackholm, V. and Drar, M. (1941-69). Flora of Egypt. Incomplete; 4 vols, principally 
monocotyledons. Bull. Fac. Sci. Cairo Univ. 17, 28, 30, 36. 


A new multipart ‘Flora of Egypt’ is in preparation, under the direction of Professor M.N. 
el Hadidi of the Cairo Herbarium. Published so far are Amaranthaceae, by M.N. el 
Hadidi and A.M.H. el Hadidy, Globulariaceae, by A.A. Fayed, Santalaceae, by F.M. 
Sa’ad, and Vahliaceae, by D.M. Bridson; Plantaginaceae, by S. Snogerup, is in press (due 
out late 1984). Published in Taeckholmia Additional Series (1980- ), and expected to take 
10-15 years to complete. 


Information on Threatened Plants No National Red Data Book published, but 
Professor M.N. el Hadidi has drafted one containing 112 species of Egyptian plants. Egypt 
is included in the draft list for North Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN 
Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980), cited in Appendix 1. 


Abdallah, M.S. and Sa’ad, F.M. (1980). Proposals for conservation of endangered 
species of the flora of Egypt. Notes Agric. Res. Centre Herb. Egypt 5: 1-12. (Lists 
54 rare or endemic species.) 


Boulos, L. (1985). The arid eastern and south-eastern Mediterranean regions. In 
Gomez-Campo, C. (Ed.), Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. 


Latest IUCN figures: endemics: Ex:2, E:12, V:6, R:38, 1:6, K:4, nt:2; non-endemics rare 
or threatened worldwide - E:2, V:9, R:13, I:2 (world categories). 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Garden, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, 
Moharram Bey, Alexandria. 
El Saff Botanic Garden, El Saff, Upper Egypt. 
Orman Botanic Garden, Giza-Orman, Cairo. 


106 


Egypt 


Qubba Botanic Garden, Qubba, Cairo. 
Zohria Trial Gardens, Gezira, Cairo. 


There is also a botanic garden in Asyit, but address not known. 


Useful Addresses 
Plant Protection Department, Agriculture College, Asyit. 
The Herbarium, Cairo University, Giza. 
CITES Authority: The Director, Flora and Phytotaxonomy Researches, Agricultural 
Research Centre, P.O. Box: Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Cairo. 


Additional References 

Batanouny, K.H. (1973). Habitat features and vegetation of deserts and semi-deserts in 
Egypt. Vegetatio 27(4-6): 181-199. (12 black and white photographs.) 

Boulos, L. (1975). The Mediterranean element in the flora of Egypt and Libya. In 
CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 119-124. 

Hassib, H. (1952). Distribution of plant communities in Egypt. Bull. Fac. Sci. Cairo 
Univ. 29: 59-261. 

Kassas, M. ef al. (1952-1970). Habitat and plant communities in the Egyptian desert. I. 
Introduction. J. Ecol. 40: 342-351 (with 6 black and white photographs); II. The 
features of a desert community. Ibid. 41: 248-256; III. The wadi bed ecosystem. 
Ibid. 42: 424-441 (with 6 black and white photographs); IV. The gravel desert. Ibid. 
47: 289-310 (with 8 black and white photographs); V. The limestone plateau. bid. 
52: 107-119 (with 8 black and white photographs); VI. The units of a desert 
ecosystem. Ibid. 53: 715-728 (with 8 black and white photographs); VII. 
Geographical facies of plant communities. Jbid. 58: 335-350 (with 8 black and white 
photographs). 

Wickens, G.E. (1977). Some of the phytogeographical problems associated with Egypt. 
Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7/8: 223-230. 


El Salvador 


Area 21,393 sq. km 
Population 5,888,000 


Floristics An estimated 2500 species of vascular plants (Gentry, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1); 19 endemic taxa (IUCN figures). 


Vegetation On the coastal plain and lower southern mountain slopes mostly 
savanna and broadleaved forest; in the mountains of the north and south temperate 
grassland, remnants of deciduous oak and pine forests; in the upland area around Cerro 
Montecristo, on the Guatemalan border (the wettest area), cloud forests, the last 
remaining primary forest in the country, now protected, but only 12 sq. km (Daugherty, 
1973b). Less than 10% of the country has forest cover and very little wildlands are left. 
Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 40 sq. km/annum out of 
1010 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras El Salvador is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana 
Project, described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of 


107 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Flora Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). Also ‘‘most plants’’ of El Salvador are included in 
the completed Flora of Guatemala and related articles in Fieldiana, outlined under 
Guatemala. Useful works specifically on El Salvador include: 


Calderon, S. and Standley, P.C. (1944). Lista Preliminar de Plantas de El Salvador, 
2nd Ed. San Salvador. 450 pp. (Annotated checklist.) 

Carlson, M.C. (1948). Additional plants of El Salvador. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 75(3): 
272-281. 

Guzman, D.J. (1950). Flora Salvadorena. Imprenta Nacional, San Salvador. 691 pp. 

Hamer, F. (1974-1981). Las Orquideas de El Salvador, 3 vols. Ministerio de Educacion, 
Direccioén de Publicaciones, San Salvador. 1140 pp. (Descriptions, drawings, colour 
plates of 362 species; in English, Spanish and German.) 

Lotschert, W. (1953). Ferns of the Republic of El Salvador. Ceiba 4(1): 241-250. (List 
of 174 species.) 

Seiler, R. (1980). Una Guia Taxonémica Para Helechos de El Salvador. Ministerio de 
Educacion, San Salvador. 58 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book, but 
various lists have been prepared: 


Reyna de Aguilar, M.L. (1981). Flora en vias de extincién. Servicio de Parques 
Nacional y Vida Silvestre. (Unpublished list of threatened trees, bromeliads, orchids 
and of endemic trees in protected areas.) 

Witsberger, D. (1980). Tree species of El Salvador and their conservation status. 
(Unpublished list of trees of El Salvador with annotations for endemics, species of 
low population considered rare, and those in Montecristo National Park.) 


IUCN is preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The List of 
rare, threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based 
upon this work: endemic taxa - V:4, R:6, I:2, K:7; non-endemic taxa rare or threatened 
worldwide - E:4, V:7, R:3 (world categories). 


10 threatened plants are included in Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited 
in Appendix 1, and 3 species included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book. Threatened 
plants are also mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104) and J.T. Mickel on rare 
and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328). 


Laws Protecting Plants No wildlife legislation, but a draft law is under 
consideration (Fuller and Swift, 1984, cited in Appendix 1). The U.S. Government has 
determined Abies guatemalensis (El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico) as 
‘Threatened’ under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Friends of the Earth, Edificio Comercial, 6° Piso, San Salvador. 
National Committee for Ecology, Boulevard del Hipodromo 303, San Salvador. 


Useful Addresses 
Instituto Salvadoreno de Recursos Naturales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, 
Canton El Matazano, Apdo Postal 2265, Soyapango, San Salvador. 
Seccién de Flora, Servicio de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, DIGERENARE, 
Apdo Postal 2265, San Salvador. 


108 


El Salvador 


Additional References 

Blutstein, H.1. et al. (1970). El Salvador: A Country Study. The American University, 
Washington, D.C. 260 pp. 

Daugherty, H.E. (1973a). The Montecristo Cloud-forest of El Salvador - a chance for 
protection. Biol. Conserv. 5(3): 227-230. 

Daugherty, H.E. (1973b). Conservacién Ambiental Ecoldgica de El Salvador con 
Recomendaciones para un Programa de Accién Nacional. Artes Grafica 
Publicitarias, San Salvador. 56 pp. 

Holdridge, L.R. (1959). Mapa Ecolégico de El Salvador. Instituto Interamericano de 
Ciencias Agricolas de la Organizacién de los Estados Americanos (OEA), San José, 
Costa Rica. 


Equatorial Guinea 


Equatorial Guinea comprises mainland Mbini (Rio Muni) and five islands and islets in the 
Gulf of Guinea: Bioko (Fernando Po or Macias Nguema Biyogo) is the largest island in the 
Gulf, 32 km from Cameroon; Pagalu (Annobon) is the smallest of the offshore islands, 
180 km SSW of S. Tomé and 340 km from the nearest mainland (Gabon); Corisco, Elobey 
Grande and Elobey Chico are small coastal islets. The other major islands in the Gulf of 
Guinea are S40 Tomé and Principe, gq.v. 


Area 28,051 sq. km, including Mbini (26,017 sq. km), Bioko (2017 sq. km) and 
Pagalu (17 sq. km). 


Population 383,000 


Floristics 
Mbini No figures available, but flora likely to be rich (Brenan, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1). Floristic affinities Guinea-Congolian. 


Bioko 1105 species (Exell, 1973a); 49 endemic species (Brenan, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1). (Exell, 1944 gives a figure of 99 endemic species, but this was before the 
revision of the Flora of West Tropical Africa.) Floristic affinities with mainiand West 
Africa (particularly Mt Cameroun) and the other islands in the Gulf of Guinea. 


Pagulu 208 species (Exell, 1973a), with 17 endemic species (out of a total of 115, 
Exell, 1944). Floristic affinities with the other islands in the Gulf of Guinea between it and 
the mainland. ri 


Vegetation 
Mbini Lowland rain forest, with small areas of mangrove forest at the coast. 


Bioko Original low altitude vegetation: lowland rainforest, but very little left 
now, replaced by secondary and cultivation communities to meet the needs of the dense 
population. Afromontane communities of montane forest and grassland occur at higher 
altitudes. 


Pagulu Difficult to assess original vegetation, since so little now remains, but 
predominantly lowland and submontane evergreen forest, with mist-forest on the upper 
slopes of the peaks. Most low and medium altitude vegetation now destroyed; replaced by 
savanna-like cultivated land with scattered bushes. Dry forest and mist forest are still quite 
well represented. 


109 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 30 (27 in Mbini) sq. 
km/annum out of 12,950 (11,800 in Mbini) sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras 
Mbini 
Guinea Lépez, E. (1946). Ensayo Geobotdanico de la Guinea Continental Espanola. 
Direccion de Agricultura de los Territorios Espafioles del Golfo de Guinea, Madrid. 
388 pp. (See especially pp. 218-368, where records of plants are given; illustrated 
throughout with maps, line drawings, paintings, and black and white photographs.) 


Bioko Included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, cited in Appendix 1. 


Benl, G. (1978-1982). The Pteridophyta of Fernando Po. (Contributions to a Flora of 
the island.) Acta Botanica Barcinonensia 31: 1-31; 32: 1-34; 33: 1-46. 

Escarré, A. (1968-1970). Aportaciones al conocimiento de la flora de Fernando Poo. 
Acta Phytotax. Barcinonensia 2 (1968), 15 pp.; 3 (1969), 23 pp.; 5 (1970), 32 pp. (by 
A. Escarré and T. Reinares). (Never completed; covers 5 families only.) 


Pagulu 
Exell, A.W. (1963). Angiosperms of the Cambridge Annobon Island expedition. Bull. 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Bot. 3(3): 93-118. 


Pagalu is also included in the following Floras: 


Exell, A.W. (1944). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of S. Tomé (with Principe and 
Annobon). British Museum (Natural History), London. 428 pp. (Annotated 
checklist; line drawings.) 

Exell, A.W. (1956). Supplement to the Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of S. Tomé 
(with Principe and Annobon). British Museum (Natural History), London. 58 pp. 


Bioko and Pagalu are both included in: 


Exell, A.W. (1973a). Angiosperms of the islands of the Gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, 
Principe, S. Tomé and Annobon). Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Bot. 4(8): 325-411. 
London. (Checklist with distributions.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare and threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of three species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic to 
Mbini, 58 endemic to Bioko and 17 endemic to Pagalu; no categories assigned. 


Additional References 

Exell, A.W. (1952/1955). The vegetation of the islands of the gulf of Guinea. Lejeunia 
16: 57-66. 

Exell, A.W. (1968). Principe, S. Tomé and Annobon. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), 
cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 132-134. (Includes lists of examples of endemic species for 
each of the three islands.) 

Exell, A.W. (1973b). Relagdes floristicas entre as ilhas do golfo da Guiné e destas com 
0 continente africano. Garcia de Orta, Sér. Bot. 1(1-2): 3-10. 

Guinea, E. (1968). Fernando Po. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 130-132. 

Mildbraed, J. (1922). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral- 
Afrika-Expedition 1910-1911, 2, Botanik. Klinkhardt and Biermann, Leipzig. 202 
pp. (With 90 plates of black and white photographs.) 


110 


Ethiopia 


Area 1,023,050 sq. km 
Population 35,420,000 


Floristics Cufodontis (1953-1972) includes 6283 species in his Enumeratio, cited 
in Appendix 1; also includes Somalia (c. 518 endemic species), but probably of the right 
order of magnitude for the flora of Ethiopia if Somalian endemics are excluded and new 
species and records included. Endemism fairly high in the mountains and in the sub-desert 
Ogaden in south-east Ethiopia; also the forests in the south-west. Brenan (1978, cited in 
Appendix 1) gives a value of almost 21% specific endemism from a sample of less than 
3000 species; this is almost certainly too high, 10% being probably more accurate. 


Large proportion of area in Afromontane region, with small pockets of the Afroalpine 
region at the highest altitudes; flora of these regions greatly impoverished, and related to 
the highland flora in other parts of Africa. Affinities also with the floras of South Africa, 
Europe and the Himalayas. Most of lowland southern Ethiopia belongs to the Somalia- 
Masai region with east African affinities, although forests of the south-west have links 
with the west African forests. Flora of western Ethiopia is Sudanian. 


Vegetation The natural vegetation of the plateaux and highlands above 1800 m is 
largely coniferous forest; most has disappeared and is only found in the more inaccessible 
regions; there are also expanses of mountain grassland. Zonation in the mountains from 
forest through bamboo and heath thicket to tufted grass moorland is similar to that on the 
high Kenyan mountains, but less well marked. In the south-west higher rainfall and lower 
elevation has produced extensive broadleaved rain forests with a high diversity of species. 
In the lowlands, there is a range of dry-zone vegetation, from limited areas of desert 
through Acacia-Commiphora bushland to Acacia woodland. Estimated rate of 
deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 60 sq. km/annum out of 27,500 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Ethiopia is included in Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae 
Spermatophyta (Cufodontis, 1953-1972), and in Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae, both 
cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Breitenbach, F. von (1963). The Indigenous Trees of Ethiopia, 2nd Rev. Ed. (ist Ed. 
1960). Ethiopian Forestry Association, Addis Ababa. 306 pp. (Keys to families, 
genera; full descriptions; 129 line drawings.) 

Burger, W.C. (1967). Families of Flowering Plants in Ethiopia. Experiment Station 
Bulletin No. 45, USAID, Oklahoma State Univ. Press, Oklahoma. 236 pp. (Keys to 
families; family descriptions; 74 line drawings.) 

Fiori, A. (1909-1912). Boschi e Piante Legnose dell’Eritrea. Firenze. 428 pp. 
(Illustrated; rather old, but gives records for rare plants.) 

Pirotta, R. (1903-1907). Flora della Colonia Eritrea, parts 1-3. Annuario del R. Istituto 
Botanico di Roma 8, Rome. 464 pp. (Never completed; final part lost by printers, 
according to Frodin.) 


There is a new project to write a Flora of Ethiopia headed by Professor Tewolde-Berhan of 
the University of Asmara. It is expected to take 15-20 years to complete and will comprise 
7 volumes. Volume 3 (including Leguminosae) and substantial parts of volume 2 are in 
manuscript. 


y) 111 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Field-guides 
Edwards, S. (1976). Some Wild Flowering Plants of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa. 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Ethiopia, pp. 92-93, by M.G. 
Gilbert, contains 29 endemic succulent taxa - E:1, V:4, R:12, 1:12.) 


IUCN has records of c. 450 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; only a 
few (mostly succulents) known to be rare or threatened. 


Two species which occur in Ethiopia are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book 
(1978). 


Useful Addresses 
Flora of Ethiopia project, P.O. Box 3434, Addis Ababa. 


Additional References 

Beals, E.W. (1968). Ethiopia. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 137-140. 

Friis, I. (1983). Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains. In 
Killick, D.J.B. (1983), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 525-532. 

Friis, I., Rasmussen, F.N. and Vollesen, K. (1982). Studies in the flora and vegetation 
of southwest Ethiopia. Opera Botanica 63: 1-70. 

Hedberg, I. (in prep.). Proceedings of a symposium on the Ethiopian flora held in 
Uppsala in May 1984. To be published in Symb. Bot. 

Hedberg, O. (1983). Ethiopian Flora project. In Killick, D.J.B. (1983), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 571-574. 

Logan, W.E.M. (1946). An introduction to the forests of central and southern 
Ethiopia. Inst. Pap. Imp. For. Inst. 24. 64 pp. (Includes small-scale vegetation 
map.) 

Pichi-Sermolli, R.E.G. (1957). Una carta geobotanica dell’ Africa orientale (Eritrea, 
Ethiopia, Somalia). Webbia 13: 15-132. (Includes map 1:5,000,000.) 


Faeroe Islands 


Over 20 islands in the north Atlantic between Shetland and Iceland, forming a self- 
governing community within the Kingdom of Denmark. 


Area 1399 sq. km 
Population 42,000 


Floristics 262 native vascular species (Hansen, 1972); 1 endemic species. 3 
floristic elements: Arctic (c. 25%), sub-Arctic (50%) and Atlantic (c. 25%). 


Vegetation Mostly dwarf scrub with bog and grassy heath communities. Above 
300 m alpine tundra covers the mountainous North Islands and the north-facing peaks of 
the Central Islands group (Warming, 1901-1908). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited 
in Appendix 1) and: 


112 


Faeroe Islands 


Ostenfeld, C.H. and Grontved, J. (1934). The Flora of Iceland and the Faeroes. Levin 
and Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 195 pp. 

Rasmiissen, R. (1952). Favoya Flora, 2nd Ed. Jacobsens, Torshavn. 231 pp. (School 
and excursion manual with keys; line drawings.) 


Field-guides 
Bloch, D. (1980). Faraflora. Foroza Frodstaparfelag, Torshavn. 156 pp. (English 
edition also available.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Only 1 non-endemic species is listed as 
threatened on the IUCN list, the orchid Hammarbya paludosa. 


Useful Addresses 
Museum of Natural History, 3800 Torshavn. 


Additional References 

Hansen, K. (1964). The botanical investigations of the Faroe Islands 1960-61 and some 
contributions to the Flora. Bot. Tidssk. 60(1-2): 99-107. 

Hansen, K. (1966). Vascular plants in the Faeroes. Horizontal and vertical distribution. 
Dansk Bot. Ark. 24(3): 1-141. (Distribution maps for vascular plants.) 

Hansen, K. (1972). Vertical vegetation zones and vertical distribution types in the 
Faeroes. Saertryk Bot. Tidssk. 67: 33-63. (Useful ecological description.) 

Warming, E. et al. (1901-1908). Botany of the Faeroes based upon Danish 
Investigations, 3 parts. Gyldendalske, Kobenhavn. (Part 3 contains a detailed 
phytosociological description by C.H. Ostenfeld, pp. 867-1026.) 


Falkland Islands (Islas 
Malvinas) 


The Falkland Islands, an archipelago 520 km east of the straits of Magellan, comprise two 
main islands, East Falkland (5000 sq. km) and West Falkland (3500 sq. km), together with 
about 230 smaller islands. The highest point is Mt Usborne (705 m) on East Falkland. They 
are a Dependent Territory of the U.K. 


Area 12,173 sq. km 
Population 2000 


Floristics 163 native species of flowering plants and pteridophytes, and 93 
introduced species; 16 endemic species (Moore, 1968). Phlebolobium (Cruciferae) is an 
endemic genus. Floristic affinities with the southern Andes and Patagonia. 


Vegetation Maritime tussock grassland, with Poa flabellata, now heavily 
overgrazed; Hebe and Chiliotrichum bush in places; dwarf shrub heath, dominated by 
Empetrum, on better drained ground; Cortaderia grassland in areas of poorer drainage; 
bog communities in very poorly drained areas; ‘feldmark’ formation above 600 m, in 
which there are large areas of open ground with cushion-forming vascular plants, mosses 
and lichens. 


113 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras 

Moore, D.M. (1968). The Vascular Flora of the Falkland Islands. British Antarctic 
Survey Scientific Report no. 60. NERC, London. 202 pp. (Includes description of 
vegetation.) 

Moore, D.M. (1973). Additions and amendments to the vascular flora of the Falkland 
Islands. Brit. Antarctic Survey Bull. 32: 85-88. 

Vallentin, E.F. and Cotton, E.M. (1921). I/lustrations of the Flowering Plants and 
Ferns of the Falkland Islands. Reeve, London. (64 colour plates, with text.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Calandrinia feltonii is included in The IUCN 
Plant Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:1, R:3, nt:8. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Falkland Islands Foundation, Hon. Secretary, c/o WWF-United Kingdom, Panda 
House, 11-13 Ockford Road, Godalming, Surrey GU7 1QU, U.K. 


Additional References 

Correa Luna, H. ef al. (1975). Campaijia cientifica en las Islas Malvinas, 1974 
(Noviembre 17 a Diciembre 2). Anal. Soc. Cientif. Argentina 199: 51-180. (Articles 
on conservation, agronomy, physiognomy and fauna by visiting Argentine 
scientists.) 

Erskine, P.J. (1985). Flowers of the Falklands. Alpine Garden Society Bulletin 53(1): 
69-87. (Notes on vegetation and 19 flowering plant species.) 

Skottsberg, C. (1913). A botanical survey of the Falkland Islands. K. Svenska Vetensk 
Akad. Hanadl. 50(3): 1-129. 


Falkland Islands: South 
Georgia 


South Georgia, a dependency of the Falkland Islands, is situated at latitude 54°S and 
longitude 36-38°W, 1287 km east of the Falkland Islands and 2000 km east of Tierra del 
Fuego. Area 3757 sq. km; the population comprises the staff of the British Antarctic 
Survey Station. Much of the land is permanently covered by ice. 


There are 24 native vascular species (Smith and Walton, 1975). The vegetation consists of 
coastal tussock grassland (mainly of Poa flabellata); dry meadows of Festuca contracta; 
dwarf shrub (Acacia magellanica) and mire communities on higher ground, and sparsely 
vegetated fell-fields in the more exposed high areas. 


References 

Greene, S.W. (1964). The Vascular Flora of South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey 
Scientific Report no. 45. London. 58 pp. (Includes distribution maps.) 

Greene, S.W. (1969). New records for South Georgian vascular plants. Brit. Antarctic 
Survey Bull. 22: 49-59. 

Greene, S.W. and Walton, D.W.H. (1975). An annotated checklist of the sub-antarctic 
and antarctic vascular flora. Polar Record 17(110): 473-484. 

Smith, R.I.L. and Walton, D.W.H. (1975). South Georgia, Subantarctic. Ecol. Bull. 
(Stockolm) 20: 399-423. 


114 


Falkland Islands: South Georgia 


Walton, D.W.H. (1975). Nomenclatural notes on South Georgian vascular plants. Brit. 
Antarctic Survey Bull. 40: 77-79. 


Falkland Islands: South 
Sandwich Islands 


The South Sandwich Islands, dependencies of the Falkland Islands, are a chain of 
uninhabited islands, of area 310 sq. km, situated 756 km south-east of South Georgia. 
They have active volcanoes and support very scattered communities of crustaceous lichens, 
algae and mosses. 58 plant species recorded, but only one species of higher plant 
(Deschampsia antarctica). 


References 
Longton, R.E. and Holdgate, M.W. (1979). The South Sandwich Islands: 4. Botany. 
British Antarctic Survey Scientific Report no. 94. NERC, Cambridge. 53 pp. 
(Includes checklist and description of plant communities.) 


Fiji 


The Fiji group includes some 332 islands in the south-west Pacific Ocean, between 
latitudes 10° and 25°S, and longitudes 176°E and 173°W, about 2000 km north north-west 
of New Zealand. 3 types of islands: high volcanic islands, reaching 1323 m on Viti Levu; 
limestone islands; and low coral islands and atolls. About 97 islands permanently 
inhabited; most of the population live on the coast and along river valleys on Viti Levu and 
Vanua Levu. 


Area 18,235 sq. km 
Population 674,000 


Floristics c. 1500 native vascular plant species, including 310 pteridophytes; in 
addition there are c. 1000 introduced flowering plant species (A.C. Smith, 1984, in Jitt.). 
About 40-50% of native species are endemic, including all 26 palm species (Smith, in Jitt.). 
One family and 11 genera endemic (van Balgooy, 1971, cited in Appendix 1). Floristic 
affinities with Malesia, New Hebrides, Samoa and Tonga. 


Vegetation Rain forest (veikauloa) in south and east of larger islands and most 
parts of small volcanic islands, where not disturbed (Smith, 1951); montane rain forest up 
to 1735 m (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Dry zone (talasinga) vegetation, including 
dry forests, savanna woodlands and grasslands on north and west slopes of large islands 
and inland to 450 m; dry forest mostly replaced by sugar cane plantations. Intermediate 
zone vegetation immediately leeward of wet forests. Mangrove forest still extensive along 
larger rivers and muddy coasts. Natural forest cover is estimated at 8650 sq. km (S. 
Siwatibau, 1984, in /itt.). For an account of the vegetation see Schmid (1978). 


115 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 
Checklists and Floras The Flora is: 


Smith, A.C. (1979- ). Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New Flora of Fiji. Pacific Tropical 
Botanic Garden, Hawaii. (2 vols so far. 1 - Gymnosperms and monocotyledons 
except orchids, 495 pp.; 2 - dicotyledons, 810 pp.; 3,4 - dicotyledons and orchids, 
in prep.) 


Also relevant: 


Brownlie, C. (1977). The Pteridophyte Flora of Fiji. Cramer, FL-9490, Vaduz, 
Liechtenstein. 397 pp. 

Parham, J.W. (1972). Plants of the Fiji Islands, 2nd Ed. Govt Printer, Suva. 462 pp. 
(Checklist with short descriptions and line drawings.) 

Seemann, B. (1865-1873). Flora Vitiensis: A Description of the Plants of the Viti or Fiji 
Islands, with an Account of their History, Uses and Properties. London. 453 pp. 
(Reprinted 1977 by Cramer, FL-9490, Vaduz, Liechtenstein; many colour plates.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No comprehensive list of threatened plants. 
An IUCN manuscript list of Fijian palms includes E:1, V:2, R:14, I:5. Neoveitchia storckii 
is included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Voluntary Organizations 
The National Trust of Fiji, P.O. Box 2089, Government Buildings, Suva. (Government 
statutory body with a voluntary membership.) 


Botanic Gardens 
Suva Botanical Gardens, Box 176, Suva, Fiji. 


Additional References 

Berry, M.J. and Howard, W.J. (1973). Fiji Forest Inventory, 3 vols. Land Resources 
Study no. 12. Overseas Development Administration, Tolworth, U.K. 

Derrick, R.A. (1965). The Fiji Islands: A Geographical Handbook, 2nd Ed. 
Government Press, Suva. 336 pp. 

Schmid, M. (1978) The Melanesian forest ecosystems (New Caledonia, New Hebrides, 
Fiji Islands and Solomon Islands). In Unesco/UNEP/FAO (1978), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 654-683. 

Smith, A.C. (1951). The vegetation and flora of Fiji. Scientific Monthly 73: 3-15. 


Finland 


Area 337,032 sq. km 
Population 4,859,000 


Floristics About 1100 native vascular species (Hamet-Ahti ef al., 1984); 
1250-1450 species estimated by D.A. Webb (cited in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; no 
endemics. Entire country was glaciated so flora still young. Elements: mostly Boreal, with 
some Arctic/alpine influence in the mountains of the north. 


Vegetation Extensive tracts of natural, coniferous forests cover about 70% of 
land surface, open mires about 10%, and treeless alpine areas 5%. In the north, a narrow 
lichen-tundra belt; in central northern Finland, extensive areas of peat bogs bordered by 
pine and spruce (Finland, Sweden and Norway contain 80% of Europe’s peatlands); south 


116 


Finland 


of the Arctic Circle, pine is more widespread with heathlands; in the south, herb-rich 
meadows, once abundant, now disappearing, due to decline of traditional agriculture. 
c. 60,000 lakes throughout the country support extensive shore-line vegetation. 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1) and the below: 


Hiitonen, I. (1933). Suomen Kasvio (Flora of Finland). Kustannusosakeyhtié Otava, 
Helsinki. 771 pp. (In Finnish; illus.) 

Hjelt, H. (1888-1926). Conspectus florae Fennicae, 7 vols. Acta Soc. Fauna Flora 
Fennica 5: 1-562; 21: 1-261; 30: 1-140; 35: 1-411; 41: 1-502; 51: 1-450; 54: 1-397. (In 
Latin and Swedish.) 


A regional plant atlas is Hultén (1971), cited in Appendix 1. For a bibliography of recent 
floristic work see: 


Collander, R., Erkamo, V. and Lehtonen, P. (1973). Bibliographica Botanica Fenniae 
1901-1950. Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica. 646 pp. 

Jalas, J. (1975). Progress in the study of vascular plants in Finland 1962-1971. Mem. 
Soc. Brot. 24(2): 395-462. 


National botanical journals: Annales Bot. Fennici, Helsinki; Memoranda Soc. Fauna 
Flora Fennica, Helsinki; Acta Bot. Fennica, Helsinki. 


The Botanical Museum of the University of Helsinki operates a computerized ‘Flora 
Register’ containing information about vascular plant species gathered from literature, 
herbarium specimens and other unpublished sources. At present it contains over | million 
records, including information on threatened plants. 


Field-guides 
Hamet-Ahti, L., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T., Uotila, P. and Vuokko, S. (Eds), (1984). 
Retkeilykasvio (Field Flora of Finland). Helsinki. 544 pp. (Keys; distribution maps 
at Province level; line drawings; in Finnish.) 
Hiitonen, I. and Poijarvi, A. (1958). Koulu-ja retkeilykasvio (School and excursion 
Flora), 9th Ed. Helsinki. 472 pp. (In Finnish.) 


Information on Threatened Plants A national threatened plant programme is 
being undertaken by the Committee for the Protection of Threatened Animals and Plants, 
in the Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation Division, Helsinki (address 
below). This programme includes the production of a national Red Data Book, for 
publication in 1985, and the development of a national protection and monitoring scheme. 
Preliminary lists of threatened plants have been compiled for both vascular and lower 
plants. For vascular plants both national and regional lists will be produced. They are 
presently available in the following reference book: 


Vuokko, S. (1983). Uhatut kasvimme (Our threatened plants). Suomen 
Luonnonsuojelun Tuki Oy, Helsinki. 96 pp. (Popular book including lists of 
protected plants in Finland, Aland and the rest of Scandinavia; illus.) 


The lists update the earlier national threatened plant list, which was produced in 
collaboration with WWF-Finland: 


Borg, P. and Malmstrém, K. (1975). Suomen uhanalaiset eldin-ja kasvilajit (Threatened 
animals and plants in Finland). Luonnon Tutkija 79: 33-43. (Lists 62 vascular plant 
species threatened throughout the country.) 


Also relevant: 


~ 


117 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Haeggstrém, C.-A., Haeggstrom, E. and Lindgren, L. (1982). Rapport om fridlysta 
och sdllsynta vaéxter pa Aland (Report on the protected and rare plants on the Aland 
Islands). Naté biologiska station. 137 pp. 

Kaakinen, E., Salminen, P. and Ulvinen, T. (1979). Lapin kolmion lettojen tuho 
(Fenland loss in the Lapland Triangle). Suomen Luonto 38: 130-131. (Describes 
plant species on the decline.) 

Murto, R. (1982). Tutkimuksia Uudenmaan Ldédnin Uhanalaisista Kasveista. 1. 
Tammisaaren ja Inkoon saaristo. (Studies on the threatened plants in the Province 
of Uusimaa. 1. Archipelago of Tammisaari and Inkoo.) Helsingin yliopiston 
kasvimuseo. 62 pp. (To be continued.) 

Suominen, J. (1974). Tuloksia uhanalaisten kasvien tiedustelusta (Results from an 
enquiry about endangered plants in Finland). Suomen Luonto 33: 24, 29. 

Tampereen seutukaavaliitto. (1982). Pirkanmaan uhanalaiset kasvit ja niiden 
esiintymisalueet (Threatened plants and their localities in the Province of Tampere). 
Tampereen seutukaavaliiton julkaisu, Ser. B, 116: 1-22. 

Uotila, P. (1983). Project hotade vaxter i Nylands lan (Projects about threatened plants 
in the Province of Uusimaa, S. Finland). Memoranda Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 59: 
106-112. (Maps.) 


Finland is included in the Nordic Council of Ministers’ threatened plant list and 
supplements (Ovesen ef. a/, 1978 and 1982) and in the European list (Threatened Plants 
Unit, 1983), all cited in Appendix 1; latest IUCN statistics, based upon the latter: non- 
endemics rare or threatened worldwide - V:7, R:6, I:1 (world categories). 


In May 1984, WWF-Finland launched a national Plants Campaign in the Botanical 
Garden and Department of Botany in the University of Helsinki, as part of their 
contribution to the IUCN/WWFEF Plants Programme 1984-85. Further details available 
from WWF-Finland and the Garden (addresses below). 


Laws Protecting Plants The recent 1983 law (Laki luonnonsuojelulain 
muuttamisesta) strengthens the earlier Nature Conservation Act of 1952. Under the new 
law, in the Statute on the Protection of Wild Plants, 94 vascular plant species receive 
complete protection, an additional 9 species receive complete protection in southern 
Finland only and 8 species in northern Finland only. It is prohibited to pick, damage or 
transport any of the species listed. It is also forbidden to use for trade purposes a further 7 
species, listed in paragraph 4 of the Statute. Breaking the branches of Hippophae 
rhamnoides is also prohibited. 


In the autonomous islands of Aland, the recent 1984 Statute (above), provides complete 
protection (stricter than that for the mainland species) for 52 vascular plant species. It is 
also forbidden to uproot Dactylorhiza sambucina and to cut down wild Quercus robur or 
Juniperus communis of a size specified in the Statute. For the list of protected species see 
Vuokko (1983). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Suomen Luonnonsuojeluliitto (Finnish Association for Nature Protection), P.O. Box 
169, 00151 Helsinki. 
WWFE-Finland (Maailman Luonnon Saati6n Suomen Rahasto), Uudenmaankatu 40, 
00120 Helsinki. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Garden, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 44, 00170 Helsinki. 
Botanic Garden, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu 10. 
Botanic Garden, University of Jyvaskyla, Yliopistonkatu 9, 40100 Jyvaskyla. 


118 


Finland 


Botanic Garden, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 138, 70101 Kuopio. 
Botanic Garden, University of Oulu, Box 191, 90101 Oulu 10. 
Botanic Garden, University of Turku, 20500 Turku 50. 


Useful Addresses 

Maa-ja Metsalousministeri6, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Bureau of Natural 
Resources, Vuorikatu 16, Helsinki 10. 

Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation Division, P.O. Box 306, 00531 
Helsinki. 

National Board of Forestry, P.O. Box 233, 00120 Helsinki. (11 provincial offices and 
several local offices.) 

CITES Management and Scientific Authority: Committee for the Protection of 
threatened animals and plants, Ministry of the Environment, address above. 


Additional References 
Kalliola, R. (1970). Some features of nature and conservation in Finland. Biol. 
Conserv. 2(2): 120-124. 
Kalliola, R. (1973). Suomen kasvimaantiede. Porvoo. 308 pp. (The plant geography of 
Finland, with good bibliography.) 
Jalas, J. (1958, 1965, 1980). Suuri Kasvikirja (The Great Plant Book), 3 vols. Otava, 
Keuruu-Helsinki. (A national account of floristics.) 


France 


Area 549,619 sq. km 
Population 54,449,000 


Floristics 4300-4450 native vascular species estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 73 endemic taxa (IUCN figures). Diversity greatest 
in montane areas: Pyrenees, Massif Central, Alps and Jura. Elements: Mediterranean, 
Central European, Atlantic, Boreal and alpine. 


Vegetation Largely an agricultural landscape, especially in north and west-central 
regions. About 1/4 of total land area (c. 140,000 sq. km) under forest, comprising 2/3 
deciduous broadleaved (2/3 of which is coppice) and 1/3 evergreen. The 4 main montane 
areas (listed above) support a notable alpine flora. Dry grassland is still extensive, but is 
shrinking fast due to agricultural change; valuable areas remain in the Jura, pre-Alps, 
Quercy and the Causses (Wolkinger and Plank, 1981, cited in Appendix 1). On south 
coast, Mediterranean influence present (Quercus ilex, Q. pubescens, Q. mas) with garigue 
and diminishing areas of maquis. For a vegetation map see Rey and Dupias (1969). 


Checklists and Floras France is covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin 
et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). France will also be covered under the Med- 
Checklist (cited in Appendix 1). For national Floras see: 


Bonnier, G. and Douin, R. (1911-1935). Flore Complete Illustrée en Couleurs de 
France, Suisse et Belgique, 13 vols. Neuchatel. (Colour plates.) 

Coste, H. (1901-1906). Flore de la France, 3 vols. Klincksieck, Paris. 5 supplements by 
P. Jovet and R. de Vilmorin. Blanchard, Paris. (Reprinted 1937, 1950.) 


119 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Fournier, P. (1977). Les Quatre Flores de la France, 2nd Ed. 2 vols. Lechevalier, Paris. 
(1 - descriptions, 2 - line drawings.) 

Guinochet, M. and Vilmorin, R. de (1973-1982). Flore de France, 4 vols. Centre 
National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. (Includes Corsica; line drawings; 
habitat and ecological details.) 


Regional Floras: 


Abbayes, H. des, Claustres, G., Corillion, R. and Dupont, P. (Eds) (1971). Flore et 
Végétation du Massif Armoricain 1: Flore Vasculaire. Presses Universitaires de 
Bretagne, Saint-Brieuc. 1226 pp. (Covers the Départements of Morbihan, Loire- 
Atlantique, Finistére, C6tes-du-Nord, Ille-et-Vilaine, most of Mayenne; line 
drawings.) 

De Langhe, J.-E. et al. (1978). Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de 
Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions Voisines. Jardin Botanique 
National de Belgique, Meise. 899 pp. 


Field-guides 

Bournerias, M. (1979). Guide des Groupements Végétaux de la Région Parisienne, 
2nd Ed. 510 pp. 

Claustres, G. and Lemoine, C. (1980). Connaitre et Reconnaitre la Flore et la 
Végétation des Cétes Manche-Atlantique. Rennes. 331 pp. (Ecological information; 
illus.) 

Guittonneau, A. and Huon, A. (1983). Connaitre et Reconnaitre la Flore et la 
Végétation Mediterranénnes. Rennes. 334 pp. 

Jeanjean, A.F. (1961). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires de la Gironde. Bordeaux. 

362 pp. 

Rol, R. (1962-1965). Flore des Arbres, Arbustes et Arbrisseaux, 4 vols. La Maison 
Rustique, Paris. (1 - plaines et collines; 2 - montagnes, by R. Rol and 
P. Toulgouat; 3 - région mediterranéenne, by R. Rol and M. Jacamon; 4 - essences 
introduites, by R. Rol and P. Toulgouat; colour photographs.) 

Romagnesi, H. and Weill, J. (1977). Fleurs Sauvages de France et des Régions 
Limitrophes, 2 vols. 288 pp. 

Stefenelli, S. (1979). Guide des Fleurs de Montagne: Pyrenees - Massif-Central - Alpes 
— Apennins (French adaptation). Duculot, Paris-Gembloux. 160 pp. (Colour 
photographs and ecological data for each species.) 


See also Grey-Wilson (1979) and Polunin and Smythies (1973), both cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants No national Red Data Book but a series of 3 
unpublished papers compiled under the direction of the Ministére de la Qualité de la Vie: 


Aymonin, G.G. (1974-1977). Etudes sur les régressions d’espéces végétales en France. 
Rapport No.1 - Espéces végétales considérées comme actuellement disparues du 
territoire; Rapport No.2 - Listes préliminaires des espéces endémiques et des espéces 
menacées en France; Rapport No.3 - Liste générale des espéces justifiant des 
mesures de protection. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. (Unpublished; 
reports 1 and 2 list over 1000 taxa; report 3 analyses the data in 1 and 2 and 
recommends levels of protection.) 


See also: 


Aymonin, G.G. (1973). Quelques raréfactions et disparitions d’espéces végétales en 
France. Causes possibles et consequences chorologiques. C.R. Soc. Biogéogr. 430: 
49-64. 


120 


France 


Aymonin, G.G. (1980a). Stratégies de sauvegarde pour les espéces végétales. Quelques 
aspects recents. Bull. Soc. Et. Sc. Beziers, n.s. 8(48): 24-37. 

Aymonin, G.G. (1980b). Une estimation du degré de modification des milieux naturels: 
l’analyse des régressions dans la flore. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 127(2): 187-195. 

Aymonin, G.G. (1981). Sur quelques espéces remarquables des complexes boisés de 
Bourgogne et leur situation de régression en Europe. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 
128(3/4): 95-100. 

Aymonin, G.G. (1982). Phénoménes de déséquilibres et appauvrissements floristiques 
dans les végétations hygrophiles en France. In Symoens, J.J., Hooper, S.S. and 
Compére, P. (Eds), Studies on Aquatic Vascular Plants, Proceedings of the 
International Colloquium on Aquatic Vascular Plants, 23-25 January 1981, Brussels. 
Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Brussels. Pp. 377-389. 

Binet, P. and Provost, M. (1971). Les plantes rares en Normandie. Sci. Nat. 103: 2-6. 

Bournerias, M. (1983). Espéces végétales protégées, espéces et biotopes a protéger dans 
le bassin de la Seine et le Nord de la France. Nat. Par. 39: 19-36. 

Daunas, R. (1977). La protection des espéces végétales en France: plantes rares ou en 
voie de disparition en Poitou-Charentes et Régions limitrophes. Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Centre-Ouest, n.s. 8: 133-138. (Includes a list of plants in need of national 
protection.) 

Deschatres, R. (1982). Plantes rares, plantes menacées, plantes protegées. Rev. Scient. 
Bourb. 3-24. (Not seen.) 

Jovet, P. and Aymonin, G.G. (1980). Phénoménes d’appauvrissement dans une flore 
locale et leur signification générale: L’exemple du Pays Basque occidental francais. 
C.R. Soc. Biogéogr. 489: 31-40. 

Le Brun, P. (1959). Plantes rares et menacées de la France mediterranéene. In Animaux 
et Végétaux de la Région Mediterranéene, Proceedings of the IUCN 7th Technical 
Meeting, vol. 5. IUCN, Brussels. Pp. 103-111. 

Mériaux, J.-L. (1982). Espéces rares ou menacées des biotopes lacustres et fluviatiles du 
nord de la France. In Symoens, J.J., Hooper, S.S. and Compére, P. (Eds), Studies 
on Aquatic Vascular Plants, Proceedings of the International Colloquium on 
Aquatic Vascular Plants, 23-25 January 1981, Brussels. Société Royale de Botanique 
de Belgique, Brussels. Pp. 398-402. 

Royer, J.-M. (1971). Repartition et écologie de quelques plantes rares de la céte 
calcaire de Sa6ne-et-Loire. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 40(8): 243-249. (Maps.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - Ex:4, E:7, V:10, 
R:24, 1:2, K:15, nt:11; doubtfully endemic taxa - V:1, R:1, K:1; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - E:3, V:39, R:22, I:8 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which includes data sheets on 16 French Endangered plant species. The IUCN Plant Red 
Data Book (1978) includes 4 species for France. 


Laws Protecting Plants Under the ‘‘Protection de la nature’? Law, No. 76-629 of 
1976, general protection is given to wild plants ‘‘where their conservation is considered 
justified’’. More recently (13 May 1982) a list of protected plant species was published ' 
(Anon, 1982 and 1983) granting 2 levels of protection under this law to c. 400 species of 
pteridophytes and angiosperms. Over 300 of these species receive complete protection 
throughout the country from picking, collection, uprooting and sale. For the remaining 


ae 121 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


species, it is forbidden to destroy all or part of them; their collecting, harvesting or 
transport may be authorized by the Ministére de L’Environnement et du Cadre de Vie. 


Anon (1982). Listes des espéces végétales protégées sur l’ensemble du territoire 
national. J. Off. Rép. Francaise, 13 May, 1982. Pp. 4559-4562. 

Anon (1983). Listes départementales des espéces végétales protégées sur l’ensemble du 
territoire national. Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest. n.s. 14: 13-16. 


Voluntary Organizations 

Fédération Francaise des Sociétés de Protection de la Nature (FFSPN), 57 rue Cuvier, 
75005 Paris. 

Société Botanique de France, rue J.-B. Clément, 92290 Chatenay-Malabry, C.C.P. 
Paris 1528. 

Société Nationale de Protection de la Nature et d’Acclimation de France (SNPN). 
(Address as for the FFSPN.) 

WWF-France (Association Francaise du World Wildlife Fund), 14 rue de la Cure, 
75016 Paris. 


Some members of FFSPN: 


Fédération Rhone-Alpes pour la Protection de la Nature (FRAPNA), Univ. Claude 
Bernard, 43 bd, 69622 Villeurbane Cedex. 

Société pour |’Etude et la Protection de la Nature en Bretagne (SEPNB), BP 32, 29276 
Brest Cedex. 


Botanic Gardens Many, as listed in Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1; only 
subscribers to the Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body are given below: 


Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles, Parque National de Port-Cros, 50 Avenue 
Gambetta, 83400 Hyéres. (Conservation activities described in Threatened Plants 
Committee - Newsletter No. 8: 11, 1981.) 

Conservatoire Botanique du Stangelarc’h, 29200 Brest. 

Jardins Botaniques de la Ville de Nice, 20 Traverse des Arboras, 06200 Nice. 

Jardins Botaniques de Nancy, 100 rue du Jardin Botanique, 54600 Villers-Les-Nancy. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Direction de la Protection de la Nature, Convention de 
Washington, Secretariat d’Etat auprés du Premier Ministre, charge de 
l’Environnement et de la Qualité de la Vie, 14 bd du General-Leclerc, 92524 Neuilly- 
sur-Seine. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Secretariat Faune Flore, Museum National d’Histoire 
Naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05. 


Additional References 

Bordas (Ed.) (1979). Guide de la Nature en France. Paris. 504 pp. (Includes description 
of flora and vegetation.) 

Olivier, L. (1979). Multiplication and re-introduction of threatened species of the 
littoral dunes in Mediterranean France. In Synge, H. and Townsend, H. (Eds), 
Survival or Extinction. Proceedings of a Conference 11-17 September 1978, Kew. 
Bentham-Moxon Trust, Kew. Pp. 91-93. 

Rey, P. and Dupias, G. (Eds) (1969). Carte de la Végétation de la France, 1:200,000. 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Toulouse, Paris. 


122 


France: Corsica 


(A département of France) 


Area 8723 sq. km 
Population 230,100 (1981 estimate, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics 2159-2250 native vascular species estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 2500 species according to Gamisans (1982). 31 
endemic taxa (IUCN figures); 170 according to Contandriopoulos (1964); as many as 250 
estimated by M. Conrad (1984, in litt.), but this includes varieties, not normally included 
by IUCN (and Flora Europaea) for Europe, and transfrontier endemics. Mediterranean 
element dominant. 


Vegetation Coastal and lowland vegetation much modified by agriculture and 
tourism but maquis still widespread up to 800 m, especially on siliceous soils, with 
scattered oaks (Quercus ilex, Q. suber) and pine (Pinus halepensis). In the supra- 
mediterranean zone (800-1000 m), mixed deciduous and evergreen woodland (Q. 
pubescens, Pinus nigra ssp. laricio, Castanea sativa); in the mountain zone (1000-1700 m), 
mainly forest of beech and pine (P. nigra ssp. Jaricio); in the north a subalpine zone 
(1600-2100 m) with white fir (Abies alba) or bushland with alder; in the south, between 
1800-2200 m, shrub belt with juniper; alpine belt (above 2100 m) of species-rich grassland. 
For a vegetation map see Dupias et al. (1965). 


Checklists and Floras See under France and: 


Bouchard, J. (1977). Flore pratique de la Corse, 3rd Ed. Numéro spécial du Bull. Soc. 
Sci. Hist. Nat. Corse, No. 7. Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de la 
Corse, Bastia. 407 pp. (Lists endemic taxa; phytogeography; maps; line drawings.) 

Conrad, M. (1974- ). Flora Corsicana Iconographia: Flore de la Corse: Iconographie 
des Espéces et Variétés Endémiques Corses, Cyrno-sardes et Tyrrhéniennes. 

L’ Association pour |’Etude Ecologique du Maquis (APEEM), Laboratoire 
d’Ecologie de Pirio, Manso, Corse. 5 fascicles published, 2 in press. (Colour plates.) 

Gamisans, J. (1982). Catalogue abrégé de la Flore de la Corse. Trav. Sci. Parc Nation. 
8: 25-671. 

Litardiére, R. de and Briquet, J. (1936-1955). Prodrome de la Flore Corse, 3 vols. 


Field-guides 
Conrad, M. (1973). Promenades en Corse parmi ses Fleurs et ses Foréts. Archives 
départementales, Ajaccio. 


Information on Threatened Plants See under France and: 


Conrad, M. and Gamisans, J. (Eds) (n.d.). Les espéces végétales les plus menacées en 
Corse. Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles. (Unpublished.) 

Gamisans, J., Conrad, M. and Olivier, L. (1981). Inventaire des espéces rares ou 
menacées de la Corse; la situation des espéces menacées de la Corse. Conservatoire 
Botanique de Porquerolles, Hyéres. (2 unpublished reports; describe conservation 
status and habitats of over 300 rare or threatened taxa.) 


A programme to monitor the status of rare and threatened plants in Corsica is being 
undertaken at the Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles, Hyéres, in association with 
the Parc Naturel Régional de la Corse. This includes maintaining a list of rare and 


123 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


threatened taxa, protecting their localities in the wild, developing a seed bank and 
maintaining stocks in cultivation. 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:2, V:2, 
R:11, nt:15; doubtfully endemic taxa - E:1; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - 
E:2, V:5, R:4 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants See under France. A separate ordinance has recently been 
proposed for species threatened in Corsica only. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Association des Amis du Parc Naturel Régional de la Corse, Palais Lantivy, avenue du 
Général Fiorella, 20,000 Ajaccio. 
Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de la Corse, 36 rue César Campinchi, 
20200 Bastia. 


Botanic Gardens See under France. The following botanic gardens actively 
participate in the conservation of the Corsican flora: 


Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles, 50 Avenue Gambetta, 83400 Hyéres, France. 
Conservatoire Botanique du Stangalarc’h, 29200 Brest, France. 

Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Case postale 21, 1211 Geneve 21, Switzerland. 
Jardin Botanique de |’Université Liége, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liége, Belgium. 


Useful Addresses 
Association pour |’Etude Ecologique de Maquis (APEEM), Lycée Giocante de 
Casabianca, 20200 Bastia. 
Comité pour l’inventaire des zones naturelles d’intérét écologique, faunistique et 
floristique, Credec, 1 Avenue du Colonel Feracci, 20250 Corte. 


Additional References 

Aymonin, G.G. (1975). La nature Corse: menaces et espoirs (propos préliminaire). 
Bull. Soc. Bot. France 121: 5-8. 

Brun, B., Conrad, M. and Gamisans, J. (1975). La Nature en France: Corse. Horizons 
de France, Paris. 

Contandriopoulos, J. (1964). Recherches sur la flore endémique de la Corse et sur ses 
origines II. Rev. Gén. Bot. 71(845): 361-384. 

Delvosalle, L. (1953). Aspects végétaux de la Corse. Naturalistes Belges 34(12): 
234-248. 

Dupias, J. (1976, 1978). La végétation des montagnes Corses. Phytocoenologie 3: 4; 
4:1-4. 

Dupias, G., Gaussen, H., Izard, M. and Rey, P. (1965). Carte de la Végétation de la 
France. No. 80-81 Corse. CNRS, Paris. (Text and map, 1:200,000.) 

Gamisans, J. (1970-1983). Contribution a l’étude de la flore Corse. Candollea 25(1): 
105-141 (1970); 26(2): 309-358 (1971); 27(1): 47-63 (1972); 27(2): 189-209 (1972); 
28(1): 39-82 (1973); 29(1): 39-55 (1974); 32(1): 51-72 (1977); 36(1):1-17 (1981); 38(1): 
217-235 (1983). 

Gamisans, J. (1977). La végétation des montagnes Corses. Phytocoenologie 4(1): 
35-131; 4(2): 133-179; 4(3): 317-376. (Several papers, giving detailed 
phytosociological accounts.) 

Gamisans, J. (1980). Bibliographie Botanique Corse, 1955-1979. Candollea 35(1): 
211-221. 


124 


France: Corsica 


Litardiére, R. de (1928-1955). Nouvelles contributions a l’étude de la flore de la Corse. 
9 fascicles. Arch. Bot. (1928-1930) and Candollea (1931-1955). 


French Guiana 


French Guiana is an overseas département of France on the Atlantic north-east coast of 
South America. 


Area 91,000 sq. km 
Population 72,000 


Floristics de Granville (1982) estimates 6000-8000 species of vascular plants; J.C. 
Lindeman (1984, pers. comm.), however, estimates 8000 species of vascular plants for all 3 
Guianas, implying the total for French Guiana is rather lower. Cremers (1984) estimates 
about 5000 plant species. Affinities with Amazonian forest flora; still imperfectly known. 


Vegetation Over 90% of the country, undisturbed equatorial rain forest of 
Amazon type; above 500 m small areas of cloud forest, rich in endemics; along the coast a 
thin strip of mangrove; covering less than 1.7% of the land are coastal swamps and wet 
and dry savannas and rock savannas on granite outcrops (de Granville, 1982). Estimated 
rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 10 sq. km/annum out of 89,000 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica, described in Appendix 1. The country Floras are: 


Béna, P. (1966). Essences forestiéres de Guyane. Bureau Agricole et Forestier 
Guyanais, Imprimerie National, Paris. 488 pp. (Trees, illus.) 

Benoist, R. (1933). Les Bois de la Guyane Francaise. Ed. des Archives de Botanique, 
Caen, France. 

Granville, J.-J. de (1978). Recherches Sur la Flore et La Vegetation Guyanaises. 
Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, Montpellier. Thesis. 272 pp. 
Lemée, A. (1952-56). Flore de la Guyane Francaise, 4 vols. Librairie Lechevalier, Paris. 

(Descriptions; keys only to genera, in selected families.) 


A 30-year project to prepare the Flora of the Guianas is being coordinated by the Institute 
of Systematic Botany, University of the Utrecht, The Netherlands, and the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., in collaboration with Office de la Recherche Scientifique 
et Technique Outre-Mer, Cayenne, French Guiana, and other leading botanical 
institutions. Part 1 (Cannaceae, Musaceae and Zingiberaceae by P.J.M. Maas) is in press. 


Field-guides 

Cremers, G. (1982). Végétation et Flore illustrée des savanes: l’example de la Savane 
Bordelaise. Collection ‘‘La Nature de l’Homme en Guyane’’, ORSTOM, Cayenne. 

Detienne, P., Jacquet, P. and Mariaux, A. (1982). Manuel d’identification des Bois 
Tropicaux. Tome 3: Guyane francaise. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical. Nogent 
sur Marne, France. 

Granville, J.-J. de (1981). Flore et Végétation. Office Départemental du Tourisme de la 
Guyane. Cayenne. 


125 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Information on Threatened Plants J.-J. de Granville and G. Cremers have 
prepared a list of 90 very rare species endemic to French Guiana, 35 of them not yet 
described, and of 172 non-endemic species very rare in French Guiana. According to de 
Granville (1984, pers. comm.), the endemic list ‘‘will certainly increase in the future’’. 
These lists form the basis for a list of 14 botanical reserves proposed by de Granville 
(1975). 


Voluntary Organizations 
IBIS, Mouvement pour le Respect et la Conservation du Patrimoine Naturel Guyanais, 
99 rue du Lieutenant Becker, 97300 Cayenne. 
Société pour l’Etude, la Protection et l’Aménagement de la Nature en Guyane 
(SEPANGUY), c/o Services Vétérinaires, Avenue Pasteur, B.P. 411, 97300 
Cayenne, and B.P. 120, 97310 Kourou. 


Botanic Gardens 
Institut de Botanique, ORSTOM, Ronte de Montabo, B.P. 165, 97301 Cayenne Cedex. 
(Very small.) 
Jardin Botanique Municipal, 97300 Cayenne. (No plants from French Guiana.) 


Useful Addresses 

Délégation Régionale a |’Architecture et 4 l’?Environnement (Guadeloupe-Guyane- 
Martinique), B.P. 1002, 97178 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe. 

Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 1, P.O. Box 
80102, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. 

Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), Route de 
Motabo, B.P. 165, 97305 Cayenne Cedex. 

CITES Management Authority: Direction de la Protection de la Nature Convention de 
Washington, Secrétariat d’Etat auprés du Premier Ministre, Chargé de 
l’Environnement et de la Qualité de la Vie, 14 bd du Général Leclerc, 92524 Neuilly- 
Sur-Seine, France. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Secrétariat Faune et Flore, Muséum National d’Histoire 
Naturelle, 35 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. 


Additional References 

Atlas des Départements d’Outre-mer: 4 - La Guyane (1979). CNRS/ORSTOM, Paris, 
France. (Maps with chapters on topography, geology, geomorphology, pedology, 
hydrology, vegetation and climate.) 

Benoist, R. (1924, 1925). La végétation de la Guyane Frangaise. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 
71: 1169-1177; 72: 1066-1078. 

Cremers, G. (1984). L’Herbier du Centre ORSTOM de Cayenne 4a 25 ans. Taxon 33: 
428-432. 

Granville, J.-J. de (1975). Projets de réserves botaniques et forestiéres en Guyane. 
ORSTOM, Cayenne. 29 pp. (16 maps.) 

Granville, J.-J. de (1978). Recherches sur la flore et la végétation Guyanaises. Doctor’s 
Thesis, Univ. Languedoc, Montpellier. 277 pp. 

Granville, J.-J. de (1982). Rain forest and xeric flora refuges in French Guiana. In 
Prance, G. (Ed.) (1982), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 159-181. (Vegetation map.) 

Hoock, J. (1971). Les savanes guyanaises: Kourou. Essai de phytoécologie numérique. 
Mémoire ORSTOM No. 44, Paris. 


126 


Gabon 


Area 267,667 sq. km 
Population 1,146,000 


Floristics c. 8000 species in the forests (F.J. Breteler, 1984, in /itt.); c. 6,000 
species (Floret, 1976; Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1); no accurate figure for endemism 
available, but out of the 23 parts of the Flore du Gabon published by 1978, 243 species out 
of 1333 total (just over 22%) were endemic (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). Floristic 
affinities Guinea-Congolian. 


Vegetation Predominantly lowland rain forest, with mangrove and swamp forest 
at the coast and considerable areas of secondary grassland; forest as a whole covers 85% 
of the area. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 150 sq. 
km/annum out of 205,000 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). According to Myers (1980, cited in 
Appendix 1), who gives the same figure for the coverage of moist forest, evergreen rain 
forest covers 25,000 sq. km near the coast; most of the remainder is evergreen or semi- 
deciduous moist forest. As Gabon’s forests are relatively intact and floristically rich, they 
are likely to become an important target area for plant conservation. The forests near the 
coast are the least well preserved, supporting the densest population. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras 
Aubréville, A. et al. (Eds) (1961- ). Flore du Gabon, 25 fasc. Muséum National 
d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. (About a quarter completed; 62 families covered so far, 
including Caesalpiniaceae and Rubiaceae.) 
Saint Aubin, G. de (1963). La Forét du Gabon. Publication No. 21, Centre Technique 
Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne. 208 pp. (Descriptions, distributions; black 
and white photographs throughout.) 


Field-guides Letouzey (1969-1972), cited in Appendix 1, contains information 
about the forests of Gabon. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 340 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic: E:1, 
V:9, R:44, 1:31, nt:6; the remainder are K. 


Botanic Gardens 
Arboretum de Sibange, near Libreville. 


Useful Addresses 
National Herbarium of Gabon, CENAREST, B.P. 842, Libreville. 


Additional References 

Catinot, R. (1978). The forest ecosystems of Gabon: an overview. In Unesco- 
UNEP/FAO (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 575-579. 

Floret, J.J. (1976). Flore du Gabon. In Miége, J. and Stork, A.L. (1975, 1976), cited in 
Appendix 1, pp. 575-580. 

Hallé, N. and Le Thomas, A. (1968). Gabon. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 111-112. 

Heitz, H. (1943). La Forét du Gabon. Larose, Paris. 292 pp. (Descriptions, references; 
numerous line drawings and black and white photographs.) 


~ 


127 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Pellegrin, F. (1924-1938). La flore du Mayombe d’aprés les récoltes de M. Georges Le 
Testu. Mém. Soc. Linn. Normandie 26(2) (1924), 126 pp.; n.s. 1(3) (1928), 85 pp.; 
n.s. 1(4) (1938), 115 pp. (Covers only the south-central uplands.) 


Galapagos Islands 


45 volcanic islands and islets on the equator, in the Pacific Ocean c. 972 km west of 
Ecuador, of which they are a part. Most of the islands are relatively low; however, Isabela 
and Fernandina have volcanoes reaching 1500 m. The highest point is on Isabela (1707 m). 
About 92% of the land area is included in the National Park. In 1978, the islands were 
designated a World Heritage Site under the World Heritage Convention. 


Area 7844 sq. km 
Population 4037 (1974 census, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics 543 indigenous vascular taxa, of which 229 endemic (IUCN figures 
from Porter, 1978 and in prep.). Most of the endemics occur in the arid and Scalesia zones. 
The flora is mostly related to that of adjacent South America (Porter, 1984). 


Vegetation Coastal mangroves; Crytocarpus and Maytenus forest up to 10 m 
altitude; arid zone up to 300 m, with cacti, Acacia, Erythrina and Scalesia; transition zone, 
mainly between 75-180 m, with Pisonia, Tournefortia and Bursera; humid zone above 
180 m, with dense evergreen Scalesia forests from 180-550 m; closed Miconia scrub and 
evergreen Xanthoxylum forest between 400-700 m; pampa or fern-sedge zone from 550 m 
to the summits of most volcanoes. The summits of Cerro Wolf and Cerro Azul on Isabela 
are arid. For more detailed description of vegetation types see Hamann (1981), and 
Wiggins and Porter (1971). 


All the larger islands, including Isabela, San Crist6bal, Santa Cruz and Santa Maria, have 
extensive areas of humid upland vegetation, threatened by overgrazing; the smaller islands 
are drier, and almost entirely covered by arid zone vegetation. 


Checklists and Floras 
Wiggins, I.L. and Porter, D.M. (1971). Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Stanford Univ. 
Press, California. 998 pp. (Treats 702 taxa; introduction covers geography, 
vegetation, fauna.) 


Information on Threatened Plants The main list is: 


Porter, D.M. (in prep.). Red Data Bulletin: Galapagos Islands. (232 endemic vascular 
plant taxa with notes on their distribution and conservation status.) 


21 species are listed as threatened in Organizacién de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited 
in Appendix 1. Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:9, V:15, R:111, 1:15, K:2, nt:77. 


An index of threatened plants in cultivation is: 


Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1984). The Botanic 
Gardens List of Rare and Threatened Species of the Galapagos and Juan Fernandez 
Islands. Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body, Report No. 11. IUCN, 
Kew. 6 pp. (Lists 17 rare and threatened taxa, from the Galapagos, reported in 
cultivation, with gardens listed against each.) 


128 


Galapagos Islands 


Useful Addresses 
Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos, Casilla 3891, Quito, Ecuador. 
(Publishes a journal, Noticias de Galapagos, on conservation issues and research on 
the islands.) 
Charles Darwin Research Station, Bahia Académia, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos. 
Superintendente Parque Nacional Galapagos, Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, 
Galapagos. 


Additional References 

Bowman, R.I. (Ed.) (1966). The Galapagos: Proceedings of the Galdpagos 
International Scientific Project of 1964. Univ. of California Press, Berkeley. 318 pp. 
(Covers physical environment, flora, fauna, evolution and adaptation of biota. See 
in particular I.L. Wiggins on the origins and relationships of the flora, pp. 175-182; 
E.Y. Dawson on cacti, pp. 209-214; and C.M. Rick on some plant-animal 
relationships, pp. 215-224.) 

Carlquist, S. (1965), cited in Appendix 1. (Origin, evolution and adaptations of plants 
and animals.) 

Carlquist, S. (1974), cited in Appendix 1. (Dispersal and evolution of plants and 
animals; separate chapter on flora.) 

Hamann, O. (1979). The survival strategies of some threatened Galapagos plants. 
Noticias de Galapagos 30: 22-25. 

Hamann, O. (1981). Plant communities of the Galapagos Islands. Dansk Bot. Arkiv 
34(2). 163 pp. (Detailed analysis of plant communities; recent changes to 
vegetation.) 

Kramer, P. (1983). The Galapagos: islands under siege. Ambio 12(3-4): 186-190. 

Perry, R. (Ed.) (1984). Key Environments: Galdpagos. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 
(Physical geography, fauna, flora, conservation problems.) 

Porter, D.M. (1978). Galapagos Islands vascular plants. In Bramwell, D. (Ed.), Plants 
and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 225-256. 

Porter, D.M. (1984). Relationships of the Galapagos flora. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 21: 
243-251. 

Schofield, E.K. (1973). Annotated bibliography of Galapagos botany, 1836-1971. Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 461-477. (286 references.) 

Schofield, E.K. (1973). A unique and threatened flora. Gard. J. New York Bot. Gard. 
23: 68-73. 

Schofield, E.K. (1973). Galapagos flora: the threat of introduced plants. Biol. Conserv. 
5: 48-51. 

Schofield, E.K. (1980). Annotated bibliography of Galapagos botany. Supplement 1. 
Brittonia 32(4): 537-547. 

Werff, H.H. van der (1978). The Vegetation of the Galapagos Islands: Proefschrift. 
Lakenman and Ochtman, Zierikzee, Netherlands. 102 pp. (Includes checklist.) 

Werff, H.H. van der (1979). Conservation and vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. In 
Bramwell, D. (Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 391-404. 
(Describes vegetation types; conservation priorities.) 


129 


Gambia 


Area 10,689 sq. km 
Population 630,000 
Floristics 530 species (Jarvis, 1980), with c. 3 endemics. 


Flora in eastern half of country with Sudanian affinities; western half with Guinea- 
Congolian and Sudanian affinities. 


Vegetation Most covered by Sudanian woodland without characteristic 
dominants. Coastal area with mangrove vegetation, and small area of evergreen forest 
interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivation. Estimated rate of deforestation for 
closed broadleaved forest 22 sq. km/annum out of 650 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Gambia is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, 
cited in Appendix 1. 


Jarvis, A.C.E. (1980). A checklist of Gambian plants. Cyclostyled. 30 pp. (530 species 
listed.) 

Percival, D.A. (1968). The common trees and shrubs of the Gambia. Cyclostyled. 
62 pp. (142 species described.) 

Williams, F.N. (1907). Florula Gambica. Bull. Herb. Boissier, Sér. 2, 7: 81-96, 
193-208, 369-386. (Annotated checklist of 285 species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 3 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no 
categories assigned. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Wildlife Conservation Department, 
Ministry of Water Resources and the Environment, 5 Marina Parade, Banjul. 


Additional References 
Rosevear, D.R. (1937). Forest conditions of the Gambia. Emp. For. J. 16: 217-226. 


Gambier Islands 


The Gambier Islands (or Mangaréva) are a group of volcanic islands and atolls, 5600 km 
east of New Caledonia in the South Pacific Ocean, at 23°10’S and 135°W. The highest 
point is 441 m, on Mangaréva Island, the largest island in the Gambier group. The islands 
form part of the Tuamotu-Gambier administrative division of French Polynesia. 


Area 25 sq. km 
Population 585 (1983) 


Floristics About 250 vascular plant species, including introductions. 41 native 
vascular plant species, of which 11 are endemic (Huguenin, 1974). 


130 


Gambier Islands 


Vegetation Only fragments of the original forest remain, most having been 
decimated by burning and overgrazing by goats. Apart from small areas of forest on the 
precipitous southern slopes of Mt Mokoto, Mangaréva Island is mainly covered by 
Miscanthus grassland. Coconuts have been introduced on most islands in the group 
(Cooke, 1935; Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras The Flora of Southeastern Polynesia (Brown and Brown, 
1931-1935, cited in Appendix 1) includes only 29 indigenous flowering plants for the 
Gambier Islands and Pitcairn Island District. See also: 


Copeland, E.B. (1932). Pteridophytes of the Society Islands. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop 
Mus. 93. 86 pp. (Descriptions and keys; notes on distribution.) 


Information on Threatened Plants All endemics suspected to be threatened by 
overgrazing and fire (F.R. Fosberg, 1984, in litt.). Achyranthes mangarevica is included in 
The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978) as Extinct or possibly Endangered; Gouania 
mangarevica is only known from Mangaréva Island and probably also Extinct or 
Endangered. 


Additional References 
Cooke, C.M. (1935). Mangarevan expedition. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 133: 33-71. 
(Includes description of vegetation.) 
Huguenin, B. (1974). La végétation des Iles Gambier, relevé botanique des espéces 
introduites. Cahiers du Pacifique 18(2): 459-471. 


German Democratic Republic 


Area 108,177 sq. km 
Population 16,658,000 


Floristics 1842 native vascular species (Rauschert et al., 1978). 3 endemic species, 
1 of them extinct (IUCN figures). Areas of high floristic diversity: vicinity of Thiiringer 
Becken in the south-west, the Harz mountains of the west (D. Benkert, 1984, in litt.). 
Elements: Atlantic, Central European, Boreal and subalpine. 


Vegetation Mostly an agricultural landscape, especially in the glaciated north- 
central lowland depression. In the north, oaks, pine and beech constitute main woodland 
cover, but most now removed or replaced by conifer plantations. Scattered beechwoods 
still survive along Baltic coast. In the south, vertical zonation of oak and hornbeam 
forests, giving way to montane beech forests, and above 500 m, forests of beech, fir and 
spruce. Subalpine and alpine vegetation restricted to small area in Harz mountains. 
Habitats under greatest threat: grasslands, heathlands and wetlands (Benkert, in /itt.). 


Checklists and Floras The German Democratic Republic is included in the 
completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1), although plants 
in G.D.R. are not distinguished from those in the Federal Republic. Also see Oberdorfer 
(1983), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Rothmaler, W. (1970-1984). Exkursionsflora fiir die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD, 
4 vols. Volk und Wissen, Berlin. Covers both F.R.G. and G.D.R.; 1 - Niedere 
Pflanzen (Lower plants), 9th Ed. (1984) by R. Schubert, HLH. Handke and 


131 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


H. Pankow; 2 - Gefasspflanzen (Vascular plants), 11th Ed. (1982) by W. Rothmaler, 
W. Meusel and R. Schubert; 3 - Atlas der Gefasspflanzen (Atlas of Vascular 
Plants), Sth Ed. (1970) by W. Rothmaler; 4 - Kritischer Band, 5th Ed. (1983) by 

R. Schubert, W. Vent and M. Bassler. 


Information on Threatened Plants The national threatened plant list is: 


Rauschert, S., Benkert, D., Hempel, W. and Jeschke, L. (1978). Liste der in der 
Deutschen Demokratischen Republik Erloschenen und Gefahrdeten Farn- und 
Blitenpflanzen. Kulturbund der D.D.R., Berlin. 56 pp. (Lists over 500 threatened 
taxa and their status in individual Districts; colour photographs.) 


District threatened plant lists include: 


Benkert, D. (1978). Liste der in den brandenburgischen Bezirken erloschenen und 
gefahrdeten Moose, Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen (List of extinct and endangered 
mosses, ferns and flowering plants in the Brandenburg District). Naturschutzarbeit 
in Berlin und Brandenburg 14(2/3): 34-80. (Black and white photographs.) 

Benkert, D. (1982). Vorlaufige Liste der verschollenen und gefahrdeten Grosspilzarten 
der DDR. Boletus 6(2): 21-32. (A preliminary list of missing and endangered fungi.) 

Benkert, D. (1984). Die verschollenen und vom Aussterben bedrohten Bliitenpflanzen 
und Farne der Bezirke Potsdam, Frankfurt, Cottbus and Berlin. (Extinct and 
threatened vascular plants and ferns in the Districts of Potsdam, Frankfurt, Cottbus 
and Berlin.) Gleditschia 11: 251-259. 

Benkert, D., Succow, M. and Wisniewski, N. (1981). Zum Wandel der floristischen 
Artenmannigfaltigkeit in der DDR (On the changes in the floristic composition of 
the flora of the G.D.R.). Gleditschia 8: 11-30. (Results of a survey about problems 
of species protection with regard to the influence of man on the environment; 
briefly discusses degree of threat to individual species, especially orchids and 
threatened plant communities.) 

Fukarek, F. (1980). Uber die Gefahrdung der Flora der Nordbezirke der DDR. 
Phytocoenologia 7: 174-182. (English abstract.) 

Hempel, W. (1978). Verzeichnis der in den Drei Sdchsischen Bezirken (Dresden, 
Leipzig, Karl-Marx-Stadt) vorkommenden Wildwachsenden Farn- und 
Bliitenpflanzen mit Angabe ihrer Geftéhrdungsgrade (Index of native ferns and 
flowering plants in 3 districts and their conservation status). Bezirksnatur- 
schutzorganen, Dresden. 65 pp. 

Jeschke, L. et al. (1978). Liste der in Mecklenburg (Bezirke Rostock, Schwerin und 
Neubrandenburg) erloschenen und gefahrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen. 
Botanischer Rundbrief fiir den Bezirk Neubrandenburg 8: 1-29. (Lists over 600 
extinct and endangered plant taxa.) 

Rauschert, S. (1980). Liste der in den thiiringischen Bezirken Erfurt, Gera und Suhl 
erloschenen und gefahrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen. Landschaftspflege und 
Naturschutz in Thiiringen 17(1): 1-32. 

Rauschert, S. et al. (1978). Liste der in den Bezirken Halle und Magdeburg erloschenen 
und gefahrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen. Naturschutz und naturkundliche 
Heimatforschung in den Bezirken Halle and Magdeburg 15(1): 1-31. 


A list of endangered plant communities is in preparation (Benkert, in Jitt.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - Ex:1; E:1; nt:1; 
non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - V:12, R:3, I:2 (world categories). 


132 


German Democratic Republic 


Laws Protecting Plants National legislation was passed on 6 July 1970: 
Anordnung zum Schutze von Wildwachsenden Pflanzen und Nichtjagdbaren 
Wildebenden Tieren (Order for the protection of wild growing plants and wild animals). 
This provides protection for 26 species of pteridophytes and angiosperms and the native 
species of 13 named genera. For more details see: 


Weinitschke, H. (Ed.) (1971). Gesetzliche Regelungen der Sozialistischen Landeskultur 
in der DDR. Kulturbund der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Zentrale 
Kommission Natur und Heimat des Prasidialrates, Zentraler Fachausschluss 
Landeskultur und Naturschutz. 103 pp. 


Botanic Gardens Many, as listed in Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 
Useful reference: 


Ebel, F. and Rauschert, S. (1982). Die Bedeutung der Botanischen Garten fiir die 
Erhaltung gefahrdeter und vom Aussterben bedrohter heimischer Pflanzenarten (The 
importance of botanic gardens for the preservation of native plants which are 
endangered and threatened by extinction). Arch. Naturschutz und Landschaftforsch. 
22(3): 187-199. (English summary.) 


Useful Addresses 

Centre for Protection and Improvement of the Environment, Schnellerstrasse 140, 1190 
Berlin. 

Institute of Landscape Research and Nature Conservation, 4020 Halle, Neuwerk 21. 

Ministry of Environmental Protection and Water Conservation, Hans Beimler Street 
70/52, 1020 Berlin. 

CITES Management Authority: Ministerium fiir Land-Forst- und Nahrungs- 
guterwirtschaft der D.D.R., Képenicker Allee 39-57, 1157 Berlin. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Zentrales Staatliches Amt fiir Pflanzenquarantane beim 
Ministerium, Hermannswerder 20A, 15 Potsdam. 


Additional References 
Hueck, K. (1936). Pflanzengeographie Deutschlands. Berlin. 
Rauschert, S. (1975). Floristic report on Germany (1961-1971). B. Deutsche 
Demokratische Republik. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 559-577. 
Schlosser, S. (1982). Genressourcen fiir Forschung und Nutzung. Naturschutz. Bezirken 
Halle und Magdeburg 19: 1-96. (Contains a series of papers about the potential use 
of plant genetic resources in the G.D.R.; colour illus.; line drawings; maps.) 


Germany, Federal Republic of 


Area 248,744 sq. km 
Population 61,214,000 


Floristics 2476 native vascular species (Blab ef al., 1984); 3 endemics (IUCN 
figures). Elements: Central European, sub-Atlantic, sub-Mediterranean and alpine. 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation due to industry, agriculture and plantation 
forestry. Most semi-natural vegetation survives on higher ground and in the south. Beech 
woods are the original natural vegetation of lowland and montane areas, together with 


133 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


semi-natural oak and hornbeam in the centre and south (Black Forest, Alps and Bavaria); 
today, however, largely replaced by pine and spruce plantations, especially in the north. 
Riverine woodlands replaced widely by poplar and maple plantations. Forest, including 
plantations, occupy about 20% of land area (Bundesamt Wiesbaden, 1983). 


34% of forests threatened by acid rain (Agren, 1984). Other habitats under threat: 
grasslands, heathlands, peat-bogs, fens and other wetlands. 


Checklists and Floras Included in the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980), although plants in F.R.G. are not distinguished from those in the German 
Democratic Republic. Covered by the J/lustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (Hegi, 1935- ). 
Both are cited in Appendix 1. Only recent national and regional Floras are listed below, 
Floras for individual Lander being too numerous. 


Garcke, A. et al. (1972). Illustrierte Flora, Deutschland und Angrenzende Gebiete, 23rd 
Ed. by K. von Weihe. Parey, Berlin. 1607 pp. (Line drawings.) 

Schmeil, O. and Fitschen, J. (1976). Flora von Deutschland und seinen Angrenzenden 
Gebieten, 86th Ed. by W. Rauh and K. Senghas. Quelle and Meyer, Heidelberg. 
516 pp. (illus.) 


For a floristic bibliography, see Hamann and Wagenitz (1977), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Jager, E.J. and Miiller-Uri, C. (1981-1982.) Bibliographie: Gefasspflanzen 
Zentraleuropas. Wuchsform und Lebensgeschichte. Terrestrische Okologie 1(1), 
122 pp. and 1(2), 122 pp. 

Merxmiiller, H. and Lippert, W. (1975). Floristic Report on Germany (1961-1971). A. 
Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 469-558. (In German.) 


A floristic mapping scheme for the whole country is in progress (Zentralstelle fiir die 
Floristische Kartierung, address below). Details are given in the following papers: 


Haeupler, H. et al. (1976). Grundlagen und Arbeitsmethoden fiir die Kartierung der 
Flora Mitteleuropas. Anleitung fiir die Mitarbeiter in der Bundesrepublik 
Deutschland, 2nd Ed. 75 pp. E. Goltae, Gottingen. 

Niklfeld, H. (1971). Bericht iiber die Kartierung der Flora Mitteleuropas. Taxon 20(4): 
545-571. 

Schonfelder, P. (1983). Floristische Kartierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 
(Gefasspflanzen/Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta). Natur und Landschaft 58(6): 
235-236. 


For local atlases see: 


Haeupler, H. (1976). Atlas zur Flora von Siidniedersachsen. Scripta Geobotanica 10. 
367 pp. 

Haffner, P., Sauer, E. and Wolf, P. (1979). Atlas der Gefasspflanzen des Saarlandes. 
(Edited by the Minister fiir Umwelt, Raumordnung und Bauwesen.) Wiss. Schr.-R. 
Obersten Naturschutzbeh6rde 1. 

Mergenthaler, O. (1982). Verbreitungsatlas zur Flora von Regensburg.-Hoppea, 
Denkschr. Regensb. Bot. Ges. 40(5-12): 1-297. 

Seybold, S. (1977). Die aktuelle Verbreitung der héheren Pflanzen im Raum 
Wiirttemberg. Beih. z. d. Veréff. Natursch. und Landschpfl. in Baden-Wiirttemberg 
9: 1-201. 


Field-guides 1 national and 2 regional field-guides are listed in order below. See 
also Oberdorfer (1983), cited in Appendix 1: 


134 


Germany, Federal Republic of 


Hegi, G., Merxmiiller, H. and Reisigl, H. (1977). Alpenflora: Die Wichtigeren 
Alpenpflanzen Bayerns, Osterreichs und der Schweiz. Parey, Berlin. 194 pp. (Covers 
Bavaria, Austria and Switzerland; introduction includes ecological descriptions of 
plant communities; lists protected plants; illus.; maps.) 

Rothmaler, W. (1970-1984). Exkursionsflora fiir die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD, 
4 vols. Volk und Wissen, Berlin. Covers both F.R.G. and G.D.R.; 1 - Niedere 
Pflanzen (Lower plants), 9th Ed. (1984) by R. Schubert, H.H. Handke and H. 
Pankow; 2 - Gefasspflanzen (Vascular plants), 11th Ed. (1982) by W. Rothmaler, 
W. Meusel and R. Schubert; 3 - Atlas der Gefasspflanzen (Atlas of Vascular 
Plants), Sth Ed. (1970) by W. Rothmaler; 4 - Kritischer Band, 5th Ed. (1983) by 
R. Schubert, W. Vent and M. Bassler. 

Schauer, T. and Caspari, C. (1978). Pflanzenfiihrer. BLV, Miinchen. 417 pp. (Covers 
F.R.G. only; over 1400 colour illus.) 


See also Miiller and Kast (1969) and Weber (1982). 


Information on Threatened Plants Vast quantity of literature. Only the most 
recent national lists and those for individual Lander are given below. National lists: 


Blab, J., Nowak, E., Trautmann, W. and Sukopp, H. (1984). Rote Liste der 
Gefahrdeten Tiere und Pflanzen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 4th Ed. Kilda- 
Verlag, Greven. 270 pp. (Lists threatened flowering plants, mosses, lichens, fungi 
and algae.) 

Sukopp, H. (1974). ‘Rote Liste’ der in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gefahrdeten 
Arten von Farn- und Blitenpflanzen (1. Fassung). Natur und Landschaft 49(12): 
315-322. 


Below are lists for the Lander of Bayern, Niedersachsen, Baden-Wiirttemberg, Hessen, 
Schleswig-Holstein, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland, and for the 
Region of Senne and West Berlin: 


Brinkmann, H. (1978). Schiitzenswerte Pflanzen und Pflanzengesellschaften der Senne. 
Ber. d. Naturwiss. Ver. Bielefeld. Pp. 36-38. (Includes a threatened fern and 
vascular plant list for the region of Senne.) 

Foerster, E., Lohmeyer, W., Schumacher, W. and Wolff-Straub, R. (1982). Florenliste 
von Nordrhein-Westfalen. Schr.-R. der LOLF 7. 89 pp. 

Haeupler, H., Montag, A., W6ldecke, K. and Garve, E. (1983). Rote Liste 
Gefasspflanzen Niedersachsen und Bremen. Fachbehdérde fiir Naturschutz, Merkblatt 
Nr. 18. 34 pp. (Edited by Niedersachsisches Landesverwaltungsamt.) 

Haffner, P., Sauer, E. and Wolf, P. (1979)-Atlas der Gefasspflanzen des Saarlandes. 
Wiss. Schr.-R. der Obersten Naturschutzbehérde, Vol. 1 with appendix: Rote Liste 
der im Saarland ausgestorbenen und gefihrdeten héheren Pflanzen. 12 pp. 

Harms, K.H., Philippi, G. and Seybold, S. (1983). Verschollene und gefahrdete 
Pflanzen in Baden-Wiirttemberg. Rote Liste der Farne und Bliitenpflanzen 
(Pteridophyta et Spermatophyta), 2nd revision. Beih. Verdff. Naturschutz 
Landschaftpflege Bad.-Wiirtt. 32. 160 pp. 

Kalheber, H. ef a/. (1980). Rote Liste der in Hessen ausgestorbenen, verschollenen und 
gefahrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen. 2. Hessische Landesanstalt fiir Umwelt. 

46 pp. 

Korneck, D., Lang, W. and Reichert, H. (1984). Rote Liste der in Rheinland-Pfalz 
ausgestorbenen, verschollenen und gefihrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen, 2nd Ed. 
Ministerium fiir Soziales, Gesundheit und Umwelt. 


135 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Kiinne, H. (1974). Rote Liste bedrohter Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen in Bayern. Schr.-R. 
Natursch. Landschaftspfl. 4: 1-44. (Lists 566 species; conservation categories not 
identical with those of IUCN; a revised list is in preparation.) 

Landesamt fiir Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Schleswig-Holstein (1982). Rote 
Liste der gefahrdeten Pflanzen und Tiere Schleswig-Holsteins. Schr.-R. Landesamt 
Natursch. Landschaftspfl. 5. 149 pp. 

Landesanstalt fiir Okologie, Landschaftentwicklung und Forstplanung NRW (1979). 
Rote Liste der in Nordrhein-Westfalen gefahrdeten Pflanzen und Tiere. Schr.-R. der 
LOLF Nordrhein-Westfalen 4. 106 pp. 

Raabe, E.-W. (1975). Rote Liste der in Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg vom 
Aussterben bedrohten héheren Pflanzen. Heimat 82(7/8): 191-200. (Lists 148 
threatened taxa with distribution maps.) 

Schénfelder, P. et a/. (in prep.). Entwurf zur Neufassung der Roten Liste der 
ausgestorbenen, verschollenen und gefahrdeten Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen in Bayern. 
38 pp. 

Sukopp, H. and Elvers, H. (Eds) (1982). Rote Liste der gefahrdeten Pflanzen und Tiere 
in Berlin (West). Landesentwicklung u. Umweltforschung 11. 374 pp. 


See also: 


Raabe, W., Brockmann, C. und Dierssen, K. (1982). Verbreitungskarten 
ausgestorbener, verschollener und sehr seltener Gefasspflanzen in Schleswig- 
Holstein. Mitt. Arb.-gem. Geobot. Schleswig-Holstein und Hamburg 32. 317 pp. 

Sukopp, H. (1972). Grundziige eines Programms fiir den Schutz von Pflanzenarten in 
der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Schr.-R. Landschaftspfl. und Natursch. 7: 67-79. 

Sukopp, H. and Trautmann, W. (Eds) (1976). Veranderungen der Flora und Fauna in 
der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Proceedings of a symposium 7-9 October 1975. 
Schr.-R. Vegetationskde 10. 409 pp. (Contains many relevant articles (in German 
with English summaries); see for example W. Trautmann on changes in the flora of 
woods and in woodland vegetation of the F.R.G. in recent decades (pp. 91-108) and 
J. Reichholf on ecological aspects of the changing flora and fauna in the F.R.G. 
(pp. 393-399).) 

Sukopp, H. and Trautmann, W. (1981). Causes of the decline of threatened plants in 
the Federal Republic of Germany. In Synge, H. (Ed.) (1981), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 113-116. (Identifies and discusses main threats to the flora.) 

Sukopp, H., Trautmann, W. and Korneck, D. (1978). Auswertung der Roten Liste 
gefahrdeter Farn- und Bliitenpflanzen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fiir den 
Arten- und Biotopschutz. Schr.-R. fiir Vegetationskunde 12. 138 pp. (Detailed 
analysis of 2667 threatened plant taxa, threats, habitats, recommendations.) 


Many plant conservation data-bases, some computerized, are underway in individual 
Lander. A data-base co-ordinating these activities is being developed at the Institut fiir 
Vegetationskunde, Bundesforschungsanstalt fiir Naturschutz und Landschaftsdékologie 
(Federal Research Centre for Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology) in Bonn 
(address below). For summary details of the individual projects in the Lander see: 


Kohlhammer, W. (1983). Botanische und Zoologische Artenerbungen in der Bundes- 
republik Deutschland. Natur und Landschaft 58(6). 255 pp. 


F.R.G. is included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, 
cited in Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - E:2, 
nt:1; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - Ex:1, E:4, V:12, R:5, 1:3 (world 
categories). 


136 


Germany, Federal Republic of 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the UK Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which includes data sheets on 10 plants Endangered in F.R.G., 3 of them Endangered on a 
world scale. 


Two journals regularly containing plant conservation articles are Natur und Landschaft 
published by W. Kohlhammer, Koln, and Schriftenreihe fiir Landschaftspflege und 
Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad Godesburg. See also: Dokumentation fiir Umweltschutz und 
Landschaftspflege, Dokumentat. und Bibl. der Bundesforsch. Naturschutz und 
Landschaftsdkologie. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Federal Species Protection Order of 30 August, 1980 
(Bundesartenschutzverordnung - BArtSchV), in accordance with Article 22 of the Federal 
Nature Protection Act of 1976 (Bundesnaturschaftzgesetz - BNatSchG), provides special 
protection for over 160 plant species. These laws are published as: 


Der Bundesminister fiir Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (1976). Gesetz iiber 
Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege (Bundesnaturschutzgesetz - BNatSchG) vom 
20.12.76. Bundesnaturschutzgesetz. Der Bundesminister fiir Ernahrung, 
Landwirtschaft und Forsten. 32 pp. 

Der Bundesminister fiir Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (1980). Verordnung 
liber besonders geschiitzte Arten wildebender Tiere und wildwachsender Pflanzen 
(Bundesartenschutzverordnung - BArtSchV). Bundesgesetzblatt 1(54): 1565-1601. 


See also: 


Miller, T. and Kast, D. (1969). Die Geschiitzten Pflanzen Deutschlands (The Protected 
Plants of Germany). Schwabischen Albvereins, Stuttgart. 348 pp. (Keys; brief 
morphological, biological and ecological descriptions; distribution data.) 

Weber, H.C. (1982). Geschiitzte Pflanzen, Merkmale, Bliitezeit und Standort aller 
Geschiitzten Arten Mitteleuropas. Belser, Stuttgart. 188 pp. 


Voluntary Organizations 

Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft (Bavarian Botanical Society), Menzinger Strasse 67, 
8000 Miinchen 19. 

Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft (German Botanical Society), Untere Karspiile 2, 3400 
G6ttingen. 

Deutscher Natiirschutzring e.V.(DNR), Bundesverband fiir Umweltschutz 
Kalkuhlstrasse 24, Postfach 32 02 10, 5300 Bonn 3. 

Schiitzgemeinschaft Deutscher Wald e.V., Meckenheimer Allee 9, 5300 Bonn 1. 

Stiftung zum Schutze gefahrdeter Pflanzen (Institute for the Protection of Endangered 
Plants), Kalkuhlstrasse 24, 5300 Bonn 3. 

WWE-Germany (Umweltstiftung WWF-Deutschland), Sophienstrasse 44, 6000 
Frankfurt/Main 90. 


Botanic Gardens Numerous, as listed in Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1; 
most gardens are engaged in species conservation activities either on a local or regional 
scale. Only those subscribing to the Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body 
are listed here: 


Alter Botanischer Garten der Universitat Géttingen, Untere Karspiile 1, 3400 
Gottingen. 
Botanischer Garten Miinchen, Menzingerstrasse 63-67, 8000 Miinchen. 


137 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Botanischer Garten und Museum Berlin-Dahlem, K6nigin-Luise-Strasse 6-8, 1000 
Berlin 33. 

Botanischer Garten Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Universitatstrasse 150, Postfach 102148, 
4630 Bochum 1. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat, Auf dem Lahnbergen, 3550 Marburg. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat Diisseldorf, Universitatstrasse 1, 4000 Diisseldorf 1. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 340, 6900 
Heidelberg 1. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat-Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, Biologiezentrum, 2300 
Kiel. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, Postfach 3980, 6500 Mainz. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat, Auf dem Lahnbergen, 3550 Marburg. 

Botanischer Garten der Universitat Oldenburg, Philosophenweg 41, 2900 Oldenburg. 

Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universitat Géttingen, Grisebachstrasse la, 3400 
Géttingen. 

Palmengarten der Stadt Frankfurt, Siesmeyerstrasse 61, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 1. 


A seed bank for rare and threatened species has been established at the Institut fir 
Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenziichtung, Bundesforschungsanstalt fiir Landwirtschaft 
Braunschweig-Vélkenrode, Bundesalle 50, 3300 Braunschweig. 


Useful Addresses 

Arbeitsgemeinschaft Beruflicher Pflanzen, Kalkuhlstrasse 24, 5300 Bonn 3. 

Bundesministerium fiir Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (Abt. 62 Umwelt, 
Naturschutz), Rochusstrasse 1, Postfach 140270, 5300 Bonn 1. (Each of the Lander 
have additional authorities for nature conservation.) 

Institut fiir Vegetationskunde, Bundesforschungsanstalt fiir Naturschutz und 
Landschaftsékologie (Federal Research Centre for Nature Conservation and 
Landscape Ecology), Konstantinstrasse 110, 5330 Bonn 2. 

TRAFFIC (Germany), WWF-Germany, address above. 

Zentralstelle fiir die Floristische Kartierung. Bereich Nord: Ruhr-Universitat, Spezielle 
Botanik, Postfach 102148, 4630 Bochum 1; Bereich Siid: Universitat Regensburg, 
Botanisches Institut, Postfach 397, 8400 Regensburg. 

CITES Management Authority: Bundesministerium fiir Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft und 
Forsten, Referat 623, Postfach 140270, 5300 Bonn 1. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Bundesamt fiir Ernahrung und Forstwirtschaft, Postfach 
180203, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 1. 


Additional References 

Agren, C. (1984). A report sounds the alarm: 34% of West German forest land 
damaged. Acid News 1: 6-7. (Newsletter from the Swedish and Norwegian NGO 
Secretariats on Acid Rain, address under Sweden.) 

Bundesamt Wiesbaden (Ed.) (1983). Statistisches Jahrbuch 1983 fiir die Bundesrepublik 
Deutschland. W. Kohlhammer GmbH., Stuttgart. 780 pp. 

Raabe, E.-W. (1978). Uber den Wandel unserer Pflanzenwelt in neuerer Zeit. Kieler 
Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde 10(1/2): 1-24. 


138 


Ghana 


Area 238,305 sq. km 
Population 13,044,000 


Floristics 3600 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1); 43 endemic 
species (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1); diversity greatest in evergreen forests of 
south-west. | 


Flora with Sudanian (northern c. 1/2, mainly woodland and grassland flora) and Guinea- 
Congolian (south-west corner, mainly forest flora) affinities. 


Vegetation Small patches of rain forest are all that remain of the vast area of 
forest which used to cover rather less than a third of Ghana in the south-west, but which 
have been replaced by cultivation and secondary grassland; various types of grassland and 
wooded grassland/woodland with abundant Isoberlinia cover most of the remainder; a 
coastal band of strand and mangrove. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 220 sq. km/annum out of 
17,180 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). According to Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1), the 
remaining forest totals 19,864 sq. km in reserves, plus about 500 sq. km outside reserves; 
the rate of depletion of forest by shifting cultivation has been estimated to be as high as 
5000 sq. km/annum. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Ghana is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, 
cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Irvine, F.R. (1961). Woody Plants of Ghana: with Special Reference to their Uses. 
Oxford Univ. Press, London. 868 pp. (Plates, some in colour; line drawings.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedburg, I. (Ed.) (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Ghana, pp. 88-91, by J.B. 
Hall, contains 210 species and infraspecific taxa divided between five categories of 
endangerment, not IUCN-compatible.) 


IUCN has records of 73 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, of which 16 
are known to be rare or threatened - E:1, V:5, R:9, I:1. 


Botanic Gardens 
Aburi Botanic Garden, Aburi. 
University Botanic Garden, c/o Department of Botany, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 
55, Legon. 
University Botanic Garden, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. 


Useful Addresses 
Forestry Department, P.O. Box 527, Accra. 
National Herbarium, University of Ghana (address above). 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Department of Game and Wildlife, 
P.O. Box M 239, Ministries Post Office, Accra. 


Additional References 
Ahn, P.M. (1959). The principal areas of remaining original forest in western Ghana, 
and their potential value for agricultural purposes. J. West Afr. Sci. Assoc. 5(2): 
91-100. (With small-scale vegetation map.) 


139 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Asibey, E.O.A. and Owusu, J.G.K. (1982). The case for high-forest national parks in 
Ghana. Envir. Conserv. 9(4): 293-304. (With five black and white photographs.) 
Hall, J.B. and Swaine, M.D. (1981). Distribution and Ecology of Vascular Plants in a 
Tropical Rain Forest: Forest Vegetation in Ghana. Junk, The Hague. 383 pp. 
(Geobot. 1.) 

Lawson, G.W. (1968). Ghana. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp 81-86. 

Taylor, C.J. (1952). The vegetation zones of the Gold Coast. For. Dep. Bull. 4: 1-12. 
Govt Printer, Accra. (With coloured vegetation map 1:1,500,000.) 

Taylor, C.J. (1960). Vegetation. In Synecology and Silviculture in Ghana. Thomas 
Nelson, London. Pp. 31-73. 


Gibraltar 


Gibraltar is a Dependent Territory of the United Kingdom. ‘The Rock’, a limestone ridge 
3 km long and 426 m high, is the dominant feature. 


Area 6.5 sq. km 
Population 31,000 


Floristics 587 native vascular species (Wolley-Dod, 1914). 1 endemic taxon 
(IUCN figure). A Mediterranean flora. 


Vegetation A large proportion of original vegetation on ‘The Rock’ cleared for 
water catchment constructions or replaced by conifer plantations; remaining semi-natural 
vegetation includes: high maquis with Phillyrea, Rhamnus and the palm Chamaerops 
humilis (on the middle slopes); and a rich chasmophytic flora containing species of 
Dianthus, Iberis, Scilla and Saxifraga on the inaccessible ledges and east slope. 


Checklists and Floras Plants from Gibraltar are included in Flora Europaea 
(Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1), but are not distinguished from plants in 
Spain. There are no other recent publications about the flora, so see: 


Wolley-Dod, A.H. (1914). A Flora of Gibraltar and the neighbourhood. J. Bot. 52. 
Supplement. 131 pp. (Native and naturalized vascular plants of The Rock of 
Gibraltar and neighbouring parts of Andalucia; habitat notes.) 


Also relevant: 


Hamilton, A.P. (1970). The Flowers of Gibraltar. Gibraltar Tourist Office. 

Stocken, C.M. (1969). Andalusian Flowers and Countryside. Privately published by the 
author, Devon, U.K. 184 pp. (General desciption of many aspects of Gibraltar, 
including vegetation.) 


Field-guides 
Anon (1968). The Wild Flowers of Gibraltar and Neighbourhood. Committee of the 
Gibraltar Garrison Library, Gibraltar. 79 pp. (Illus. only.) 


See also Polunin and Smythies (1973), in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants None locally. The section for Gibraltar in the 
European threatened plants list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in Appendix 1) 


140 


Gibraltar 


contains one endemic (Rare) and 3 non-endemics rare or threatened on a regional scale, all 
insufficiently known on a world scale. 


Useful Addresses 
The Gibraltar Society, John Mackintosh Hall, Gibraltar. 


Glorieuses, Iles 


Two coralline islands 183 km WNW of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, 11°34’S, 
47°19’E. Grande Glorieuse is by far the larger; area c. 4 sq. km. 43 species of plant 
(including introductions) are listed in Battistini and Cremers (1972). The smaller island, Ile 
-du Lys, has only 8 species. 


The vegetation of Grande Glorieuse consists of a littoral dune belt with grasses, a tufted 
sedge turf behind it, and, inland, dense woodland 2-4 m high with no understorey. Much 
of the island is given over to coconut plantations. Ile de Lys has very little vegetation, and 
it is not zoned. 


References 

Battistini, R. and Cremers, G. (1972). Geomorphology and vegetation of Iles 
Glorieuses. Atoll Res. Bull. 159. 10 pp. (With vegetation map, 19 black and white 
photographs.) 

Hemsley, W.B. (1919). Flora of Aldabra: with notes on the flora of neighbouring 
islands. Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew 1919: 108-153. (Checklist, with descriptions of new 
species.) 

Renvoize, S.A. (1979). The origins of Indian Ocean island floras. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 107-129. 

Stoddart, D.R. (Ed.) (1967). Ecology of Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Atoll Res. Bull. 
118. 141 pp. (Includes 41 black and white photographs, list of endemic plant 
species, bibliography of Aldabra; see especially paper by Stoddart, pp. 53-61, on the 
ecology of coral islands north of Madagascar, but excluding Aldabra.) 


Great Barrier Reef Islands 


The Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef in the world, extends for more than 2000 km 
along the north-east coast of Australia, between 24°30’-10°41’S and 145°-154°E. At its 
northern end it is c. 160 km from the mainland. The reef consists of c. 2500 individual 
coral reefs, some with coral sand islands (or cays). The total area is c. 207,200 sq. km. The 
Great Barrier Reef is part of Australia. 


The highest point is 40 m, but most of the reef is less than 5 m above sea-level and has no 
vegetation. Heron Island (23°25’S 151°55’E) has Casuarina, Cordia and Pisonia forest; 
mangrove swamps are found in the Low Islands (16°18’S 145°35’E); several sand cays 
support scrub vegetation (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 


Parts of the Great Barrier Reef have been gazetted as a national park (e.g. parts of Green 
Island (16°43’S 146°E) and Heron Island in 1937 and 1943, respectively). The first part of 


141 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park was proclaimed in 1979, and the whole of the reef was 
accepted as a World Heritage Site in 1981. 


References 
Bennett, I. (1973). The Great Barrier Reef. Frederick Warne, London. 
Frankel, E. (1978). Bibliography of the Great Barrier Reef Province. Great Barrier 
Reef Marine Park Authority, Canberra. (Lists 4444 publications.) 


Greece 


Area 131,986 sq. km 
Population 9,884,000 


Floristics One of the richest floras in Europe; c. 5500 species and subspecies, of 
which 20% are endemic (Rechinger, 1965); excluding Crete and the East Aegean, 
3950-4100 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited in Appendix 1) 
from Flora Europaea. 763 endemic taxa (IUCN figures), including Crete which, because 
of its size and separate treatment in Flora Europaea, is treated separately below. 
Elements: Mediterranean, alpine. 


Most species occur in the lowlands, many as part of the widespread pan- and especially 
east-Mediterranean element, but endemism concentrated on the mountains and on many 
islands of the Aegean and Ionian Seas. Mt Olimbos (Olympus) alone supports c. 1700 
vascular plant species from sea-level to its summit, almost 20 endemic to the mountain 
(Strid and Papanicolaou, in press). Other centres of endemism include Crete (see below), 
the Peloponnese and central Greece (which includes Mt Parnass6s). 


Vegetation Although formerly well wooded, forest clearance, fire and centuries 
of overgrazing by sheep and goats have created large areas of maquis, phrygana and 
secondary steppe. 3 main vegetation zones: coastal plains and hills, mostly now with 
evergreen scrub and in the south degraded phrygana or garigue but formerly with dry 
evergreen forest; the middle slopes of mountains, now cultivated but still supporting large 
areas of forest dominated by conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus), chestnut, oak and beech; 
above the tree-line a variety of alpine habitats, mainly of rock and scree, with grassland in 
the north. Today, forests occupy c. 250,000 sq. km (c. 19% of Greece), of which c. 6% is 
broadleaved and the remainder coniferous. 


Checklists and Floras Greece, excluding the East Aegean Islands, is included in 
the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). The East 
Aegean Islands are included in Davis (1965- ). All of Greece will be covered in the Med- 
Checklist (cited in Appendix 1). No recent national Flora is available but the most 
important reference work, although rather old and relating to Greece’s pre-1913 
frontiers, is: 


Halacsy, E. von (1901-1908). Conspectus Florae Graecae, 3 vols, 2 supplements in 
Magyar Bot. Lapok (1912) 11: 114-202. Engelmann, Lipsiae. (Parts of northern and 
eastern Greece not covered; reprinted 1968 by Cramer, Lehre, F.R.G.) 


Two new Floras: 


Runemark, H. and Greuter, W. (in prep.). Flora of the South Aegean. 


142 


Greece 


Strid, A. (1986- ).. A Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol. 1. Cambridge Univ. Press. 
(Includes all higher plants above 1800 m, and in open habitats above 1500 m.) 


See also: 


Cavadas, D.S. (1957-1964). Illustrated Botanical Phytological Dictionary, 9 vols. 
Athens. (Species descriptions arranged alphabetically by genus; illus; in Greek.) 

Davis, P.H. (1965-1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, 9 vols. 
Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh. Includes ferns, gymnosperms, dicotyledons; a 
supplement is in prep. — East Aegean islands covered include Rhodes, Samos, 
Ikaria, Chios and Lesbos. 

Greuter, W. and Rechinger, K.H. (1967). Flora der Insel Kythera. Boisierra 13. 206 pp. 

Phitos, D. (1967). Florula Sporadum. Phyton 12(1-4): 102-149. (Covers the Sporades.) 

Rechinger, K.H. (1943). Flora Aegaea. Vienna. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. 
Denkschr. 105(1). 924 pp. Supplement (1949) in Phyton 1: 194-228. (Includes 
vascular plants of the foreshores of the Aegean Sea and of the Aegean islands, 
including Crete; German text; Latin keys; illus.; maps; reprinted 1973 by Koeltz, 
Koenigstein-Taunus.) 

Rechinger, K.H. (1961). Die Flora von Euboea. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 80(3): 294-465. 
(Maps; illus.) 

Strid, A. (1980). Wild Flowers of Mount Olympus. Goulandris Natural History 
Museum, Kifissia. 362 pp. (Keys; descriptions; illus.) 


Two Greek journals, recently founded, include many papers on the taxonomy and 
floristics of Greek plants: Annales Musei Goulandris, published by the Goulandris Natural 
History Museum, and Botanika Chronika, published by the Botanical Institute, University 
of Patras. For details on the state of floristic research, see: 


Greuter, W. (1975). Floristic studies in Greece. In Walters, S.M. (Ed.), European 
Floristic and Taxonomic Studies, a Conference at Cambridge, 29 June to 2 July 
1974. BSBI Conference Report No. 15. E.W. Classey, U.K. Pp. 18-37. 

Greuter, W., Phitos, D. and Runemark, H. (1975). Greece and the Greek Islands. A 
report on the available floristic information and floristic and phyto-taxonomic 
research. In CNRS, 1975, cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 67-89. (Describes floristic 
exploration and main floristic works; lists botanical institutes, herbaria and current 
research projects.) 

Phitos, D. (1975). Taxonomic and floristic research in Greece during the last decade, 
1961-1971. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 579-597. 

Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Bericht iiber die botanische Erforschung von Griechenland. 
Webbia 18: 234-259. ris 

Stearn, W.T. (1982). The ‘‘Flora Europaea’’ and the Greek flora. Ann. Mus. 
Goulandris 5: 123-129. 


Field-guides 

Goulimis, C.N. (1968). Wild Flowers of Greece. Goulandris Botanical Museum, 
Kifissia. 206 pp. (Colour paintings by N.A. Goulandris of about 120 Greek plants 
with botanical notes by C.N. Goulimis, edited by W.T. Stearn.) 

Huxley, A. and Taylor, W. (1977). Flowers of Greece and the Aegean. Chatto and 
Windus, London. 185 pp. (Colour photographs.) 

Phitos, D. (1965). Wild Flowers of Greece. Athens Society of the Friends of the Trees, 
Athens. 64 pp. (Translated from the Greek by P. Haritonidou; describes 46 species 
with colour illus.) 


See also Polunin (1980), cited in Appendix 1. 
143 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Information on Threatened Plants The Botanical Institute and Botanical 
Museum of the University of Patras, with support from the Hellenic Society for the 
Protection of Nature, intend to prepare a national Red Data Book. IUCN recently 
prepared a national threatened plant list: 


IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1982). The rare, threatened and endemic 
plants of Greece. Ann. Mus. Goulandris 5: 69-105. (Lists over 900 taxa of 
international conservation concern; introduction discusses history of data and 
threats to the species listed.) 


See also: 


Broussalis, P. (1977). The protection of the flora in Greece and its problems. Ann. 
Mus. Goulandris 3: 23-30. 

Diapoulis, C. (1959). Conservation measures for the plants of the Greek flora. In 
Animaux et Végétaux Rares de la Région Méditerranéenne. Proceedings of the 
IUCN 7th Technical Meeting, 11-19 September 1958, Athens, vol. 5. IUCN, 
Brussels. Pp. 189-191. (Lists 72 species ‘‘in danger of disappearing’’.) 

Goulimis, C. (1959). Report on species of plants requiring protection in Greece and 
measures for securing their protection. /oc. cit. Pp. 168-188. (Includes threatened 
plant list and suggested remedies, including proposed reserve sites.) 

Sfikas, G. (1979). Threatened plants of our mountains, I. Fusis (Nature - Bull. 
Hellenic Soc. Protection Nature) 18: 42-44. 

Snogerup, S. (1979). The Aegean endemics, distribution and present situation. I. 
Preliminary list of some of the most suitable sites for conservation. Unpublished 
manuscript presented to IUCN. 22 pp. (Maps showing floristically diverse areas in 
the Aegean.) 


Some individual case studies on endangered plants have been published in Fusis (Nature - 
the Bulletin of the Hellenic Society for the Conservation of Nature), e.g. Linaria hellenica 
in 12: 13-16, 34-35 (1977) and Tulipa goulimyi in 14: 5-9, 36-37 (1978), both by A. 
Yannitsaros, and Cephalanthera cucullata (from Crete, see below) by J. Kalopissis in 18: 
26-30, 46 (1979). 


Greece is included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, 
cited in Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work, for all of Greece: 
endemic taxa - Ex:5, E:26, V:36, R:359, 1:40, K:72, nt:225; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - V:10, R:54, 1:5 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which included data sheets on 33 plants Endangered in Greece. 


Laws Protecting Plants Presidential Decree No. 67, No. 23A (1980), on the 
‘*Protection of natural vegetation and wildlife and the establishment of the procedure, co- 
ordination and control of the research on them’’, gives protection to over 700 endemic and 
non-endemic taxa, from ‘‘collecting, transplanting, uprooting, cutting, transporting, 
selling or exporting’’. These restrictions refer to all parts of the plant. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Ellenikos Oreibatikos Syndesmos (Hellenic Alpine Club), Pheidiou 18 (Athens branch), 
Athens. 
Friends of the Trees, 22 Anagnostopoulou Str., 106 73 Athens. 
Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature, 24 Nikis Street, 105 58 Athens. 


144 


Greece 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Garden of Julia and Alexander Diomides, 405 Iera Street, Dafni, Athens. 
University of Athens Botanical Garden, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 621. 


Useful Addresses 
Goulandris Botanical Museum, Levidou 13, Kifissia, Athens. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Wildlife Management Department, 
Ministry of Agriculture, Hippokratous 3/5, Athens. 


Additional References 

Antipas, B. and Miiller, G. (1974). Conservation in Greece. Problems and 
achievements. Nature in Focus 19: 15, 18-21. 

Dafis, S. and Landolt, E. (Eds) (1971, 1976). Zur Vegetation und Flora von 
Griechenland, Ergebnisse der 15. Internationalen Pflanzengeographischen Exkursion 
(IPE) durch Griechenland, 2 vols. Veréff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Riibel, 
Ziirich. (Includes a bibliography on Greek floristic work.) 

Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature (1979). Proceedings of a Conference on 
the Protection of the Flora, Fauna and Biotopes in Greece, 11-13 October. Hellenic 
Society for the Protection of Nature, Athens. 262 pp. 

Rechinger, K.H. (1965). Der Endemismus in der griechischen Flora. Rev. Roum. Biol. 
(Sér. Bot.) 10(1-2): 135-138. 

Strid, A. and Papanicolaou, K. (1985). The Greek Mountains. In Gomez-Campo, C. 
(Ed.), cited in Appendix 1. 


Greece: Crete 


Area 8,331 sq. km 
Population 456,642 (1971 census, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics 1600-1800 native vascular plant species estimated by D.A. Webb (1978) 
from Flora Europaea; 150 endemic taxa (IUCN figures), including 1 endemic genus 
(Petromarula); c. 137 endemics according to C. Barclay (1984, in /itt.). Represents highest 
level of endemism in the Aegean and probably for any comparable area in Europe 
(Critopoulos, 1975). Areas of high endemism are the Levka Ori (White Mts), including the 
Samaria Gorge, the Lassithi plateau and the coastal area of Akrotiri north of Khania. 
Floristic elements: Mediterranean, alpine. — 


Vegetation In the lowlands, mostly agricultural land, with extensive maquis and 
garigue; on steep slopes and cliffs in the lowlands and more widely in the mountains, a 
chasmophyte flora rich in endemics. In places, small scattered stands of near natural forest 
survive, dominated by oaks (Quercus pubescens, Q. macrolepis) and conifers (Pinus 
brutia, Cupressus sempervirens). Crete also supports one of best examples of Kermes Oak 
(Q. coccifera) woodland, between 350-1000 m. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean this habitat 
almost completely grazed out of existence or converted to garigue. 


Checklists and Floras See under Greece. C. Barclay (1984, in litt.) is compiling a 
checklist of the Cretan flora in collaboration with W. Greuter and D. Meikle. For other 
floristic accounts see: 


145 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Greuter, W. (1973). Additions to the flora of Crete, 1938-1972. Ann. Mus. Goulandris 
1: 15-83. (Annotated list of 250 taxa new to Crete or rediscovered between 1938 and 
1972.) 

Greuter, W. (1974). Floristic report on the Cretan area. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(1): 
131-171. (Describes the taxonomic, biosystematic, phytosociological, floristic and 
phytogeographical literature and provides corrections to Flora Europaea, vols. 1 and 
2; extensive bibliography.) 

Greuter, W., Matthas, U. and Risse, H. (1984). Additions to the flora of Crete, 
1973-1983 - I. Willdenowia 14(1): 27-36. (Pteridophytes, dicotyledons.) 


Field-guides See under Greece. 
Information on Threatened Plants See under Greece and: 


Greuter, W. (1979). The endemic flora of Crete and the significance of its protection. 
In Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature, Proceedings of a Conference on 
the Protection of the Flora, Fauna and Biotopes in Greece, 11-13 October. Hellenic 
Society for the Protection of Nature, Athens. Pp. 91-97. 


Laws Protecting Plants See under Greece. 


Additional References 

Critopoulos, P. (1975). The endemic taxa of Crete. In Jordanov, D. et al. (Eds), 
Problems of Balkan Flora and Vegetation. Proceedings of the 1st International 
Symposium on Balkan Flora and Vegetation, Varna, June 7-14 1973. Bulgarian 
Academy of Sciences, Sofia. Pp. 169-177. 

Gradstein, S.R. and Smittenberg, J.H. (1977). The hydrophilous vegetation of western 
Crete. Vegetatio 34(2): 65-86. 

Greuter, W. (1971a). L’apport de l’homme 4a la flore spontanée de la Créte. Boissiera 
19: 329-337. 

Greuter, W. (1971b). Betrachtungen zur Pflanzengeographie der Siidagais 
(Considerations on the plant geography of the south Aegean). Opera Bot. 30: 49-64. 
(English abstract.) 

Greuter, W. (1975). Die Insel Kreta - eine geobotanische Skizze. In Dafis, S. and 
Landolt, E. (Eds), Zur Vegetation und Flora von Griechenland, Ergebnisse der 15 
Internationalen Pflanzengeographischen Exkursion (IPE) durch Griechenland, 

2 vols. (Describes plant geography and phytosociology.) 

Rechinger, K.H. (1943). Neue Beitrage zur Flora von Kreta. Akad. Wiss. Wien 
Math.-Naturwiss., Denkschr. 105, No.2 (1). 184 pp. (Botanical report of a field 
excursion by the author.) 

Zaffran, J. (1976). Contributions a la Flore et a la Végétation de la Crete. 1. 
Floristique. Marseilles. 

Zohary, M and Orshan, G. (1965). An outline of the geobotany of Crete. Israel J. Bot. 
14 (supplement). 49 pp. (Summary of vegetation; map; illus.) 


146 


Greenland 


(Part of Denmark) 


Area 2,175,600 sq. km 
Population 54,000 


Floristics 497 species of vascular plants; 15 endemic species (Bécher ef al., 1978). 
Elements: Arctic/alpine, Boreal. 


Vegetation Much of Greenland is covered in permanent ice. In the southern 
coastal areas, sub-Arctic dwarf-shrub heaths dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum; 
in the interior of the ice-free coastal strip, similar heaths are dominated by Betula nana. In 
the north, high Arctic Cassiope heaths in the coastal part, with very open Dryas 
communities further inland. 


More than 700,000 sq. km protected by the North East Greenland National Park, the 
world’s largest protected area. 


Checklists and Floras 

Bocher, T.W., Fredskild, B., Holmen, K. and Jakobsen, K. (1978). Grenlands Flora, 
3rd Ed. Haase, Kgbenhavn. 326 pp. (Translated by T.T. Elkington and M.C. Lewis 
from Danish 2nd Ed.; illus.) 

Danish Arctic Station (1968). Check-list of the Vascular Plants of Greenland. 
Godhavn, Disko. 39 pp. (Compiled from ‘The Flora of Greenland’.) 

Jorgensen, C.A., Sorensen, T. and Westergaard, M. (1958). The Flowering Plants of 
Greenland: a Taxonomical and Cytological Survey. Munksgaard. 172 pp. 


For a plant atlas see Hultén (1971), cited in Appendix 1. 


Field-guides 
Feilberg, J., Fredskild, B. and Holt, S. (1984). Grenlands Blomster (Flowers of 
Greenland). Regnbuen, Denmark. 96 pp. (Illus.) 
Foersom, T., Kapel, F.O. and Svarre, O. (1982). Nunatta Naasui, Gronlands Flora, 
3rd Ed. Haasa, Kgbenhavn. 326 pp. (Illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No publications known. IUCN statistics: 
endemic taxa — R:3, I:1, nt:3, no data for remainder. 


Laws Protecting Plants Although there is no legislation for the protection of 
plant species in Greenland, a list of species for protection has been proposed for inclusion 
in the 1980 Act on the Protection of Nature in Greenland. 


Additional References 
Bocher, T.W., Holmen, K. and Jakobsen, K. (1959). A synoptical study of the 
Greenland flora. Med. Grenland 163(1). 32 pp. 


Grenada 


Grenada, in the Windward chain of the Lesser Antilles, 131 km north of Trinidad, is about 
33.8 km long and 19.3 km broad. Mountains reach 839 m. There is no coastal plain. The 
state of Grenada also includes some of the 600 small islands of the Grenadines to the 


147 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


north, in particular Carriacou (the largest), St Andrew, St David, St John, St Mark and 
St Patrick. 


Area 345 sq. km (including the Grenadan Grenadines) 
Population 112,000 
Floristics None. 


Vegetation Palm break on steep slopes of Mt St Catherine in the central massif; 
elfin woodland on summits; remnants of high forest on SW ridge of Mt Sinai; secondary 
cut-over rain forest on the lower hills; dry scrub woodland along the extreme south coast; 
rough grazing land with thorn bush over most of the Point Saline peninsula. The forests 
have been profoundly modified by timber felling in the 19th Century (Beard, 1949, cited 
in Appendix 1.) 11.8% forested according to FAO (1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


On the Grenadines predominantly deciduous and semi-deciduous forests; dry evergreen 
littoral stunted vegetation on windward slopes (Howard, 1952). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and 
Windward Islands (only monocotyledons and ferns published so far, Howard, 1974- , 
cited in Appendix 1) and by the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica (cited 
in Appendix 1). See also: 


Beard, J.S. (1944). Provisional list of trees and shrubs of the Lesser Antilles. 
Caribbean Forester 5(2): 48-67. (428 species assigned in a table to individual islands 
separating Grenada from the Grenadines.) 

Stehlé, H. and Stehlé, M. (1947). Liste complémentaire des arbres et arbustes des 
petites Antilles. Caribbean Forester 8: 91-123. (A further 328 species to Beard, 1944, 
in similar format.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Gardens, Department of Agriculture, St George’s. 


Additional References 
Groome, J.R. (1970). A Natural History of the Island of Grenada, West Indies. 
Caribbean Printers Limited, O’Meara Rd., Arima, Trinidad. 115 pp. (About 40 
pages deal with plants to which there is an index of common names annotated with 
cross-references and uses. The catalogue of plants is alphabetical by families.) 
Howard, R.A. (1952). The vegetation of the Grenadines, Windward Islands, British 
West Indies. Contr. Gray Herb. Harv. Univ. 174: 1-129, 29 plates. 


Guadeloupe and Martinique 


Guadeloupe in the Leeward islands of the West Indies consists of two islands 
joined by a mangrove swamp: Grande Terre, limestone, flat and intensively cultivated; 
and Basse Terre, volcanic and mountainous - the Soufriére volcano at 1464 m is the 
highest peak in the Lesser Antilles. Just south and east of Guadeloupe are the limestone 
islets of La Désirade and Marie Galante (the largest at c. 160 sq. km) and the volcanic Iles 
des Saintes. 


148 


Guadeloupe and Martinique 


Martinique in the Windward islands is 200 km south of Guadeloupe; Dominica is 
between them. It is much cultivated with three regions: low hills in the south, a central 
massif, and the active volcano of Mt Pelée in the north. 


Guadeloupe and Martinique are French overseas départements. The small island of St 
Barthélémy, and part of neighbouring St Martin, at the north end of the Leeward Islands, 
are dependencies of Guadeloupe. (For the other part of St Martin see Netherlands 
Antilles.) Their flora is small; see Questel (1941) and the account for Antigua and 
Barbuda. 


Area Guadeloupe: 1779 sq. km; Martinique: 1079 sq. km 
Population Guadeloupe: 319,000; Martinique: 312,000 


Floristics c. 2800 species of gymnosperms and flowering plants (c. 1700 
indigenous and 1100 introduced) (Fournet, 1978). Early figures for endemism (e.g. 5% for 
Guadeloupe and 4% for Martinique in Stehlé and Quentin, 1937) are now known to be too 
high, as many of the species have been found on neighbouring islands. Up-to-date figures 
not available. 


Vegetation 

Guadeloupe On Grand Terre little forest remains, the only natural growth being 
man-induced scrub woodland. Basse Terre has untouched rain forest and lower montane 
rain forest. At the junction of the islands are large expanses of mangrove and Pterocarpus 
swamp. 34.8% forest cover according to FAO (1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Martinique No natural rain forest remains. In the centre and at low elevations 
there is secondary forest, at higher elevations montane thicket, palm brake and elfin 
woodland. 25.5% forest cover according to FAO (1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and 
Windward Islands (only monocotyledons and ferns published so far, Howard, 1974- , 
cited in Appendix 1) and by the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica (cited 
in Appendix 1). Island floras are: 


Fournet, J. (1978). Flore Illustrée des Phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique. 
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris. 1654 pp. 

Questel, A. (1951). 1 - La Flore de la Guadeloupe et Dépendances (Antilles 
Frangaises). Géographie Générale de la Guadeloupe et Dépendances (Antilles 
Francaises). L. le Charles, Paris. 327 pp. (With description of the vegetation, illus. 
and maps.) wit 

Stehlé, H. and M. and Quentin, L. (1935-1949). Flore de la Guadeloupe et 
Dépendances et de la Martinique. Several vols. Catholic Press, Basse-Terre. 


See also: 


Beard, J.S. (1944). Provisional list of trees and shrubs of the Lesser Antilles. 
Caribbean Forester 5(2): 48-67. (428 species assigned in a table to individual 
islands.) 

Stehlé, H. and Stehlé, M. (1947). Liste complémentaire des arbres et arbustes des 
petites Antilles. Caribbean Forester 8: 91-123. (A further 328 species to Beard, 1944, 
in similar format.) 


For St Barthélémy, see: 


149 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Monachino, J. (1940-41). A check-list of the spermatophytes of St. Bartholomew: part 
i-ii. Caribbean Forester 2: 24-66. 

Questel, A. (1941). La Flore de Saint-Barthélemy (Antilles Frangaises) et son Origine. 
Imprimerie Catholique, Basse-Terre. 224 pp. (In French, also an English version.) 


Field-guides 
Chauvin, G. (1977, 1978). Etude illustrée des familles de plantes a fleurs de la 
Martinique. Les cahiers documentaires éducation et enseignement, no. 16: les 
Gamopétales and no. 18: les Dialypétales. C.D.D.P. Fort-de-France. 
Fournet, J. (1976). Fleurs et plantes des Antilles. Cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Sastre, C. (1978). Plantes menacées de Guadeloupe et de Martinique. 1. Espéces 
altitudinales. Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris, 3e sér. no. 519, Ecologie générale 
42: 65-93. (Description of vegetation, sheets on 13 rare and threatened species with 
illustrations and habitat photographs.) 
Sastre, C. and Mestoret, L. (1978). Plantes rares ou menacées de Martinique. Le 
courrier du parc naturel régional de la Martinique no. 2: 20-22. 


C. Sastre has also written popular papers on threatened plants of Guadeloupe and 
Martinique, e.g. in L’Orchidophile 13(52): 83-90 (1982) and in an unnumbered issue of 
Panda, the magazine of WWF-France (pp. 6-7). 


The IUCN Plant Red Data Book has three data sheets for Guadeloupe and Martinique. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Association des Amis du Parc Naturel de la Guadeloupe et de l’environnement, 
Préfecture de la Guadeloupe, Basse-Terre. 


Useful Addresses 
Délégation Régionale a l’Architecture et a |’environnement (Guadeloupe, Guyane, 
Martinique), B.P. 1002, 97178 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex. 
Office National des Foréts, Jardin des plantes, 97100 Basse-Terre. 


Additional References 

Fiard, J.P., Association des Amis du Parc Naturel Régional (1979). La forét 
martiniquaise: présentation et propositions de mesures de protection. Fort de 
France, Parc Naturel Régional Ex-Caserne Bouille. 65 pp. (Illus., maps.) 

Portecop, J. (1979). Phytogéographie, cartographie écologique et aménagement dans 
une ile tropicale: le cas de la Martinique. Doc. Cart. Ecol. Univ. Grenoble 21: 1-78. 
(With map, 1:75,000.) 

Sastre, C. (1979). Considérations phytogéographiques sur les sommets volcaniques 
Antillais. C.R. Soc. Biogéogr. 484: 127-135. 

Stehlé, H. (1980). Modifications écologiques récentes dans la végétation des Antilles 
francaises et leurs causes essentielles (42e contribution). Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., 127, 
Lettres Bot. 3: 275-287. 


150 


Guam 


Guam (13°20’N, 144°45’E) is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands, and is 
located in the west Pacific Ocean, c. 2030 km east of the Philippines. It is an 
unincorporated territory of the United States. Most of the northern part is a raised 
limestone plateau 152 m high, separated from the volcanic south, which reaches 407 m, by 
a narrow neck of land 8 km wide. 


Area 450 sq. km 
Population 119,000 


Floristics 931 vascular plant species of which c. 330 are native and 20 doubtfully 
native (Stone, 1970). 69 vascular species occurring on Guam are endemic to the Marianas 
Group. Indomalaysian-Pacific elements account for over a third of the total vascular 
flora. 


Vegetation Rain forest with Artocarpus, Elaeocarpus, Pandanus, Ficus and 
Guamia originally covered most of the island; much has been logged and cleared for 
coconut plantations; mixed forests on old volcanic soils completely destroyed (Fosberg, 
1973, cited in Appendix 1). Ravine forests occur along river valleys and on some volcanic 
and limestone hill slopes; small areas of poorly developed mangroves. 


Checklists and Floras 
Stone, B.C. (1970). The Flora of Guam. Micronesica 6. 659 pp. (Keys, descriptions; 
notes on distributions; introductory chapters on floristics, vegetation, forests and 
other plant resources.) 
Wagner, W.H. and Grether, D.F. (1948). Pteridophytes of Guam. Occ. Papers Bernice 
P. Bishop Mus. 19(2): 25-99. 


Guam is included in Flora Micronesica (Kanehira, 1933), the regional checklists of 
Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver (1979, 1982), and will also be covered by the Flora of 
Micronesia (1975- ), all of which are cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants There are about 20 vascular plant taxa, 
endemic to Guam and the Marianas which are ‘endangered’; a further 30 taxa, not 
confined to Guam or the Marianas are ‘endangered’ on Guam (Moore, 1980). Heritiera 
longipetiolata and Serianthes nelsonii are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book 
(1978). See also: 


Moore, P.H. (1980). Notes on the endangered-species of Guam. Notes from Waimea 
Arboretum 7(1): 14-17. (Notes on 3 ‘endangered’ endemic taxa; checklist by C. 
Daguio of 58 mostly non-endemic taxa, in cultivation at Waimea.) 

Moore, P., Raulerson, L., Chernin, M. and McMakin, P. (1977). Inventory and 
mapping of wetland vegetation in Guam, Tinian and Saipan, Mariana Islands. 
Mimeo. Univ. of Guam. (Lists 5 non-endemics threatened on Guam.) 


Additional References 
Lee, M.A.B. (1974). Distribution of native and invader plant species of the island of 
Guam. Biotropica 6(3): 158-164. 


PS 


Guatemala 


Area 108,888 sq. km 
Population 8,165,000 


Floristics An estimated 8000 species of vascular plants (Gentry, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1); 1171 endemic species (IUCN figures); over 550 orchids (Lizama, 1981); 
according to D’Arcy (1977), 70% of the high mountain vascular flora is endemic. 


Vegetation Predominantly tropical broadleaved moist forests (83% of forest 
cover), mostly in the Department of Petén in the northeast; mangroves on tidal flow areas 
on the Pacific coast; coniferous montane forests in the west, restricted to the highlands, 
extending c. 10,000 sq. km (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Estimated rate of 
deforestation 900 sq. km/year out of a total area of 49,020 sq. km; figures for broadleaved 
closed forest are 720 and 37,850 sq. km respectively (Nations and Komer, 1984, from 
FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Guatemala is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, 
described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica, also in Appendix 1. The country Flora is: 


Standley, P.C., Steyermark, J.A. and Williams, L.O. (1946-1977). Flora of Guatemala. 
Fieldiana, Bot. 24 (1-13). (Complete except for orchids and ferns, covered 
separately, see below.) 


Also relevant: 


Ames, O. and Correll, D.S. (1952-53). Orchids of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 26(1-2). 

Correll, D.S. (1965). Supplement to the orchids of Guatemala and British Honduras. 
Fieldiana, Bot. 31(7): 177-221. 

Record, S.J. and Kuylen, H. (1926). Trees of the Lower Rio Motagua Valley, 
Guatemala. Trop. Woods 7: 10-29. 

Stolze, R.S. (1976, 1981, 1983). Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 39: 
1-130; Fieldiana, Bot., New Series 6: 1-522 (Part II: Polypodiaceae); 12: 1-91 (Part 
III: Marsileaceae, Salviniaceae and the fern allies). 


Information on Threatened Plants 24 species are listed as threatened in 
Organizacién de los Estados Americanos (1967), cited in Appendix 1. 24 species, mostly 
different ones, are listed in the Annex to the Convention on Nature Protection and 
Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (1940). 5 species are listed as threatened 
in Nations and Komer (1984). 93 threatened species, most not threatened on a world scale, 
are covered in a list by the Instituto Nacional Forestal (INAFOR) - this is: 


Rodas Zamora, J. and Aguilar Cumes, J. (1980). Lista de algunas especies vegetales en 
via en extincién. INAFOR, Guatemala City. (Unpublished.) 


IUCN is preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The list of 
rare, threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based 
upon this work: endemic taxa — E:14, V:37, R:90, 1:35, K:974, nt:21; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - E:4, V:25, R:38, I:11 (world categories). 


Threatened plants are mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104), J.T. Mickel on rare 


152 


Guatemala 


and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore on endangerment in palms (pp. 
267-282), P. Ravenna on rare and threatened bulbs (pp. 257-266). 


Laws Protecting Plants Government Decree 13-79, Emergency Law, National 
Rainforest Campaign, includes provisions for re-afforestation and for the prevention of 
felling of trees to collect seeds, especially of Pimenta diaica. Governmental law of 9 
August 1946 prohibits the collection and export of the orchid and national flower, Lycaste 
virginalis var. alba; collection may only be authorized by the Ministerio de Agricultura. 
Governmental Resolution of 29 August 1950 prohibits the use of the bark of Pinus 
ayacahuite for tanning, and Resolution of 18 August 1958 prohibits the export of fresh 
roots and seeds of 6 Dioscorea species and one Agave species (J.M. Aguilar Cumes, in litt., 
1984). The U.S. Government has determined Abies guatemalensis (El Salvador, 
Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico) as ‘Threatened’ under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Asociacién Guatemalteca de Historia Natural (AGHN), c/o Jardin Botanico, Avenida 
de la Reforma 0-43, Zona 10, Ciudad de Guatemala. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico, Avenida de la Reforma 0-43, Zona 10, Ciudad de Guatemala. 


Useful Addresses 

Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas (CECON), Avenida de la Reforma 0-43, Zona 
10, Ciudad de Guatemala. 

Empresa Nacional de Fomento y Desarrollo Econémico del Petén (FYDEP), Santa 
Elena, Petén. 

Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Calle Mariscal Cruz 
1-56, Zona 10, Ciudad de Guatemala. 

Instituto de Antropologia e Historia y Historia Natural (IDAEH), 6a Calle 7-30, Zona 
13, Ciudad de Guatemala. 

Instituto Nacional Forestal (INAFOR), 5a Avenida 12-31, Zona 9, Edificio ‘‘El 
Cortez’’, Ciudad de Guatemala. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Apdo Postal 987, Ciudad de Guatemala. 

CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Instituto Nacional Forestal (INAFOR), 
Edificio Galerias Espafia, 6° Nivel, 7a Avenida 11-63, Zona 9, Ciudad de 
Guatemala. 


Additional References 

D’Arcy, W.G. (1977). Endangered landscapes in Panama and Central America: the 
threat to plant species. In Prance, G.T. and-Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 89-104. 

Holdridge, L.R., Lamb, F.B. and Mason, B. (1950). Los Bosques de Guatemala. 
Turrialba, Costa Rica. Instituto Interamericana de Ciencias Agricolas. 174 pp. 

INAFOR (1981). Estudio sobre Exportaciénes de Fauna y Flora Silvestre de Guatemala 
de Enero/78 a Diciembre/80. Departamento de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, 
Instituto Nacional Forestal. 24 pp. 

Lizama, C. (1981). Orchids of Guatemala. In Stewart, J. and van der Merwe, C.N. 
(Eds), Proceedings of the 10th World Orchid Conference. Durban, South Africa. 
Pp. 109-110. 

Lundell, C.L. (1937). The vegetation of Petén. Carnegie Institute, Washington, D.C. 
244 pp. (Publication No. 478.) 

Nations, J.D. and Komer, D.I. (1984). Conservation in Guatemala: Final report, 
presented to WWF-US. Center for Human Ecology, Box 5210, Austin, Texas 78763, 


153 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


U.S.A. Mimeo. 170 pp. (From WWF Project US-269, Development of a 
conservation program for Guatemala; extensive report listing conservation 
organizations, individuals and other useful contacts in Guatemala.) 

Veblen, T.T. (1976). The urgent need for forest conservation in highland Guatemala. 
Biol. Conserv. 9: 141-154. 


Guinea 


Area 245,855 sq. km 
Population 5,301,000 


Floristics Size of flora unknown; 88 endemics (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 
1), but see below. Mt Nimba, shared with Liberia and Ivory Coast, has over 2000 species. 


Floristic affinities range from Sudanian in the extreme north-east to Guinea-Congolian in 
the south and south-west. Afromontane elements occur on the Fouta Djallon and Mt 
Nimba which are important centres of endemism. The forests also have numerous 
endemics. 


Vegetation Over most of the country a mosaic of patches of lowland rain forest 
interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivated land; extensive areas of forest still 
survive near the borders with Liberia and Ivory Coast. Considerable areas of mangrove 
along coast. Sudanian woodland occurs in north-eastern sector. Also, transitional rain 
forest (between lowland and montane) on Mt Nimba and the Fouta Djallon. Estimated 
rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 360 sq. km/annum out of 20,500 sq. 
km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Guinea is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa. 
The Guinean portion of Mt Nimba is included in Flore Descriptive des Monts Nimba. Both 
are cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 99 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
including V:10, R:27, nt:10. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Direction Générale des Eaux, Foréts et Chasses, 
Secrétariat d’Etat aux Eaux et Foréts, B.P. 624, Conakry. 


Additional References 

Adam, J.G. (1958). Eléments pour |’Etude de la Végétation des Hauts Plateaux du 
Fouta Djalon (Secteur des Timbis), Guinée Francaise. 1. La Flore et ses 
Groupements. Gouvernement Général de l’AOF, Bureau des Sols, Dakar. 80 pp. 
(With coloured vegetation map 1:50,000.) 

Adam, J.-G. (1970). Etat actuel de la végétation des monts Nimba au Libéria et en 
Guinée. Adansonia, Sér. 2, 10: 193-211. (With 10 black and white photographs.) 

Lamotte, M. (1983). The undermining of Mount Nimba. Ambio 12(3-4): 174-179. 
(Photographs, maps.) 


154 


Guinea 


Pobéguin, H. (1906). Essai sur la Flore de la Guinée Francaise. Challamel, Paris. 
392 pp. (Numerous black and white photographs.) 

Schnell, R. (1968). Guinée. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 69-72. 


Guinea-Bissau 


Area 36,125 sq. km 
Population 875,000 


Floristics c. 1000 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1). No 
endemics given in Brenan (1978, cited in Appendix 1), but IUCN has records of 12 species 
and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; five of these are undescribed species. 


Flora with Guinea-Congolian and Sudanian affinities. 


Vegetation Large areas of mangrove around coast and offshore islands. Inland, 
original vegetation lowland rain forest, but much now destroyed and replaced by 
cultivation and secondary grassland. Estimated rate of deforestation for closed 
broadleaved forest 170 sq. km/annum out of 6600 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Guinea-Bissau is included in the Flora of West Tropical 
Africa, cited in Appendix 1. 


D’Orey, J. and Liberato, M.C. (1972- ). Flora da Guiné Portuguesa. Ministério do 
Ultramar, Lisboa. (5 fascicles so far, covering most of Leguminosae plus two other 
smaller families. Descriptive keys, distributions, etc.) 

Pereira de Sousa, E. (1946-1963). Contribuigées para o Conhecimento da Flora da 
Guiné Portuguesa. Vols 1-8 published by Ministério das Colonias, Lisboa in Anais 
Junta Invest. Colon., and Anais Junta Invest. Ultram.; vols 9-10 by Junta de 
Investigacées do Ultramar, Lisboa. (Annotated checklist. Frodin gives more 
publication details.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants. No categories assigned to the 12 taxa_believed to be endemic. 


Additional References 

Espirito Santo, J. do (1949). Contribicéo para o conhecimento fitogeografico da Guiné 
portuguesa. Bol. Cult. Guiné Portug. 4(13): 95-129. 

Malato-Beliz, J. (1963). Aspectos da investigacao geobotanica na Guiné Portuguesa. 
Estud. Agron. 4(1): 1-20. 

Malato-Beliz, J. and Alves Pereira, J. (1965). Constituicao e ecologia das pastagens 
naturais da Guiné Portuguesa. Garcia de Orta 13: 1-7. (With 6 black and white 
photographs.) 


155 


Guyana 


Area 214,970 sq. km 
Population 936,000 


Floristics No figures available for number of species; likely to be higher than 
French Guiana (estimated at 6000-8000 species), because of wider range of vegetation. 
J.C. Lindeman (1984, pers. comm.), however, estimates 8000 species of vascular plants for 
all 3 Guianas, implying the total for Guyana is rather lower. Floristic affinities with 
neighbouring countries, in particular the dry savanna with that of Brazil and the rain 
forests with Amazonia and Venezuela through the Guayana Highland sandstone 
mountains. 


Vegetation On the coast mangrove and swamp forests, with pockets of seasonal 
evergreen forests, now largely destroyed. Most of the population and cultivated land are 
on the coast. In the interior, equatorial rain forests, lowland and submontane, covering 
85% of the country and forming 2.9% of the Amazon forest. From the Demerara River 
along the coast to the Surinam border wet savanna; in the south on and around the 
Kanuku Mts dry (Rupununi) savanna. In the west are the spectacular Pakaraima Mts, 
reaching 2810 m on Mt Roraima and forming part of the Guayana Highland which covers 
much of southern Venezuela; sandstone capped by granite, with elfin forest, bog and 
swamp on the top, mainly forest but some grassland lower down; very rich in endemics. 


According to FAO/UNEP (1981), estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved 
forest 25 sq. km/annum out of 184,750 sq. km; according to Myers (1980, cited in 
Appendix 1), montane rain forest covers 47,500 sq. km, lowland evergreen rain forest 
134,000 sq. km, swamp and marsh forest 5300 sq. km: ‘‘there seems little prospect that 
Guyana’s primary forests will be much modified within the foreseeable future’’. 


Checklists and Floras Guyana is covered by the family and generic monographs 
of Flora Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). Country accounts are: 


Fanshawe, D.B. (1949). Check-list of the indigenous woody plants of British Guiana. 
Forestry Bulletin No. 3 (New Series), Forest Dept, British Guiana. 244 pp. 
Unpublished typescript, copy at Kew. 

Graham, E.H. (1934). Flora of the Kartabo Region, British Guiana. Ann. Carnegie 
Mus. 22: 17-292. 

Maguire, B. et al. (1953- ). The botany of the Guayana Highland. Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 12 parts, between vols. 8 and 38. Various family treatments resulting 
from field activities begun in 1944. Parts 13 and 14 (in prep.) will conclude the 
systematic treatment of the flora of the Roraima Formation in Guyana; other 
reports will be issued as separate papers. 


A 30-year project to prepare the Flora of the Guianas is being coordinated by the Institute 
of Systematic Botany, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, and the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., in collaboration with Office de la Recherche Scientifique 
et Technique Outre-Mer, Cayenne, French Guiana, and other leading botanical 
institutions. Part 1 (Cannaceae, Musaceae and Zingiberaceae by P.J.M. Maas) is in press. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. 
Threatened plants are mentioned in: 


156 


Guyana 


Mickel, J.T. (1977). Rare and endangered pteridophytes in the New World and their 
prospects for the future. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 323-330. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Gardens, Guyana Forestry Commission, Water Street, Georgetown. 
Botanical Gardens, Ministry of Agriculture, Turkeyen, Greater Georgetown. 


Useful Addresses 

Institute of Sytematic Botany, University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 1, P.O. Box 
80102, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. 

National Science Research Council, University Campus, Turkeyen, Greater 
Georgetown. 

CITES Management Authority: The Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, 
P.O. Box 1001, Georgetown. 

CITES Scientific Authority: The National Science Research Council, 44 Pere Street, 
Kitty. 


Additional References 
Dalfelt, A. (1978). Nature Conservation Survey of the Republic of Guyana. IUCN, 
Switzerland. 55 pp. 
Fanshawe, D.B. (1952). The Vegetation of British Guiana: A Preliminary Review. 
Institute Paper No. 29, Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. 95 pp. 
Maguire, B. (1970). On the flora of the Guayana Highland. Biotropica 2(2): 85-100. 


Haiti 


The western third of the island of Hispaniola, bordered by the Dominican Republic; three 
quarters mountainous. 


Area 27,749 sq. km 
Population 6,419,000 


Floristics No figures for Haiti; Hispaniola has an estimated 5000 species: 7 
gymnosperms, 1087 monocotyledons and 3900 dicotyledons; with 1800 endemic species 
(Liogier, 1984). 


Vegetation Vegetation greatly modified; what remains is similar to that of the 
neighbouring Dominican Republic; only a few pine forests survive at the higher altitudes 
and also small areas of mahogany, rosewood and cedar; alpine vegetation above 1463 m; 
coastal mangrove; estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 12 sq. 
km/annum, out of a total of 360 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981); earlier FAO figures estimate 
only 1.8% forested (FAO, 1974, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). For Haiti see: 


Barker, H.D. and Dardeau, W.S. (1930). Flore d’Haiti. Service technique de la 
Département de L’ Agriculture et L’Enseignment professionel. Port-au-Prince. 
456 pp. (Angiosperms only; keys to genera; species mostly listed.) 


The following works refer to Hispaniola: 


157 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Liogier, A.H. (1982, 1983). La Flora de la Espafiola. 2 vols published, the third in 
press. San Pedro de Macoris. 317 pp., 420 pp., illus. 

Moscoso, R.M. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis. New York. 732 pp. (In Spanish; 
checklist of gymnosperms and flowering plants. Includes reports from Haiti as well 
as Dominican Republic.) 


Also relevant: 


Jiménez, J. de J. (1963-1967). Suplemento no. 1 al Catalogus Florae Domingensis del 
Prof. Rafael M. Moscoso. Archiv. Bot. Biogeogr. Ital. 39: 81-132; 40: 54-149; 41: 
47-87; 42: 46-97 and 107-129; 43: 1-18. 

Liogier, A.H. (1976). Novitates Antillanae. VII. Plantas nuevas de la Espajfiola. 
Moscosoa 1(1): 16-49. 

Urban, I. (1922-1932). Plantae Haitienses novae vel rariores a cl Er. L. Ekman 1917 
lectae. Arkiv for Botanik 17(7)-24A(4), series of ten papers. Uppsala. (In German.) 

Urban, I. (1920, 1921). Flora domingensis. Symbolae Antillanae 8(1): 1-480; 8(2): 
481-860. 


The botanical journal Moscosoa includes reports of new taxa, of new records and other 
papers on the flora and vegetation of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is published by 
the Jardin Botanico Nacional ‘Dr Rafael M. Moscoso’, Apdo 21-9, Santo Domingo. 


Information on Threatened Plants No national list or report. Threatened plant 
conservation is discussed in: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Conservation and the endangered species of plants in the 
Caribbean islands. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 105-114. 


Additional References 

Ekman, E.L. (1926). Botanizing in Haiti. U.S. Naval Med. Bull. 24: 483-497. Ekman 
also wrote accounts (in English) of the Hispaniola islands, Tortue, Navassa and 
Gonave. See Arkiv fér Botanik 22A(9): 1-61; 22A(16): 1-12 (both in 1929) and Ark. 
Bot. 23A(6): 1-73 (1930). 

Holdridge, D.R. (1945). A brief sketch of the Flora of Hispaniola. In Verdoorn F. 
(Ed.), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 76-78. 

Liogier, A.H. (1974). Diccionario botanico de nombres vulgares de la Espafiola. Jardin 
Botanico Dr R. Moscoso, Santo Domingo. 813 pp. 

Liogier, A. (1984). La Flora de la Espafiola: sus principales carateristicas. 2da Joranda 
Cientifica Academia de Ciencias de la Republica Dominicana. Santo Domingo. 

Zanoni, T.A., Long, C.R. and Mckiernan, G. (1984). Bibliografia de la flora y de la 
vegetacion de la Isla Espafiola. Moscosoa 3: 1-61. (An extensive annotated 
bibliography of the flora and the vegetation of Hispaniola.) 


Hawaii 


A group of volcanic islands in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii became the 50th State of 
the United States in 1959. 


Area 16,641 sq. km 


158 


Hawaii 


Population 965,000 (1980 census, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics About 950 vascular plant species (P.H. Raven, 1986, pers. comm., 
quoting Wagner, Herbst and Sohmer, in prep.), most endemic. 


Vegetation Coastal forest of Scaevola and Pandanus, with Santalum between 
600-800 m; lowland dry forest with Myoporum, almost entirely cleared for cultivation, 
grazing and settlements; upper dry forest, mainly open Koa (Acacia koa) woodland, on 
lower mountain slopes and occasionally on mountain ridges; Ohia (Metrosideros) rain 
forest — the richest community - in highland areas with more than 1750 mm annual rainfall 
(Carlquist, 1980). All the larger volcanic islands, except Kahoolawe and Niihau, retain 
some natural forests in uplands; Hawaii and Maui islands, in particular, have large areas 
of intact rain forest. Small patches of forest (‘kipukas’) have been isolated by lava flows 
and contain many endemics. 2 National Parks and several other protected areas have been 
established, mostly in uplands. 


Checklists and Floras A new Flora, entitled Manual of the Flowering Plants of 
Hawai’i, is being prepared by W.L. Wagner, D.R. Herbst and S.H. Sohmer at the Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu. It will include all known native and naturalized alien species, with 
keys and descriptions of families, genera and species; introductory chapters to cover 
vegetation. Expected publication date - 1988. Published works are: 


Degener, O. and I. (1932- ). Flora Hawaiiensis or. The New Illustrated Flora of the 
Hawaiian Islands. J. Pan-Pacific Research Institute, Honolulu. (7 loose-leaf 
fascicles, each dealing with c. 100 taxa.) 

Hillebrand, W.F. (1888). Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Heidelberg. 673 pp. 
(According to Frodin, treats 999 species. Reprinted 1965, by Hafner, New York.) 

Rock, J.F. (1913). The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu. 518 pp. 
(Revised by D.R. Herbst, 1974; Tuttle, Rutland.) 

St John, H. (1973). List and Summary of the Flowering Plants in the Hawaiian 
Islands. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii. 519 pp. (Comprehensive 
checklist with distributions.) 


Field-guides The following guides contain short descriptive accounts and colour 
photographs of c. 70 taxa, including introductions: 


Lamoureux, C.H. (1976). Trailside Plants of Hawaii’s National Parks. Hawaii Natural 
History Assoc. and U.S. National Parks Service, Hawaii. 78 pp. 

Merlin, M.D. (1976). Hawaiian Forest Plants: A Hiker’s Guide. Oriental Publ. Co., 
Honolulu. 68 pp. 

Merlin, M.D. (1977). Hawaiian Coastal Plants and Scenic Shorelines. Oriental Publ. 
Co., Honolulu. 68 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants Hawaii is covered in the Federal U.S. lists 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1980, 1983, cited under United States); Ayensu and 
DeFilipps (1978) list 270 ‘Extinct’, 646 ‘Endangered’ and 197 ‘Threatened’ taxa, most of 
which are endemic. According to Wagner, Herbst and Sohmer (in prep.), about 10% of 
the native flora is presumed extinct and about 40% threatened (P.H. Raven, 1986, in 
litt.). Publications specifically on Hawaiian threatened plants are: 


Fosberg, F.R. and Herbst, D. (1975). Rare and endangered species of Hawaiian 
vascular plants. Allertonia 1(1). 72 pp. (Estimates 70% of flora is threatened; lists 
1186 taxa, of which 273 ‘extinct’, 800 ‘endangered’.) 


159 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Kimura, B.Y. and Nagata, K.M. (1980). Hawaii’s Vanishing Flora. Oriental Publ. Co., 
Honolulu. 88 pp. 

St John, H. and Corn, C.A. (1981). Rare Endemic Plants of the Hawaiian Islands, 
Book 1. Dept of Land and Natural Resources, Div. of Forestry and Wildlife, 
Honolulu. (68 threatened taxa giving status and threats.) 


5 species are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics: 
endemic taxa - Ex:62, E:830, V:45, R:66; I:784, K:28. This is the highest recorded number 
of Extinct and Endangered taxa for any country in the world, let alone an island group the 
size of Hawaii, but has not yet been brought into line with the new Flora. 


Laws Protecting Plants See under United States. 


Voluntary Organizations See under United States. The Nature Conservancy 
(TNC) has a particularly active programme in Hawaii. Local address: 


The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, 1026 Nuuanu Avenue, Suite 201, Honolulu, 
Hawaii 96817. 


Botanic Gardens The principal gardens are: 


Foster Botanic Garden, 50 N. Vineyard Boulevard, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817. 

Harold L. Lyon Arboretum, University of Hawaii, 3860 Manoa Road, Honolulu, 
Hawaii 96822. 

Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden, P.O. Box 340, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 96765. 

Waimea Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Park Office, 59-864 Kamehameha 
Highway, Haleiwa, Oahu, Hawaii 96712. 


A Checklist of Hawaiian Endemic, Indigenous, Food Plants and Polynesian Introductions 
in Cultivation in Hawaii was compiled in 1983 at the Waimea Arboretum and Botanical 
Garden for the Council of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, and published by the Waimea 
Arboretum Foundation. It lists Hawaiian plants in cultivation in Hawaiian collections. It 
adds the following gardens to those listed above: 


Amy Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden, Hawaii. 
Kapalua Botanic Garden, Maui. 

Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii. 

Koko Crater Botanic Garden, Oahu. 

Lo’i Botanic Garden, Oahu. 

Maui Zoo and Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii. 
Wahiawa Botanic Garden, Oahu. 

Waikamoi Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii. 


Index of threatened plants in cultivation: 


Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1985). The Botanic 
Gardens List of Rare and Threatened Plants of the Hawaiian Islands. Botanic 
Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body, Report No. 14. IUCN, Kew. 21 pp. 
(Lists 274 rare and threatened endemic taxa, reported in cultivation, with gardens 
listed for each.) 


Useful Addresses 
Endangered Species Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, 
P.O. Box 50167, Honolulu, Hawaii 96850. 
Hawaii State Department of Forestry and Wildlife, 1179 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu 
96813. 


160 


Hawaii 


Additional References 

Carlquist, S. (1965), cited in Appendix 1. (Origin, evolution and adaptations of plants 
and animals.) 

Carlquist, S. (1974), cited in Appendix 1. (Dispersal and evolution of plants and 
animals; separate chapter on flora.) 

Carlquist, S. (1980). Hawaii: A Natural History, 2nd Ed. Pacific Tropical Botanical 
Garden, Honolulu. 468 pp. (Geology, fauna, vegetation types.) 

Fosberg, F.R. (1975). The deflowering of Hawaii. National Parks and Conservation 
Mag. 49(10): 4-10. 

Kay, E.A. (1972). A Natural History of the Hawaiian Islands: Selected Readings. Univ. 
of Hawaii, Honolulu. 653 pp. (Covers physical geography, flora, fauna. See in 
particular F.R. Fosberg on the derivation of the flora, pp. 396-408; H. St John on 
endemism, pp. 517-519.) 


Honduras 


Area 112,087 sq. km 
Population 4,232,000 


Floristics An estimated 5000 species of vascular plants (Gentry, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1); 148 endemic species (IUCN figures). 


Vegetation Tropical moist forest, covering slightly less than half the country’s 
forested area; the remainder mainly coniferous forest; other vegetation types include 
montane wet forests, moist subtropical forests, wet tropical forests and cloud forests. 
According to FAO/UNEP (1981), estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved 
forest 480 sq. km/annum out of 18,550 sq. km; Myers (1980), presumably including the 
coniferous forests, records 70,500 sq. km as forested according to ‘‘recent government 
documentation’’, of which ‘‘rather more than 40,000 sq. km’’ are moist forests, mostly in 
the eastern part of the country and including the relict Mosquitia forest. 


Checklists and Floras Honduras is covered by the Flora Mesoamericanea Project, 
described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). Also ‘‘most plants’? of Honduras are included in the 
completed Flora of Guatemala and related articles in Fieldiana, outlined under 
Guatemala. Floras and papers specifically on Honduras include: 


Gilmartin, A.J. (1965). Las Bromeliacias de Honduras. Ceiba 11(2): 1-81. (97 species 
listed.) 

Molina, A. (1975). Enumeracion de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1-118. (List 
of species names; no information on each.) 

Nelson, C. (1976-1979). Plantas nuevas para la flora de Honduras, I-III. Ceiba 20: 
58-68; 21: 51-55; 23: 85-92. 

Nelson, C. (1978). Contribuciénes a la Flora de la Mosquitia, Honduras. Ceiba 22(1): 
41-64. (338 species listed.) 

Record, S.J. (1927). Trees of Honduras. Trop. Woods 10: 10-47.. (Description of trees 
and their uses.) 

Standley, P.C. (1930). A second list of the Trees of Honduras. Trop. Woods 21: 9-41. 
(c. 480 species listed.) 


161 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Standley, P.C. (1931). Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bot. Ser. 10: 1-418. (Description of habitats and annotated list of species for the 
Tela area.) 

Standley, P.C. (1934). Additions to the Trees of Honduras. Trop Woods 37: 27-39. (55 
species listed.) 

Yuncker, T.G. (1938). A contribution to the Flora of Honduras. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bot. Ser. 17(4): 287-407. (List of species for the Tela area and also Siguatepeque.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The list of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:2, V:5, R:5, I:8, K:124, nt:3; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - V:7, R:5, I:2 (world categories). 


Threatened plants are mentioned in: 


D’Arcy, W.G. (1977). Endangered landscapes in Panama and Central America: the 
threat to plant species. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 89-104. 

Stolze, R.G. (1979). Ferns new and rare in Honduras. Brenesia 16: 139-141. (5 new 
records to the flora; 3 species found to be rare.) 


Laws Protecting Plants No information. The U.S. Government has determined 
Abies guatemalensis (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) as ‘Threatened’ 
under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. 


Botanic Gardens 
Escuela Agricola Panamericana, El Zamorano, Francisco Morazan. 
Jardin Botanico, Lancetilla, Tela. 


Useful Addresses 

Asociacioén Hondurena de Ecologia para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza, Apto T-250, 
Tegucigalpa D.C. 

Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Ciudad 
Universitaria, Tegucigalpa. 

Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Direccidn General de Recursos Naturales Renovables 
(DIGERENARB), Secretaria de Recursos Naturales, Tegucigalpa, D.C. 

Herbario Paul C. Standley, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Apto 93, Tegucigalpa. 


Additional References 

Campanella, P. et al. (1982). Honduras. Perfil Ambiental del Pais. Un estudio de 
Campo. Resumen Ejecutivo. AID Contract No. AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247. JRB 
Associates. McLean, U.S.A. 201 pp. 

Holdridge, L.R. (1962). Mapa Ecoldégico de Honduras. Organizacion de los Estados 
Americanos. Lith. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore, Md, U.S.A. 

Molina, A. (1974). Vegetacion del Valle de Comayagua. Ceiba 18: 47-80. 

Yuncker, T.G. (1945). The vegetation of Honduras. In Verdoorn, F. (Ed.), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 55-56. (Short descriptive account.) 


162 


Hong Kong 


Hong Kong consists of the New Territories to the south of the Chinese province of 
Guangdong, and more than 200 islands, one of which is Hong Kong Island. Rugged hills 
comprise much of the territory; the highest peaks include Tai Mo Shan (957 m), Lantau 
Peak (934 m) and Kowloon Peak (602 m). More than 80% of the population live in urban 
areas covering only 20% of the land area. 


Area 1062 sq. km 
Population 5,498,000 


Floristics About 2500 vascular plant species of which about 1800 taxa are native 
(Hong Kong Herbarium, 1978); species endemism perhaps as low as 1% (C.C. Lay, 1984, 
in litt.). Many species are also found in south China, India, Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam. 


Vegetation Semi-deciduous broadleaved forest throughout Hong Kong has been 
greatly modified by man; remnants on steep ravines, hillsides and around some villages 
and temples, particularly in the New Territories; scrubland and exotic plantations also 
found on hill slopes; grassland on hilltops especially on many offshore islands (Hong Kong 
Herbarium, 1978). 


Checklists and Floras 

Bentham, G. (1861). Flora Hongkongensis: A Description of the Flowering Plants and 
Ferns of the Island of Hongkong. Reeve, London. 482 pp. (The only comprehensive 
Flora, but rather dated; for additions see the Supplement by H.F. Hance, 1872, 
London, 59 pp.) 

Edie, H.H. (1978). Ferns of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Univ. Press. 285 pp. 

Hong Kong Herbarium (1978). Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Dept of Agriculture 
and Fisheries Bulletin no. 1 (revised). Govt Printer, Hong Kong. (Checklist of 2502 
vascular species, including introductions.) 


Field-guides 

Thrower, S.L. (1971). Plants of Hong Kong. Longman, Hong Kong. 192 pp. 

Urban Services Department (1975, 1977). Hong Kong Trees, 2 vols. Govt Printer, 
Hong Kong. 

Urban Services Department (1976). Hong Kong Herbs and Vines. (Revised Edition.) 
Govt Printer, Hong Kong. 114 pp. 

Urban Services Department (1976). Hong Kong Shrubs, 2nd Ed. Govt Printer, Hong 
Kong. 112 pp. tee 

Urban Services Department (1978). Hong Kong Freshwater Plants. Govt Printer, Hong 
Kong. 89 pp. 

Urban Services Department (1980). Hong Kong Orchids. Govt Printer, Hong Kong. 
108 pp. 

Walden, B.M. and Hu, S.Y. (1977). Wild Flowers of Hong Kong Around the Year. 
Sino-American Publ. Co., Hong Kong. 83 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants No national list of threatened plants. 
Ailanthus fordii, Camellia crapnelliana and C. granthamiana are included in The IUCN 
Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Laws Protecting Plants All wild plants are protected by law. Written permission 
from the Director of Agriculture and Fisheries is needed for the collection of any wild 
plants from unleased Crown land. Special protection is given to ‘“‘threatened”’ plants 


163 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


which include Camellia spp., Rhododendron spp., Magnolia spp., and all orchids (C.C. 
Lay, 1984, in Jitt.). 


Voluntary Organizations 
WWF-Hong Kong, 10th Floor, Wing on Life Building, 22 Des Voeux Road, Central, 
Hong Kong. 


Botanic Gardens 

Hong Kong Zoological and Botanic Gardens, Urban Services Department, Hong Kong. 
(Offices at 12th Floor, Central Government Offices, West Wing, 11 Ice House 
Street, Hong Kong.) 

Kadoorie Experimental and Extension Farms and Botanic Gardens (Kadoorie 
Agricultural Aid Association), Lam Kam Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong 
Kong. 

Ocean Park Botanic Garden, Aberdeen, Hong Kong. 


Useful Addresses 
Agriculture and Fisheries Department, 12th Floor, Government Offices, 393 Canton 
Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong. 
Department of Biology, CUHK, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. 
Department of Botany, Hong Kong University, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. 


Hungary 


Area 93,032 sq. km 
Population 10,786,000 


Floristics c. 2300-2500 vascular species, of which 40-45 are endemic (F. Németh, 
1984, pers. comm.); 11 endemics according to IUCN figures. D.A. Webb (1978, cited in 
Appendix 1) estimates 2250-2450 native vascular species from Flora Europaea. Rich in 
Tertiary and Pleistocene relicts. Areas of high endemism: the Central Hungarian Mts and 
the Carpathian range. Elements: Mediterranean c. 35%, Eurasian c. 23%, Central 
European c. 16% (including North Carpathian, Pannonian and Balkan), Atlantic, sub- 
Mediterranean and alpine (Németh, 1979; Németh and Seregélyes, n.d.). 


Vegetation Much of natural vegetation replaced by agriculture, especially on the 
central Great Hungarian Plain; semi-natural vegetation restricted to c. 10%. 4 main 
vegetation types still apparent: (a) mountain bog on peat with sedges and rushes (Carex, 
Eriophorum); (b) mountain meadows rich in grass species (especially Festuca, Poa, and 
Bromus); (c) steppe or ‘puszta’, an alkaline and very saline grassland rich in annuals; (d) 
broadleaved and coniferous woodland. Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) forms extensive stands 
in western Hungary, together with beech and hornbeam/oak forests on dry grasslands and 
rocky steppes in the lowlands (e.g. Szatmar-Bereg Plain in the Bodrog and Kiskun areas) 
(Vajda, 1956; Németh and Seregélyes, n.d.). 


Checklists and Floras Hungary is covered by the completed Flora Europaea 
(Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). National Floras are: 


Javorka, S. and Csapody, V. (1929-1934). A Magyar Fléra Képekben: Iconographia 
Florae Hungaricae, 19 vols. Studium, Budapest. 


164 


Hungary 


Sod, R. and Karpati, Z. (1968). Magyar Flora: Harasztok (Pteridophytes) Viragos 
Noévények (Anthophytes). In Névényhatdroz6, 4th Ed. Tankényvkiadé, Budapest. 
846 pp. (Illustrated key to native, naturalized and commonly cultivated vascular 
plants; phytosociology and habitat details.) 


See also: 


Javorka, S. and Csapody, V. (1979). Iconographia Florae Partis Austro-orientalis 
Europae Centralis, revised edition. Fischer, Stuttgart. 704 pp. (Atlas of vascular 
plants of Hungary and neighbouring areas; illus.) 

Sod, R. de (1975). Hauptergebnisse der Floristischen-Geobotanischen und 
Systematischen Forschungen in Hungarn, 1961-1972. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 
599-613. 


Field-guides 
Javorka, S. and Csapody, V. (1972). Erdé Mezé Virdgai, A Magyar Flora Szines 
Kisatlasza. Mezégazdasagi Kiad6, Budapest. 246 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants Recently published national plant Red Data 
Book: 


Németh, F. and Seregélyes, T. (n.d.). Hiite die Blumen. Hungarian State Office for 
Environment and Nature Conservation, with MTI Publishing, Budapest. 127 pp. 
(Includes distribution and conservation data for 52 rare and threatened taxa; lists 
over 300 protected taxa; maps; English edition (Save the Wild Flowers: Some 
Rarities Growing in Hungary); also in German; colour photographs; line drawings.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - E:1, V:8, R:1, 
I:1; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:1, V:13, R:5, 1:4 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants Decree on Nature Conservation (1982) and Ordinance 
No.1 (1982) provides protection for 172 plant taxa, 24 genera and 2 families. The 1982 Act 
is published in: 


Anon (1983). Nature Conservation Legislation in Hungary. National Authority for 
Environment Protection and Nature Conservation, Budapest. 55 pp., 5 annexes. 
(Annexes 1 and 3 list protected and specially protected plant species.) 


See also: 


Borhidi, A. and Janossy, D. (1984). Protected Plants and Animals in Hungary. Ambio 
13(2): 106. aA 

Csapody, I. (1982). Védett Névényeink (Our protected plants). Gondolat, Budapest. 
346 pp. (In Hungarian; black and white photographs and colour drawings.) 


Botanic Gardens 

Agrobotanic Garden, University of Agricultural Sciences, 2103 Gédéllé. 

Botanic Garden of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2163 Vacratot. 

Budapest Févaros Allat-es Névenykertje, Varosliget, 1371 Budapest XIV. 

Erdeszeti és Faipari Egyetem Botanikus Kertjke, 9401 Sopron. 

Hortus Botanicus, Instituti Plantarum Medicinalium, 2011 Budakalasz, Pf 11. 

Institutum Botanicum et Hortus Botanicus, 1502 Budapest pf53, 1118 Budapest XI, 
Menesi UT44. 

Kamoni Arboretum, Institutum Scientiarum Silviculturae Hungariae, Vérészaszlo u 
102, 9707 Szombathely. 


165 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Research Centre for Agrobotany, NIAVT, 2766 Tapioszele. 

Soroksar Botanical Garden, Budapest. 

Szarvas Arboretum, 5540 Szarvas. 

University of Budapest Botanical Garden, Illés Utca 25, 1083 Budapest. 


Useful Addresses 
Department of Nature Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Kossathajostev 
11, 1860 Budapest 5. 
Hungarian State Office for Environmental and Nature Conservation, Orszagos 
Természetvédelmi Hivatal, Kdlt6 utca 21, 1121 Budapest. 
National Office for Nature Conservation, Tulipan Koz 10, 9400 Sopron. 


Additional References 

Németh, F. (1979). The vascular flora and vegetation on the Szabadszallas-Fiilépszallas 
territory of the Kiskunsag National Park (KNP), I. Stud. Bot. Hungarica 13: 
79-105. (In English; checklist of vascular plants in the National Park; includes 
valuable table showing phytogeograhical composition of entire Hungarian flora.) 

Sod, R. (1964-1980). A Magyar Flora és Vegetacié Rendszertani-Noévényféldrajzi 
Kézikényve, 6 vols. Akadémiai Kiadé6, Budapest. (A systematic geobotanical work; 
detailed phytosociological classification; includes bryophytes.) 

Vajda, E. (1956). A Magyar Névényvildg Képeskoényve. English translation by E. Racz 
(Wild Flowers in Hungary: The Origin and Development of Plant Communities). 
Corvina, Budapest. 49 pp. (Illus.) 


Iceland 


Area 102,819 sq. km 
Population 239,000 


Floristics c. 470 species of indigenous and naturalized vascular plants, of which 
nearly 20% believed introduced by man during the past 1100 years (Einarsson, 1984, in 
litt.). 1 endemic species (IUCN figure). Elements: circumpolar; amphi-atlantic (plants 
distributed almost equally on both sides of the Atlantic); eastern element; and western or 
American element (Einarsson, in litt.). 


Vegetation Original spruce and birch forests once occupied coastal areas up to 
400 m; now completely cleared due to extensive sheep grazing. Today forest occupies only 
c. 1250 sq. km in the more sheltered lowland valleys where willow, birch and rowan 
(Sorbus aucuparia) survive. Arctic/alpine tundra in centre and north of country, with 
dwarf shrubs (Juniperus, Betula nana and Arctostaphylos). Elsewhere, large areas of 
almost bare rock, gravel and sand, sparsely colonized by mosses, lichens and vascular 
plants. Extensive wetlands, but many in the lowlands now drained. 


Checklists and Floras Iceland is covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin 
et al. 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1). There is no up-to-date national Flora. The most 
recent account is: 


Grontved, J. (1942). The Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta of Iceland. In Rosenvinge, 
L.K. et al. (Eds), The Botany of Iceland (cited under ‘Additional References’). 


166 


Iceland 


(Detailed introduction about vegetation, phytogeography, botanical exploration and 
research; in English.) 


Also relevant: 


Kristinsson, H. (1973-1978). Recent literature on the botany of Iceland. Acta Bot. 
Islandica 2: 67-76; 3: 102-104; 4: 67-74; 5: 63-70. 

Love, A. (1963). Taxonomic botany in Iceland since 1945. Webbia 18: 277-301. 

Léve, A. (1970). Emendations in the Icelandic flora. Taxon 19(2): 298-302. 


Field-guides 
Love, A. (1981). Islenzk Ferdaflora, 2nd Ed. Almenna Bokafélagid, Reykavik. 429 pp. 
(In Icelandic; lists protected species; colour plates; English edition, 1983.) 
Ostenfeld, C.H. and Gréntved, J. (1934). The Flora of Iceland and the Faeroes. Levin 
and Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 195 pp. (Standard English Flora of Iceland.) 
Stefansson, S. (1948). Fldra Islands, 3rd Ed. by S. Steindorsson. Islenzka 
Natturufraedifélag, Akureyri. 407 pp. (In Icelandic.) 
Wolseley, P. (1979). A Field Key to the Flowering Plants of Iceland. Thule Press, 
Sandwick, Shetland. 64 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants No plant Red Data Book. An unpublished 
threatened plant list has been prepared for the Council of Europe by the Nature 
Conservation Council and the Department of Botany in the Icelandic Museum of Natural 
History (addresses below). 44 taxa are listed. 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - R:1; non- 
endemics rare or threatened worldwide - none. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Nature Conservation Act 1956, amended 1971, 
provides protection for plant species in Article 23, which states, ‘‘The Nature 
Conservation Council can declare the protection of scientifically or culturally important 
plants or animals in order to prevent their disturbance, decrease or extinction. Protection 
can be applied locally or to the whole country.’’ At present 31 taxa of vascular plants are 
protected in the whole country. It is absolutely forbidden to pick the leaves or flowers, 
uproot or damage any of these plants. For the list of protected plants see Léve (1981). 


Voluntary Organizations None relate specifically to plants but the main nature 
conservation organizations are: 


Icelandic Association of Nature Conservation Societies, Sundstraeti 24, 400 Isafjordur. 
Icelandic Environment Union, Skolavérdustig 25, 101 Reykjavik. 


Botanic Gardens 
Grasagardur Reyjavikur (Botanic Gardens of Reykjavik), Skulatun 2, 105 Reykjavik. 
Lystigardur Akureyrar (Botanic Section, Public Gardens of Akureyri), Hafnarstraeti 
81, P.O. Box 95, 600 Akureyri. 


Useful Addresses 
Icelandic Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 5320, 125 Reykjavik. 
Institute of Biology, University of Iceland, Grensasvegur 12. 
Landvernd (Icelandic Environment Union), Skolavérdustigur 25, 101 Reykjavik. 
Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 580, 602 Akureyri. 
Nature Conservation Council, Hverfisgata 26, 101 Reykjavik. 


167 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Additional References 

Love, A. and D. (1956). Cytotaxonomical conspectus of the Icelandic Flora. Acta 
Horti Gotoburgensis 20(4): 65-291. 

Rosenvinge, L.K. et al. (Eds) (1912-1949). The Botany of Iceland, 5 vols, 9 parts. 
J. Frimodt and E. Munksgaard, Copenhagen. (1 and 2 - physical geography, 
diatoms, bryophytes; 3 - vegetation studies, fungi, genus Taraxacum, by J. 
Gréntved; 4 - pteridophytes, spermatophytes, habitat accounts; 5 - flora of 
Reykjanes Peninsula, south-west Iceland, by J. Gréntved and E. Hadac.) 


India 


Area 3,166,828 sq. km 
Population 746,742,000 


Floristics An estimated 15,000 vascular plant species (Botanical Survey of India, 
1983b) including c. 600 pteridophytes. About 5000 endemic vascular plant species; c. 140 
endemic genera, but no endemic families. Areas rich in endemism are north-east India, the 
southern parts of peninsular India, the Western Ghats and the north-western and eastern 
Himalayas. Tropical S.E. Asian and Malayan elements comprise c. 35% of the flora; also 
temperate Asian elements (8%), Mediterranean-Iranian elements (5%) (Nayar, 1977). 


Vegetation Tropical moist deciduous or monsoon forests are the natural 
vegetation cover over much of India between the Himalayas, Thar and Western Ghats. 
Tropical evergreen rain forest up to 1200 m, in north-east, and along seaward side of the 
Western Ghats in the States of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala, mostly 
cleared below 500 m; mangrove forests most extensive along the south coast of West 
Bengal, particularly the Sunderban region; tropical semi-evergreen forests and subtropical 
broadleaved hill forest below 1500 m on the Himalayan foothills of Assam, and in the 
Western Ghats. Tropical dry deciduous forest with Teak (Tectona grandis) and tropical 
moist deciduous forest with Sal (Shorea robusta) in central and northern India at 
450-600 m, but depleted; extensive areas of bamboo forests, especially in south. Montane 
and temperate forests grade into coniferous forests and alpine scrub in Himalayas over 
3000 m. Desert or near-desert conditions in western Rajasthan and Gujarat; extensive 
thorn scrub in Maharashtra, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 


Much of India’s natural vegetation has been greatly modified by various forms of 
agriculture, forestry and urbanization. Over 50% of the land area is cultivated, with rice 
the most important crop. Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved tropical 
forests 1320 sq. km/annum out of a total of 460,440 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 
However, according to sources quoted in Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1), only as little 
as c. 260,000 sq. km can be considered to be ‘‘adequately stocked forestlands’, 
comprising 21,040 sq. km of tropical evergreen rain forest, 8340 sq. km of semi-evergreen 
rain forest, 102,000 sq. km of tropical moist deciduous forest and 138,750 sq. km of 
tropical dry deciduous forest. All forests, particularly moist forest types, are rapidly being 
degraded as a result of population pressure and shifting cultivation. 


See Champion and Seth (1968) for a comprehensive account of vegetation, and the 
summary accounts for each State in Bull. Bot. Survey India (1977), 19(1-4). 336 pp. 


168 


India 


A series of vegetation maps has been prepared for Peninsular India at 1:1,000,000, 
showing degradation status, available from the Scientific Section, French Institute, 
Pondicherry, India. See also: 


Anon (1976). Atlas of Forest Resources of India. National Atlas Organization, 
Calcutta. (Major forest types based on classification of Champion and Seth, 1968.) 


Checklists and Floras India is covered by the Flora of British India (Hooker, 
1872-1897), and is included in the Flora of Eastern Himalaya (1966, 1971, 1975), both 
cited in Appendix 1. The Sikkim Himalaya is included in Grierson and Long (1980) and 
(1983- ), cited under Bhutan. For ferns see Beddome (1892) and the companion volume by 
Nayar and Kaur (1972), cited in Appendix 1. 


A national Flora is being published: 


Botanical Survey of India (1978- ). Flora of India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 
(18 fascicles so far, most covering a small family or single genus.) 


The Flora of India project was re-organized in 1984 with a target of 15-20 volumes to be 
published over a period of 15 years, with collaboration between the Botanical Survey of 
India and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Each volume will treat c. 1000 species. The 
Himalayas will be covered as a single geographical unit, with records of plants found in 
Bhutan, Nepal and the Sikkim Himalayas. A checklist of c. 18,000 flowering plant taxa 
will be prepared in 1986. 


There are many Floras at State and regional level. Only a selection are cited here. For a 
comprehensive bibliography see the proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Floristic 
Studies in India in Bull. Bot. Survey India (1977), vol. 19. 336 pp. The Flora Malesiana 
Bulletin, cited in Appendix 1, also includes a bibliographic section covering India. Among 
the more recent Floras are the following: 


Bhandari, M.M. (1978). Flora of the Indian Desert. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. 

471 pp. (Introduction covers physical geography, floristics and vegetation of the 
desert areas of north-west India; 592 species treated.) 

Chowdhery, H.J. and Wadhwa, B.M. (1984). Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis, 1. 
Flora of India, Ser. 2. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 340 pp. (Enumeration of 
1202 flowering plant species, including Ranunculaceae to Caprifoliaceae (85 
families). Covers north-western and western Himalayas; notes on distributions.) 

Cooke, T. (1901-1903). The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, 3 vols. London. (1 - 
Ranunculaceae to Rubiaceae; 2 - Elaeagnaceae to Gramineae; 3 - Compositae to 
Thymelaeaceae. Reprinted in 1958 by the Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.) 

Dhar, U. and Kachroo, P. (1983). Alpine Flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Scientific Publ., 
Jodhpur. 280 pp. (Includes annotated checklists, distribution maps, floristic 
analyses.) 

Haines, H.H. (1921-1925). The Botany of Bihar and Orissa, 6 parts. Govt of Bihar and 
Orissa. (Reprinted 1961 by the Botanical Survey of India.) 

Kanjilal, U.N. et al. (1934-1940). Flora of Assam, 5 vols. Shillong. (Covers mainly 
woody species.) 

Maheshwari, J.K. (1963). The Flora of Delhi. Council of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, New Dehli. 447 pp. (Covers 478 out of a total of 531 indigenous and 
naturalized species of angiosperms.) 

Matthew, K.M. (1981-1983). The Flora of Tamilnadu Carnatic, 3 vols. Rapinat 
Herbarium, Tiruchirapalli. (1 - Materials for the Flora, documentation of 32,000 


169 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


vascular plant specimens; notes on forest types, ethnobotany; 2 - detailed accounts 
of 2260 species; 3 - illustrations.) 

Nair, N.C. (1977). Flora of Bashahr Himalayas. International Bioscience Publications, 
Hissar. 360 pp. (Enumeration of 1629 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms 
found between 650-6930 m in Kinaur and Mahasu districts of Himachel Pradesh.) 

Nair, N.C. and Henry, A.N. (1983- ). Flora of Tamil Nadu, India. Series 1: Analysis, 
1. Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore. (3 vols planned in Series 1, the first 
includes enumeration of c. 2000 angiosperms covering Ranunculaceae to 
Sambucaceae; economic plants, endemics, rare and endangered plants indicated.) 

Puri, G.S., Jain, S.K., Mukherjee, S.K., Sarup, S., and Kotwal, N.N. (1964). Flora of 
Rajasthan - West of the Aravallis. Rec. Bot. Survey India 19(1). 159 pp. (Covers 
750 species in 90 families.) 

Raizada, M.B. (1976). Supplement to Duthie’s ‘Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain and 
the Adjacent Siwalik and Sub-Himalayan Tracts’. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal 
Singh, Dehra Dun. 355 pp. 

Rao, R.R. and Razi, B.A. (1981). A Synoptic Flora of Mysore District. International 
Bioscience Series 7. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers, New Delhi. 674 pp. 

Santapau, H. (1953). The flora of Khandala on the Western Ghats of India. Rec. Bot. 
Survey India 16(1). 396 pp. 

Sharma, B.M. and Kachroo, P. (1981). Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighbourhood, 
2 vols. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun. 

Sharma, S. and Tiagi, B. (1979). Flora of North-East Rajasthan. Kalyani Publishers, 
New Dehli. 540 pp. (Treats 612 species of flowering plants in 95 families.) 

Varma, S.K. (1981). Flora of Bhagalpur: Dicotyledons. Today and Tomorrow’s 
Printers. 414 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants In 1980, a 5-year Project on Study, Survey 
and Conservation of Endangered Flora (POSSCEF) with financial support from the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., was initiated in the Botanical Survey of 
India (address below). Illustrated accounts and lists of rare, threatened and endemic 
species are in preparation. The most comprehensive list so far is: 


Botanical Survey of-India (1983a). Materials For a Catalogue of Threatened Plants of 
India. Dept of Environment, Government of India, Calcutta. 69 pp. (Lists c. 900 
rare and threatened taxa together with their distributions. Prepared by the 
POSSCEF team under S.K. Jain for the IUCN Plants Programme. Reviewed in 
Threatened Plants Newsletter 12: 18 (1983), where H. Synge predicts as many as 
3000-4000 Indian plants might be threatened (see also ibid. 9: 1-3 (1982)). 


The first volume of a Plant Red Data Book has recently been published: 


Jain, S.K. and Sastry, A.R.K. (Eds) (1984). Indian Plant Red Data Book, 1. Calcutta. 
(Data sheets on 125 species, with illustrations.) 


POSSCEF also issues a Plant Conservation Bulletin, edited by S.K. Jain and A.R.K 
Sastry, containing numerous papers on threatened plants; in particular see: 


Hajra, P.K. (1983). Rare, threatened and endemic plants of the western Himalayas - 
monocotyledons. bid. 4: 1-13. (Annotated list of c. 100 species.) 

Raghavan, R.S. and Singh, N.P. (1983). Endemic and threatened plants of western 
India. Ibid. 3: 1-16. (Annotated list of 207 species.) 

Vajravelu, E. (1983). Rare, threatened and endemic flowering plants of South India 
(Part 1). Ibid. 4: 14-30. (Annotated list of 212 species.) 


170 


India 


A seminar on threatened plants of India was organized at Dehra Dun in September 1981. 
The proceedings have been published in: 


Jain, S.K. and Rao, R.R. (Eds) (1983). An Assessment of Threatened Plants of India. 
Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 334 pp. (Includes 60 papers presented at the 
seminar; many include lists of threatened plants with IUCN categories for various 
regions. See for example N.C. Shah on threatened medicinal plants of Uttar Pradesh 
Himalaya, pp. 40-49; R.P. Pandley ef a/. on threatened plants of Rajasthan, pp. 
55-62; S.D. Sabnis and K.S.S. Rao on threatened plants in south-east Kutch, pp. 
71-77; R.R. Rao and K. Haridasan on threatened plants of Meghalaya, pp. 94-103; 
Sandhyajyoti Das and N.C. Deori on endemic orchids of north-east India, pp. 
104-109; S.K. Kataki on rare plants in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, pp. 146-150; 
A.R.K. Sastry and P.K. Hajra on rare and endemic rhododendrons, pp. 222-231; 
K.N. Bahadur and S.S. Jain on rare bamboos, pp. 263-271; R.K. Arora and E. 
Roshini Nayar on the distibution of wild relatives and related species of economic 
plants in India, pp. 285-291.) 


Other papers and publications including lists are: 


Abraham, Z. and Mehrotra, B.N. (1982). Some observations on endemic species and 
rare plants of the montane flora of the Nilgiris, South India. J. Econ. Taxonomic 
Botany 3(3): 863-867. (Lists 26 rare endemics and 2 rare non-endemics.) 

Bahadur, K.N. and Jain, S.S. (1981). Rare bamboos of India. Indian J. Forestry 4(4): 
280-286. (Preliminary review of 26 rare bamboos.) 

Chandra, P. (1983). Observations on the rare and endangered ferns of India. New 
Botanist 10: 41-47. (Lists 49 taxa; notes on distribution and conservation status.) 

Cook, C.D.K. (1980). The status of some Indian endemic plants. Threatened Plants 
Committee - Newsletter 6: 17-18. (Mentions 5 threatened wetland species.) 

Henry, A.N., Vivekananthan, K. and Nair, N.C. (1978). Rare and threatened flowering 
plants of south India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75(3): 684-697. (Lists 224 
angiosperms.) 

Jain, S.K. and Sastry, A.R.K. (1980). Threatened Plants of India: A State-of-the-Art 
Report. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 48 pp. (Short accounts of 134 species, 
many with colour photographs; reviewed at some length in Threatened Plants 
Committee - Newsletter 6: 15-16 (1980).) 

Kataki, S.K. (1976). Indian orchids - a note on conservation. American Orchid Soc. 
Bull. 46(2): 117-121. (Lists threatened orchids.) 

Kataki, S.K., Jain, S.K. and Sastry, A.R.K. (1984). Threatened and Endemic Orchids 
of Sikkim and North-eastern India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 95 pp. 
(Descriptions, distributions, illustrations of over 100 species.) 

Sahni, K.C. (1979). Endemic, relict, primitive and spectacular taxa in eastern 
Himalayan flora and strategies for their conservation. Indian J. Forestry 2(2): 
181-190. (Mentions 30 taxa rare or threatened in the Himalayan region; notes on 
vegetation.) 

Santapau, H. (1970). Endangered plant species and their habitats. In IUCN, J/th 
Technical Meeting Papers and Proceedings, 2. Problems of Threatened Species. 
IUCN New Series 18, Switzerland. Pp. 83-88. (Includes list of threatened medicinal 
plants and orchids in need of protection.) 


A number of papers on plant conservation in India are included in: 
Jain, S.K. and Mehra, K.L. (Eds) (1983). Conservation of Tropical Plant Resources. 


Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Conservation of Tropical Plant 


171 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Resources in South East Asia, New Delhi, March 8-12, 1982. Botanical Survey of 
India, Howrah. (Workshop reviewed in Threatened Plants Newsletter 9: 1-3 (1982) 
and book in ibid. 13: 19-20 (1984).) 


In particular see: 


Gupta, R. and Sethi, K.L. Conservation of medicinal plants resources in the 
Himalayan region. Jbid., pp. 101-109. (Lists 8 Endangered, 12 Vulnerable and 8 
Rare medicinal plants.) 

Husain, A. Conservation of genetic resources of medicinal plants in India. [bid., pp. 
110-117. (Notes on 15 taxa threatened by overcollecting.) 


5 species are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics, 
principally derived from Botanical Survey of India (1983a): endemic taxa - Ex:4, E:18, 
V:2, R:3, 1:541. 


Laws Protecting Plants 
The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Govt of India, Ministry of Law, Justice and 
Company Affairs. (Appendices have lists of ‘endangered’ species to which plants are 
being added; S.K. Jain, 1984, in litt.) 


Voluntary Organizations 

Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Bombay 
400023. j 

Friends of Trees, Tata Building, Choringhee Road, Calcutta 17. 

Indian Society of Naturalists (INSONA), c/o Maharaja Fatehsingh Zoo Trust, 
Indumati Mahul, Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, Baroda 390001. 

WWF-India, c/o Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Private Ltd., Lalbaug, Parel, Bombay 
400012. 


Botanic Gardens The Botanical Survey of India have prepared 2 reports on 
Indian botanic gardens (1983): 


A Directory of Botanic Gardens in India (A Preliminary Account of History, 
Organisation and Holdings of Some Government University and Public Gardens of 
India). 131 pp. (Entries for 55 Indian botanic gardens and botanical institutions. 
The largest garden is the Indian Botanic Garden, Sibpur, Howrah 71103, West 
Bengal.) 

Materials for a Green Book of Botanic Gardens in India. 88 pp. (Lists 100 rare, 
endangered and endemic plants known to be cultivated in the 8 botanic gardens run 
by the Botanical Survey.) 


Useful Addresses 

Botanical Survey of India, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 71103. (Includes POSSCEF 
programme.) 

Department of the Environment, Bikaner House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi 110011. 

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Dehli 110012. 

CITES Management Authority: The Director of Wildlife Preservation, Government of 
India, Ministry of Environment, Room 240, Krishi Bharan, New Delhi 110001. 

CITES (for Orchidaceae): The Deputy Director of Wildlife Preservation, Government 
of India, 97/18 Hazra Road, Calcutta, West Bengal. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Botanical Survey of India, P.O. Botanic Garden, Howrah 
71103. 


172 


India 


Additional References 

Botanical Survey of India (1983b). Flora and Vegetation of India - An Outline. 
Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 24 pp. (Introduction to the flora and vegetation 
of India and its phytogeographical affinities; review of the District Flora 
Programme and threats to plant life. Prepared for the IUCN Plants Programme.) 

Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of 
India. Govt of India Press, Delhi. 404 pp. 

Chatterjee, D. (1939). Studies on the endemic flora of India and Burma. J. Royal 
Asiatic Soc. Bengal Sci. 5: 19-67. 

Mani, M.S. (Ed.) (1974). Ecology and Biogeography in India. Junk, The Hague. 
773 pp. (Chapters on vegetation, flora, biogeography.) 

Nayar, M.P. (1977). Changing patterns of the Indian flora. Bull. Bot. Survey India 19: 
145-155. (Origin and distribution of the flora; floristic relationships.) 

Singh, J.S., Singh, S.P, Saxena, A.K. and Rawat, Y.S. (1984). India’s Silent Valley 
and its threatened rain-forest ecosystems. Envir. Conserv. 11(3): 223-233. 


For useful background information on the Himalayan region see Lall and Moddie (1981), 
cited in Appendix 1. For an account of the alpine flora of the Sikkim Himalaya see 
Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society 52(3), September 1984 (No. 217). 


Indonesia 


An archipelago of 13,667 islands of which about 600 are inhabited. A chain of high 
mountains stretch in an arc from western Sumatra, through southern Java and parts of the 
Lesser Sunda Islands. 


Area 1,919,443 sq. km 


Irian Jaya: 412,981 sq. km; Java: 134,044 sq. km; Kalimantan: 550,203 sq. km; Maluku: 
74,504 sq. km; Nusa Tenggara: c. 80,000 sq. km; Sulawesi: 227,654 sq. km; Sumatra: 
524,097 sq. km. 


Population 147,673,800 


Irian Jaya: 1,173,800 (1980); Java: 94,000,000 (1981); Kalimantan: 6,700,000 (1980); 
Maluku: 1,400,000 (1980); Nusa Tenggara: 6,000,000 (1980); Sulawesi: 10,400,000 (1980); 
Sumatra: 28,000,000 (1980). 


Floristics One of the richest floras in the world, with about 10,000 trees alone 
(FAO, 1982). The archipelago forms the greater part of the botanical region of Malesia. 
Floristic affinities are with Asia, and to a lesser extent Australia; about 40% of genera are 
either endemic or have their centre of development in Malesia. There are floristic 
subdivisions between Sumatra and Java and between Sulawesi and the island of Borneo (of 
which Kalimantan forms the greater part). The richest areas are the primary lowland rain 
forests of Borneo and Irian Jaya (Jacobs, 1974). 


Irian Jaya Good (1960) estimates that the island of New Guinea, of which Irian 
Jaya is the western portion, has c. 9000 angiosperm species, of which 90% endemic, and 
Parris (1985), cited in Appendix 1, estimates that it has c. 2000 fern species. There are 1465 
genera in New Guinea, of which 124 are endemic (van Balgooy, in Paijmans, 1976). The 


173 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Tamrau-Arfak mountains of the Volgelkop are important centres of endemism. The flora 
is related to both Asia and Australia. 


Java 5011 vascular plant species of which 4598 indigenous; includes 497 ferns 
(Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1963-1968). Only 10 genera endemic. Dipterocarps 
less abundant in the seasonally dry monsoon forests with only 10 species on the island 
(Jacobs, 1981; P. Ashton in Flora Malesiana 9(2), 1982, cited in Appendix 1). 


Kalimantan No figure for Kalimantan but Borneo, floristically the richest of the 
Sunda islands, has c. 10,000-11,000 vascular species (based on Merrill, 1921); Borneo 
(whole island) has c. 1000 fern species (Parris, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). Endemism is 
high with c. 34% of vascular species and 59 genera restricted to the island. Especially 
diverse are the primary lowland rain forests below 300 m, particularly on sandy yellow 
soils (FAO, 1981). Borneo, with 267 species, is the centre of diversity of Dipterocarpaceae, 
the most important family of commercial trees in the region; 158 dipterocarps are endemic 
to the island (Jacobs, 1981; P. Ashton in Flora Malesiana 9(2), 1982, cited in Appendix 1). 


Maluku (The Moluccas) A relatively impoverished flora with low endemism, with 
western (Sundaland) and eastern (Sahul) elements. 


Nusa Tenggara (The Lesser Sunda Islands) Less rich than other parts of 
Indonesia; 12% species endemism. Most endemics found on Lombok and Timor 
(Kalkman, 1955). Floristic affinities mainly Asian, although in the drier monsoon forests 
of the east there are Australian elements (van Steenis, 1979). 


Sulawesi Floristically poor compared with neighbouring Borneo. Australasian 
elements in high mountains; otherwise Malesian. 


Sumatra Comparable in richness to Kalimantan and Irian Jaya; richer than Java, 
Sulawesi and smaller islands (FAO, 1982). Species endemism about 12%; 17 endemic 
genera. Dipterocarps dominate lowland rain forests; 96 species in all, of which 11 endemic 
(Jacobs, 1981; P. Ashton in Flora Malesiana 9(2), 1982, cited in Appendix 1). The Bukit 
Barisan Range contains Himalayan elements (van Steenis, 1934). 


Vegetation Tropical moist forests are the dominant climax vegetation. Tropical 
evergreen rain forest is the most extensive formation, of which Indonesia has an estimated 
1,018,000 sq. km, nearly 10% of world total. Deciduous monsoon forests and fire- 
maintained savanna grasslands in seasonally dry areas, particularly in southern and 
eastern islands. Clearance for agriculture, shifting cultivation, logging and transmigration 
programmes are the main causes of deforestation. Mangroves occupy c. 25,000 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forests in Indonesia 6000 sq. 
km/annum out of a total of 1,135,750 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981); however, Myers (1980, 
cited in Appendix 1), estimates the amount of primary forest remaining is probably well 
below 1,000,000 sq. km and possibly as low as 800,000 sq. km. 


Indonesia is included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958) and on the 
vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora Malesiana region at 
scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. For a general description of the forests of 
Indonesia see Whitmore (1975b), cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Direktorat Bina Program (1980). Peta Tegakan Hutan Indonesia, 1:2,750,000. Bogor. 
(Map of forest stands of Indonesia.) 

Laumonier, Y., Gadrinab, A. and Purnajaya (1983). Southern Sumatra: International 
Map of the Vegetation and of Environmental Conditions. Institute de la Carte 


174 


Indonesia . 


International du Tapis Végétal and SEAMEO/BIOTROP, Toulouse. (Scale 
1:1,000,000; maps of north and central Sumatra in preparation.) 


Irian Jaya Large tracts of primary tropical evergreen rain forest, rich in tree 
ferns, palms, bamboos, lianas; dry evergreen forests, with Tristania, Syzygium and 
Acacia, in the monsoonal south-east; lower montane forests between 1000-3000 m, with 
Araucaria, Podocarpus, Agathis and Nothofagus; upper montane forests up to 4000 m, 
with tree ferns, conifers, and rhododendrons; above 4000 m, alpine heathland with low 
shrubs, bryophytes and lichens. The Fakfak Mountains have limestone forest and large 
areas of anthropogenic grassland. Swamp forests, with sago palm (Metroxylon sagu), and 
extensive mangrove forests mainly along the southern coast, and in the north between the 
Mamberamo delta westwards to Teluk Cenderawasih; beach forests share most of the 
species of similar habitats in Malesia, but are better developed than anywhere else (FAO, 
1981). Closed broadleaved forests of all kinds were estimated to cover 380,050 sq. km at 
the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1981). This represents 92% of the total land area. 


Java All lowland forests have been cleared, with the exception of patches near the 
south coast of East Java; in West and East Java, evergreen rain forests are restricted to 
isolated patches on south-facing mountain sides; monsoon forests (tropical moist 
deciduous forests) with Teak (Tectona grandis), Bombax and Tetrameles in centre and 
east; plantations of teak have been established in cleared areas where soils are unsuitable 
for cultivation; Tjemera (Casuarina junghuhniana) forests mainly on the northern slopes 
of mountains in East Java above 1400 m. Where fire is excluded a succession to mixed oak- 
laurel forest begins. Subalpine vegetation above 2400 m, dominated by Ericaceae with 
temperate herbaceous species (Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1963-1968); extensive 
montane grasslands following forest destruction by fire (van Steenis, 1972). Limestone 
karst with a distinctive flora occurs along Java’s southern and north-eastern coasts, most 
of which is now planted with teak. Freshwater swamp forests and mangroves occur in a 
few isolated patches. Closed broadleaved forests were estimated to cover 11,800 sq. km at 
the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1981). This represents only 9% of the land area. Most of 
Java is intensively cultivated (FAO, 1982), and on the island of Madura there is no extant 
forest at all. 


Kalimantan Tropical lowland evergreen rain forest up to 1300 m; extensive hill 
dipterocarp forests and various montane forest formations with Fagaceae, Lauraceae and 
Myrtaceae up to 2300 m. Large areas of mangroves, peat swamps and freshwater non- 
peaty swamps, and the most extensive heath forests (kerangas) in S.E. Asia. Extensive 
secondary forests (blukar) and Alangalang (Jmperata cylindrica) grassland as a result of 
past forest clearance. Closed broadleaved forests were estimated to cover 353,950 sq. km 
at the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1981). This represents c. 65% of the total land area. A 
huge area (c. 30,000 sq. km) of Kalimantan, including 8000 sq. km of primary forest, was 
destroyed by fire in 1983. 


Maluku Transition from evergreen rain forest in the north-west of Halmahera 
and Seram to seasonal monsoon forests in south Halmahera, in Obi and the north-east of 
Buru and Banda Sea islands. Small areas of mangroves; freshwater swamps with 
important stands of Sago (Metroxylon sagu); lowland forest formations with Melaleuca on 
drier soils. Rich montane forests occur on Seram and Halmahera. Closed broadleaved 
forests were estimated to cover 47,150 sq. km at the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1981). The 
northern islands are being logged and most forest is already parcelled out in timber 
concessions (FAO, 1981). 


175 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Nusa Tenggara Savanna woodland with Eucalyptus and Casuarina now covers 
most of the island (K. Kartawinata, 1984, in litt.); evergreen rain forest only surviving in 
isolated patches in steep valleys on south-facing sides of mountain ranges; elsewhere, there 
are monsoon forests and extensive grasslands. Timor has some of the finest natural 
Sandalwood (Santalum album) forests in the world (FAO, 1981). Closed broadleaved 
forests of all kinds were estimated to cover 25,150 sq. km at the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 
1981). This represents c. 30% of the total land area. 


Sulawesi Extensive tracts of primary hill and montane variants of tropical 
evergreen rain forest, with few dipterocarps; Syzygium (Myrtaceae) sometimes dominates 
forests at all altitudes (FAO, 1982). Forests on limestone and ultrabasic rocks also present. 
Small areas of inland heath forest occur in central Sulawesi; mangroves occur in isolated 
patches in the south. Large areas in the south and some parts of the north have been 
cleared for shifting cultivation (FAO, 1982). Closed broadleaved forests were estimated to 
cover 95,250 sq. km at the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1981). This represents c. 40% of the 
total land area. 


Sumatra Tropical evergreen rain forest dominated by dipterocarps, and with 
Ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri) abundant in some forests in the south; heath forests in 
east; lowland peat swamp forest and mangroves along eastern coasts. Drier mountain 
areas in north support the only natural pine (Pinus merkusii) forests in Indonesia (FAO, 
1982). According to the 1978 Bina Programme, forests cover 57% of the land area (figures 
quoted in FAO, 1982); however, estimates from satellite imagery indicate only 42% still 
covered by primary forest (FAO, 1982). The total area of closed broadleaved forests was 
estimated to be 222,400 sq. km at the end of 1980 (FAO/UNEP, 1980). 


Checklists and Floras Indonesia is included in the incomplete but very detailed 
Flora Malesiana (1948-), cited in Appendix 1. See, in particular, the extensive 
bibliography and history of plant collecting in Series 1, vol. 4, pp. 71-161, and the 
annotated selected bibliography in Series 1, vol. 5, pp. i-cxliv. Other floristic accounts 
include: 


Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1963-1968). Flora of Java 
(Spermatophytes Only), 3 vols. Noordhoff (Vols 1, 2) and Wolters-Noordhoff, 
Groningen. (Keys and descriptions for all taxa; vegetation types described in vol. 2.) 

Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea (1978- ), 2 vols so far. Melbourne 
Univ. Press. (Includes Irian Jaya. 1 - vegetation, keys, treatments of Combretaceae, 
Magnoliaceae, Meliaceae and many smaller families; edited by J.S. Womersley; 2 - 
Elaeocarpaceae, Juglandaceae, Loranthaceae and others; edited by E.E. Henty.) 

Kalkman, C. (1955). A plant geographical analysis of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Acta 
Bot. Neerl. 4: 200-225. (Lists 480 species in 51 families with occurrence by island.) 

Merrill, E.D. (1921). A Bibliographic Enumeration of Bornean Plants. Fraser and 
Neave, Singapore. 637 pp. (Systematic enumeration with notes on distribution; 
introduction covers vegetation, history of botanical investigation.) 

Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1972). The Mountain Flora of Java. Brill, Leiden. 90 pp. 
(Contains 57 plates with pictures of 456 native plants; lists 68 species, including 29 
endemics, known only from one mountain in Java; chapters on plant geography, 
vegetation types, dispersal and distribution.) 


There is extensive information on Indonesian botany in the Flora Malesiana Bulletin, cited 
in Appendix 1, which includes a bibliography section. 


176 


Indonesia 


Contributions to the flora and vegetation of New Guinea (including Irian Jaya) have been 
published in the journal Nova Guinea (Contributions to the anthropology, botany, 
geology and zoology of the Papuan region). 


Field-guides 
Kartawinata, K. (1983). Jenis-jenis Keruing. LBN-LIPI, Bogor. (Illustrated popular 
account of Dipterocarpaceae.) 

Meijer, W. (1974). Field Guide to Trees of West Malesia. Univ. of Kentucky. 328 pp. 
Steenis, C.G.G.J. van, Den Hoed, G. and Eyma, P.J. (1951). Flora voor de Scholen in 
Indonesié. Noordhoff-Kolff NV, Djakarta. 407 pp. (Indonesian translation, 1978, 

by M. Soerjowinoto ef al.) 


For Irian Jaya, see also the publications listed under Papua New Guinea. 


Information on Threatened Plants Little data. 6 species are included in The 
IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). IUCN has an unpublished list of 22 orchids endemic 
to Java, most of which are Rare, as well as a full list of palms, some of which have 
conservation categories. Also relevant: 


Anon (1978). Endangered species of trees. Conservation Indonesia 2: 4. (Newsletter of 
WWE Indonesia Programme; lists 9 Indonesian trees.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
Institute for Nature Conservation, Lembaga Pengawetan Alam, Djl. Pledang 30, 
Bogor, Java. 
Yayasan Indonesia Hijau (Green Indonesia Foundation), P.O. Box 208, Bogor, Java. 


Botanic Gardens 
Arboreta and Experimental Gardens of Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute, 
Bogor, Java. 
Botanical Gardens of Indonesia, Kebun Raya Bogor, Jalan Ir. H. Juanda 11, Bogor, 
Java. 


Branches of Kebun Raya Bogor are: 


Botanic Garden, Cibodas, Sindanglaya, West Java. 
Botanic Garden, Purwodadi, Lawang, East Java. 
‘Eka Karya’ Botanic Garden, Bedugul, Bali. 


Useful Addresses 

Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation (PHPA), Jalan Ir. 
H. Juanda 9, P.O. Box 133, Bogor, Java. _ 

Lembaga Biologi Nasional (LBN), LIPI, Jalan Juanda 18, Bogor, Java. 

WWFE/IUCN Conservation for Development Programme, Jalan Ir. H. Juanda 9, P.O. 
Box 133, Bogor, Java. 

CITES Management Authority: Director General of Forest Protection and Nature 
Conservation (Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam), Departemen Kehutanan, 
Jalan Ir. H. Juanda No. 9, Bogor, Java. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Jalan Tenku Chik 
Ditiro 43, P.O. Box 250 JKT, Jakarta, Java. 


Additional References 
FAO (1981, 1982). National Conservation Plan for Indonesia. Field Report of 
UNDP/FAO National Parks Development Project Ins/78/061, 8 vols. Bogor, 
Indonesia. (1 - Introduction; 2 - Sumatra; 3 - Java and Bali; 4 - Lesser Sundas; 5 - 
Kalimantan; 6 - Sulawesi, 7 - Maluku and Irian; 8 - General topics.) 


177 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Gibbs, L.S. (1917). A Contribution to the Phytogeography and Flora of the Arfak 
Mountains etc. Taylor and Francis, London. 226 pp. (Covers vegetation types and 
systematic account of 330 plants collected in Arfak Mts.) 

Good, R. (1960). On the geographical relationships of the angiosperm flora of New 
Guinea. Bull. British Museum Nat. Hist. Bot. 2: 205-226. 

Gressitt, J.L. (Ed.) (1982). Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, 2 vols. Junk, 
Hague. (1 - Physical background, man’s impact, vegetation and flora; 2 - fauna, 
conservation.) 

Jacobs, M. (1958). Contribution to the botany of Mount Kerintji and adjacent area in 
west central Sumatra, 1. Ann. Bogor. 3: 45-104. (Plant collections now total 3977; 
many species collected and named by author.) 

Jacobs, M. (1974). Botanical panorama of the Malesian archipelago (vascular plants). 
In Unesco, Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources Research 
12. Unesco, Paris. Pp. 263-294. 

Jacobs, M. (1981). Dipterocarpaceae: the taxonomic and distributional framework. 
Malaysian Forester 44: 168-189. 

Jacobs, M. (1982). Assessment of the deforestation problem in Malesia. 
Rijksherbarium, Leiden. 7 pp. (Typescript.) 

Jacobs, M. and de Boo, T.J.J. (1982). Conservation Literature on Indonesia: Selected 
Annotated Bibliography. Rijksherbarium, Leiden. 274 pp. (850 entries covering 
Dutch, English, French, German and Indonesian literature from c. 1900 to 1979.) 

Meijer, W. (1981). Sumatra as seen by a botanist. Indonesian Circle 25: 17-27. 

Ochse, J.J. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1931). Vegetables of the Dutch East 
Indies (edible tubers, bulbs, rhizomes and species included). Buitenzorg. 1006 pp. 
(Reprinted 1977. 389 species in 241 genera; notes on uses, habitat requirements, 
distribution, propagation.) 

Paijmans, K. (Ed.) (1976). New Guinea Vegetation. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 213 pp. 
(Includes lists of medicinal and other useful species.) 

Petocz, R.G. (1984). Conservation and development in Irian Jaya: a strategy for 
rational resource utilization. WWF/IUCN Conservation for Development 
Programme in Indonesia (address above). 279 pp. Mimeo. 

Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1934). On the origin of the Malaysian mountain flora, 1. Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Ser. 3, 13: 135-262. 

Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1979). Plant-geography of east Malesia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 79: 
97-178. (Floristic analysis of the Lesser Sunda Islands.) 

Whitten, A.J., Damanik, S.J., Anwar, J. and Hisyam, N. (1984). The Ecology of 
Sumatra. Gadjah Mada Univ. Press. 583 pp. (Vegetation types; flora and fauna; 
effects of disturbance on plant and animal communities.) 


WWE/IUCN are supporting field surveys in existing and potential reserve sites identified 
in the FAO/UNDFP report A National Conservation Plan for Indonesia (FO:INS/78/061, 
Field Report 17) with the aim of developing management plans. 


Iran 


Area 1,648,000 sq. km 
Population 43,799,000 


178 


Tran 


Floristics c. 7000 species (Parsa, 1943-1952) of which c. 20% endemic (Zohary, 
1963). Most of the endemics are found in the mountains; centres of endemism include the 
peaks of the Elburz and Zagros Mountains, solitary peaks in the Central Plain, mountain 
ridges south of Kashan and Yazd, and to the north and south of Kerman (Zohary, 1973, 
cited in Appendix 1). The central plateau is species-poor. The Irano-Turanian element 
comprises about 69% of the flora. Euro-Siberian and Sudanian elements each make up 
5% of the flora. There are also Mediterranean and Saharo-Arabian elements (Zohary, 
1963). 


Vegetation Deserts cover about 60% of Iran. Hot desert in south-east with sparse 
open scrub, including Ziziphus, Acacia and Prosopis on rocky slopes; herbaceous 
communities with Atriplex and Heliotropium in sandy depressions; steppes and deserts 
with Artemisia and Astragalus over most of centre and east; dry deciduous forest in west 
and Pistacia - Amygdalus steppe forest in south and west; Juniperus steppe forests in 
north; broadleaved temperate forest (with A/nus, Quercus, Fagus and Carpinus) in north 
up to 2500 m (Zohary, 1963). Small areas of mangroves on northern Qeshm Island 
(Kunkel, 1977). 


Checklists and Floras Iran is included in the incomplete Flora Iranica (1963- ), 
cited in Appendix 1. Floras covering Iran and offshore islands include: 


Léonard, J. (1981). Contribution a I’Etude de la Flore de la Vegetation des Deserts 
d’Iran. Jardin Botanique National Belgique, Meise. (4 fascicles so far. 1 - 
Introduction, ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons; 2-4 - Compositae, Cruciferae, 
Labiatae and many smaller families.) 

Parsa, A. (1943-1952). Flore de L’Iran, 12 vols. Tehran. (1 - Physical geography, 
ecology, ferns, gymnosperms. Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Tehran; 
2-4 - dicotyledons; 5 - monocotyledons, ferns; 6 - Supplement; 7-12 - dicotyledons. 
See also the revised, English translation, Flora of Iran (1978- ) by the same author 
and publishers.) 

Sabeti, H. (1976). Forests, Trees and Shrubs of Iran. Min. Agriculture and Natural 
Resources, Tehran. 810 pp. in Persian; 64 pp. in English. (Includes nearly 1000 
species, distribution maps.) 

Termeh, F. and Moussavi, M. (1980). Plants of Kish Island. Dept of Botany Publ. no. 
15. Tehran. (104 species collected on Kish; includes checklist, short descriptions and 
line drawings.) 

Wendelbo, P. (1976). Annotated checklist of the ferns of Iran. Jran J. Bot. 1: 11-17. 


Information on Threatened Plants None, except for 7 threatened plants 
mentioned in: 


Wendelbo, P. (1978). Endangered flora and vegetation, with notes on some results of 
protection. In IUCN, Ecological Guidelines for the Use of Natural Resources in the 
Middle East and South-West Asia. 'UCN, Switzerland. Pp. 189-195. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Garden of the Botanical Institute of Iran, Karaj Road, P.O. Box 8-6096, 
Tehran. 
Karadj College Botanical Gardens, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, 
Karadj, Tehran. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Department of Environment, P.O. Box 1430, Tehran. 


179 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Additional References 

Kunkel, G. (1977). The Vegetation of Hormoz, Qeshm and Neighbouring Islands 
(Southern Persian Gulf Area). Cramer, FL-9490, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 186 pp. 
(Includes annotated checklist giving local distributions; notes on 339 plants collected 
on islands.) 

Wendelbo, P. (1972). Some distributional patterns within the Flora Iranica area. In 
Davis, P.H., Harper, P.C. and Hedge, I.C. (Eds), Plant Life of South-West Asia. 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Pp. 29-41. 

Zohary, M. (1963). On the Geobotanical Structure of Iran. Bull. Research Council 


Israel Vol. 11D, Suppl. 113 pp. (Includes a ‘Geobotanical Outline Map of Iran’, 
scale 1:4,000,000.) 


Iraq 


Area 438,446 sq. km 
Population 15,158,000 


Floristics 2937 vascular plant species (A.H. Al-Khayat, 1984, in litt.). 190 
endemic species (according to Zohary, 1950). Of the endemics, 95% belong to the Irano- 
Turanian floral element and 5% to the Saharo-Sindian element. There are also small 
numbers of Mediterranean and Eurosiberian-Boreoamerican species (Zohary, 1950). 
Centres of endemism include the montane and subalpine zones of the Kurdish Mountains, 
particularly the western slopes (Zohary, 1973, cited in Appendix 1). 


Vegetation About 400,000 sq. km is desert or semi-desert, mainly in south, with 
dry Poa, Carex and Artemisia steppe; moist steppe zone to north with open savanna 
mainly with Pistacia; extensive marshlands with alluvial vegetation in the Mesopotamian 
Plain, NW of Basra, between the Tigris and Euphrates; temporarily inundated ‘ahrash’ 
forest, with Tamarix and Populus, on more stable soils and islands; Quercus aegilops and 
Pinus brutia forests on northern mountains between 500-2750 m, much disturbed or 
completely destroyed; thorn cushion open shrub formation between 1750-3000 m; alpine 
vegetation above 1750 m (Townsend and Guest ef a/., 1966). Natural forest covers only 4% 
of the country, almost entirely restricted to north (Kurdistan), mostly overexploited and 
overgrazed (Nasser, 1984). 


Checklists and Floras The main Floras are: 


Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Flora of Lowland Irak. Cramer, Weinheim. 746 pp. (Selected 
bibliography.) 

Townsend, C.C. and Guest, E. et al. (Eds) (1966- ). Flora of Iraq, 9 vols planned, 
5 published so far. Min. of Agriculture, Baghdad. (1 - Geology, vegetation, 
ecology, selected bibliography; 2 - ferns, gymnosperms, Rosaceae; 3-9 - 
angiosperms continued.) 


See also: 


Al-Rawi, A. (1964). Wild Plants of Iraq with their Distribution. Technical Bulletin no. 
14. Min. of Agriculture, Baghdad. 248 pp. (Introductory notes on vegetation; 
checklist of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms with distributions.) 


180 


Iraq 


Gillett, J.B. (1948). Provisional list of trees and shrubs found in Iraq. (Unpublished 
report.) 

Zohary, M. (1950). The Flora of Iraq and its Phytogeographical Subdivision. Bulletin 
no. 31. Ministry of Economics, Iraq. 201 pp. (Annotated checklist, distribution and 
phytogeographical relationships indicated.) 


The highlands of northern Iraq are included in Flora Iranica (1963- ), cited in Appendix 1. 


Field-guides 

Agnew, A.D.Q. (Ed.) (1962). Flora of the Baghdad District. Part 1, Monocotyledons. 
College Science Bulletin Suppl. 6, Baghdad. 170 pp. (Line drawings; introductory 
notes on vegetation.) 

Al-Saad, H.A. and Al-Mayah, A.-R.A. (1983). Aquatic Plants of Iraq. Univ. of Basra. 

Karim, F.M. (1978). Flowering Parasitic Plants of Iraq. Min. of Agriculture and 
Agrarian Reform, Abu-Ghraib. 90 pp. (Describes about 30 parasitic plants; keys and 
line drawings. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Botanic Gardens 
Za’faraniyah Botanical Garden, Horticultural Experiment Station, Abu-Ghraib, 
Baghdad. 


Additional References 
Guest, E.R. and Blakelock, R.A. (1954). Bibliography of Iraq. Kew Bull. 9(2): 243-249. 
Nasser, M.H. (1984). Forests and forestry in Iraq: prospects and limitations. 
Commonwealth Forestry Review 63(4): 299-304. 
Wendelbo, P. (1971). Some distributional patterns within the Flora Iranica area. In 
Davis, P.H., Harper, P.C. and Hedge, I.C. (Eds), Plant Life of South-West Asia. 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Pp. 29-41. 


Ireland 


(For Northern Ireland see United Kingdom) 


Area 68,895 sq. km 
Population 3,555,000 — 


Floristics Size of flora for entire island: 1000-1150 native vascular species, 
estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; one endemic 
species (IUCN figure). In Republic of Ireland only, c. 21 species less than figure above 
(E. Ni Lamha, 1984, in lJitt.). Elements: North American, Atlantic, Mediterranean, 
Holarctic, Eurasian and Arctic/alpine. 


Vegetation Over much of the country agricultural land, moorland and bog. Most 
of the original broadleaved deciduous woodland destroyed; what remains consists mostly 
of semi-natural oakwoods with birch and holly. Plantations of pine, spruce and larch now 
cover c. 5% of the country (D.A. Webb, 1984, in /itt.). Extensive areas of heath and 
heathy grassland on mountains near the coast. The rocky, limestone grasslands of the 
Burren region of Co. Clare are of special interest, as are the raised bogs; the latter now 
under threat. 


181 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras Most publications make no distinction between species 
occurrence in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland, as in the case with the 
completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980, cited in Appendix 1) and with 
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg’s Flora of the British Isles (1962, 1968, cited under U.K.). 
The standard Irish Checklist and Flora are, respectively: 


Scannell, M.J.P. and Synnott, D.M. (1972). Census Catalogue of the Flora of Ireland. 
Stationery Office, Dublin. 127 pp. (Checklist for both the Republic and Northern 
Ireland; natives and aliens; new edition in prep.) 

Webb, D.A. (1977). An Irish Flora, 6th Ed. Dundalgan Press, Dundalk. 277 pp. 


‘County Floras’, in effect, detailed checklists with localities, include: 


Booth, E.M. (1979). The Flora of County Carlow. Royal Dublin Society, Dublin. 
172 pp. 

Brunker, J.P. (1950). Flora of the County Wicklow. Dundalgan Press, Dundalk. 

310 pp. (Introduction includes history of the flora, geography, climate, botanical 
sub-divisions; pteridophytes, gymnosperms.) 

Colgan, N. (1904). Flora of the County Dublin. Flowering plants, higher Cryptogams 
and Characeae. Hodges and Figgis, Dublin. 324 pp. (Supplement, 1961, published 
by the National Museum of Ireland, 95 pp.) 

Hart, H.C. (1898). Flora of the County Donegal. Dublin. 391 pp. 

Scully, R.W. (1916). Flora of County Kerry. Hodges and Figgis, Dublin. 406 pp. 
(Introduction describes geology and geography; pteridophytes and angiosperms.) 

Webb, D.A. and Scannell, M.J.P. (1983). Flora of Connemara and the Burren. 
Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, and Royal Dublin Society, Dublin. 322 pp. 
(History, climate, geology, vegetation description; gymnosperms, angiosperms and 
cryptogams; illus.) 


The Irish Biological Records Centre (address below) is preparing a national atlas to 
illustrate the distribution of the 52 taxa protected by the 1976 Wildlife Act. Ireland is also 
covered by Perring and Walters’ Atlas of the British Flora (1982, cited under U.K.). 


Relevant journals: Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society; Irish Naturalists’ 
Journal; Journal of Life Sciences, Royal Dublin Society; Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy. 


Field-guides Most of the field-guides covered under U.K. could be used in the 
Republic of Ireland, since there are only a handful of plants that occur in the Republic and 
not in the U.K. Those specifically covering Ireland include Fitter, Fitter and Blamey (1974) 
and Page (1982), both cited under U.K. 


Information on Threatened Plants No national plant Red Data Book or 
published threatened plant list except for the schedule of protected plants (see ‘Laws 
Protecting Plants’) and the section on Ireland in the list of rare species not to be collected, 
in: 


Richards, A.J. (1972). The code of conduct: a list of rare plants. Watsonia 9(1): 67-72. 
(Lists 70 species for protection in Ireland; whole island.) 


There is a protected species cultivation programme in Trinity College Botanic Gardens 
(address below), to bring into cultivation the 52 nationally protected species. A seed bank 
is also being set up. For details see: 


Wyse Jackson, P. (1984). Irish rare plant conservation in the Trinity College Botanic 
Gardens, Dublin. In Jeffrey, D.W. (Ed.), Nature Conservation in Ireland; Progress 


182 


Ireland 


and Problems. Proceedings of a Seminar, 24-25 February 1983. Royal Irish 
Academy, Dublin. 175 pp. 


Ireland is included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, 
cited in Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - R:1; 
non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:1, V:2, R:1 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (in press), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and Mammals 
(excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, which 
included a data sheet on one Irish Endangered plant. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Flora (Protection) Order of 1980, in accordance with 
the Wildlife Act 1976, provides protection for 52 plant species throughout the State. Under 
this Order, it is an offence to cut, pick, uproot or otherwise take, purchase, sell or be in 
possession of any of these plants whether whole or part, or wilfully to alter, damage, 
destroy or interfere with the habitat of these species. The list of 52 protected taxa is 
currently under review by a sub-committee of the BSBI (address below). For a summary 
see: 


White, J. (1981). Irish plants - protection at last. BSBI News 27: 6-8. (Includes extract 
from the 1976 Wildlife Act and lists taxa protected.) 


The Forest and Wildlife Service (address below) is responsible for implementing and 
enforcing the Wildlife Act, the main legislation relating to conservation. 


Voluntary Organizations 
An Taisce (The National Trust for Ireland), The Tailor’s Hall, Back Lane, Dublin 8. 
Botanical Society of the British Isles - BSBI (Irish Branch), c/o Irish Biological 
Records Centre (An Foras Forbartha), address below. 
Dublin Naturalists’ Field Club, c/o Trinity College Botanic Gardens, Palmerston Park, 
Dublin 6. 
Irish Alpine Garden Society, c/o Ivanhoe, 28 Spencer Villas, Glasthule, Co. Dublin. 
(One of its aims is the cultivation and conservation of endangered wild plants.) 
Irish Wildlife Federation, 22 Grafton Street, Dublin 2. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Gardens, University College, Cork. 
National Arboretum, John F. Kennedy Park, New Ross, Co. Wexford. 
National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin 9. 
Trinity College Botanic Gardens, Palmerston Park, Dublin 6. 


Useful Addresses 

Forest and Wildlife Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 2 Sidmonton Place, 
Bray, Co. Wicklow. 

Irish Biological Records Centre (An Foras Forbartha), St Martin’s House, Waterloo 
Road, Dublin 4. 

Wildlife Advisory Council, c/o Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Leeson Lane, 
Dublin 2. (Representatives from many voluntary conservation bodies and 
government agencies; appointed by the Government to advise the Minister for 
Fisheries and Forestry about the workings of the Wildlife Act.) 

CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Wildlife Advisory Council, see above. 


183 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Additional References 

Doyle, J. (1958). Irish floristics since the I.P.E. of 1949. Verdff. Geobot. Inst. Riibel., 
Ziirich 33: 33-46. (I.P.E.: International Phytogeographical Excursion.) 

Praeger, R.L. (1901). Irish Topographical Botany. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

410 pp. 

Praeger, R.L. (1934). The Botanist in Ireland. Hodges and Figgis, Dublin. 587 pp. 
(Physical and botanical descriptions; maps; black and white photographs; line 
drawings; reprinted 1974 by E.P. Publishing, Wakefield.) 

Webb, D.A. (1975). Floristic report for Ireland. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 615-622. 

Webb, D.A. (1983). The flora of Ireland in its European context. The Boyle Medal 
Discourse, 1982. J. Life Sc. R. Dublin Soc. 4: 143-160. 

White, J. (Ed.) (1982). Studies on Irish Vegetation. Contributions from Participants in 
the Vegetation Excursion to Ireland, July 1980. Organized by the International 
Society for Vegetation Science. J. Life Sciences, Royal Dublin Society. 408 pp. 
Papers include G.F. Mitchell on the influence of man on vegetation in Ireland, 
pp. 7-14; J. White on a history of Irish vegetation studies, pp. 15-42; J. White on a 
key for the identification of Irish plant communities, pp. 65-110; J. White and G. 
Doyle on the vegetation of Ireland - a catalogue raisonné, pp. 289-368. 


Israel 


Area 20,705 sq. km 
Population 4,216,000 


Floristics 2317 native species; 155 are endemic (Shmida, 1984, pers. comm.). 
Most of the endemics are found on the coastal plains in the transitional zone between the 
Mediterranean and desert regions, and in the high mountains of the desert region. 800 
species belong to the Mediterranean element, over 300 species to both the Irano-Turanian 
and the Saharo-Arabian elements. In addition, there is a small Euro-Siberian element, and 
a Sudano-Zambezian element occupying favourable sites in the south (Zohary, 1982). 


Vegetation Most of the south covered by deserts. Sandy desert with Retama, 
Artemisia and Stipagrostis in the western Negev and with Anabasis, Hammada and 
Haloxylon in the Arava Valley. Stony desert with Artemisia, Gymnocarpos and 
Zygophyllum scrub; open dwarf shrub steppes occupy large areas of the Judean Desert, 
northern Negev and parts of the Mediterranean territory in the north. Evergreen forests 
and maquis, dominated by Quercus calliprinos, throughout the Mediterranean territory, 
with Pistacia, Crataegus, and Ziziphus steppe forests along its eastern and south-western 
borders; deciduous Quercus/Pistacia forest in north and north-west (Zohary, 1982). 


Checklists and Floras An up to date Flora of Israel is provided by Flora 
Palaestina (1966- ). Also relevant may be the Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai (Post, 
1932), and Eig, Zohary and Feinbrun-Dothan (1931); Israel will also be covered by the 
Med-Checklist; all of these works are cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Zohary, M. (1976). A New Analytical Flora of Israel. Am Oved, Tel Aviv. 540 pp. 
(Text in Hebrew.) 


184 


Israel 


Field-guides 

Duvdevani, S. and Osherov, S. (1969). Analytical Key for Identification of Wild and 
Cultivated Plants of Israel by their Vegetative Characters. Massada, Tel Aviv. 

254 pp. (In Hebrew.) 

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1960). Wild Plants in the Land of Israel. Hakibbutz Hameuchad 
and Massada, Israel. 185 pp. (94 species illustrated; text in English.) 

Plitmann, U., Heyn, C., Danin, A., and Shmida, A. (1982). Pictorial Flora of Israel. 
Massada, Givatayim. 338 pp. (Covers 750 species; text in Hebrew with English 
preface; distribution maps.) 

Shmida, A. and Daron, D. (in press). Field Guide to the Common Plants of Israel. 
Keter Publ., Jerusalem. 


Information on Threatened Plants A Botanical Information Centre - ROTEM 
(the Hebrew word for the broom Retama raetam) - has a database on rare and endangered 
plants of Israel. The Centre is a joint project of the Society for the Protection of Nature in 
Israel and the Hebrew University Department of Botany, at Har-Gillo Field Study Centre, 
south of Jerusalem. Apart from computer listings giving distributions and status of plants, 
there is an Ecological Mapping Program which uses the Rotem database to produce 
computer-generated maps of species distributions. In addition, the Nature Reserves 
Authority are planning a Red Data Book of Israel, to cover flora and fauna. 


Israel is included in the draft list for North Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN 
Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980, cited in Appendix 1), but the coverage for 
Israel is known to be very incomplete. The JUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978) has sheets 
for Iris lortetii and Rumex rothschildianus. 


Dafni, A. and Agami, M. (1976). Extinct Plants of Israel. Biol. Conserv. 10: 49-52. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, 4 Hashfela Street, Tel Aviv 66183. 


Botanic Gardens 
Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Research and Development Authority, P.O. Box 
1025, Beer Sheva. 
Botanic Garden of Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv. 
Botanic Gardens of the Hebrew University, Dept of Botany, Jerusalem 91000. 
Botanical Garden ‘‘Mikveh-Israel’’, Holon. 
Havath-Noy Garden, Ministry of Agriculture Research Post, Ruppin. 


Useful Addresses 
Nature Reserves Authority, 78 Yirmeyahu Street, Jerusalem 94467. 
ROTEM, Har Gillo F.S.C. Sak Na’ul, Jerusalem 91999. 
CITES Management Authority: Nature Reserves Authority, 78 Yirmeyahu Street, 
Jerusalem 94467. 


Additional References 

Danin, A. (1983). Desert Vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Cana Publ. House, Jerusalem. 
148 pp. 

Gémez-Campo, C. (Ed.) (1985). Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. (See in 
particular L. Boulos on the arid eastern and south-eastern Mediterranean regions.) 

Rabinovitz, D. (1981). Nature Conservation and Environmental Protection in the 
Negev Desert. A Challenge for Israel in the 1980’s. Anglo-Israel Assoc. Pamphlet 
no. 62. 16 pp. 

Shmida, A. (in press). Endemism in the flora of Israel. Bot. Jahrb. 


185 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Waisel, Y. and Alan, A. (1980). Trees of the Land of Israel. Division of Ecology, Tel 
Aviv. 126 pp. 

Zohary, M. (1959). Wild life protection in Israel (flora and vegetation). In Animaux et 
Végétaux Rares de la Région Méditérranéenne. Proceedings of the IUCN 7th 
Technical Meeting, 11-19 September 1958, Athens, vol. 5. IUCN, Brussels. 

Pp. 199-202. 

Zohary, M. (1962). The Plant Life of Palestine: Israel and Jordan. Ronald Press, New 
York. 262 pp. (Includes useful vegetation map of Palestine.) 

Zohary, M. (1982). Vegetation of Israel and Adjacent Areas. Reichert, Wiesbaden. 
166 pp. (Includes vegetation maps, bibliography.) 

Zohary, M. and Wood, H. (1975). Bouquet of Protected Wild Flowers. Nature 
Conservation Authority, Tel Aviv. 79 pp. (Coloured plates of 37 species; text in 
Hebrew.) 


Italy 


(Mainland) 


Area 251,447 sq. km 
Population 56,724,000 


Floristics 4750-4900 native vascular species, for peninsula Italy only, according 
to D.A. Webb (1978, cited in Appendix 1) estimated from Flora Europaea; endemic taxa: 
142 (IUCN figure) principally based upon Flora Europaea; 712 endemics, including 
subspecies and other infraspecific taxa, and including Sardinia and Sicily (Pignatti, 1982). 
Central European element well-developed in northern Italy and south to the Apennines, 
with the typical Mediterranean flora becoming dominant southwards. Areas of high 
endemism concentrated in parts of the northern, central and southern Apennines and in 
Calabria (S. Pignatti, 1984, in litt.). Elements: Mediterranean, Central European, alpine. 


Vegetation Much of country modified by agriculture. Central European 
vegetation of broadleaved and coniferous forests, with pines (Pinus sylvestris, P. cembra), 
oaks and beech, along the foothills of the Italian Alps and in the Apennines. These once 
extensive forests now largely modified by grazing and forest plantations or, in the north- 
west, replaced by subalpine heaths. Alpine meadows abundant at higher altitudes; up to 
4000 m in the Alps, and 2200 m in the Apennines. In the lowlands and coastal areas, 
especially in the south, original cover of sclerophyllous forests (dominated by Pinus 
halepensis) largely replaced by maquis and farmland. Almost all of the formerly extensive 
wetlands have disappeared, although relict aquatic communities survive in the Po valley. 


Checklists and Floras Italy is included in the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et 
al., 1964-1980) and will also be covered under the Med-Checklist (both cited in Appendix 
1). For a floristic bibliography see Hamann and Wagenitz (1977), cited in Appendix 1. The 
most comprehensive and modern national checklist and Flora are: 


Pignatti, S. et al. (1980). Check-list of the Flora of Italy, with Codified Plant Names 
for Computer use. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome. 256 pp. 

Pignatti, S. (1982). Flora d’Italia, 3 vols. Edagricole, Bologna. (1 - history of Floras, 
ecology, gymnosperms, pteridophytes, dicotyledons; 2 and 3 - remainder of 
angiosperms; line drawings and distribution maps for each species.) 


186 


Italy 
Other works: 


Baroni, E. (1969). Guida Botanica d’Italia, 4th Ed. Cappelli, Bologna. 545 pp. 
(Revised by S. Baroni Zanetti; covers mainland Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Istria 
and the French Riviera; illus.) 

Fiori, A. (1923-1933). Nuova Flora Analitica d’Italia, 3 vols. Edagricole, Bologna. 
(Covers mainland Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Pantellaria and nearby smaller 
islets; 1 - pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms (Gramineae to 
Leguminosae); 2 - Myrtaceae to Compositae; 3 - line drawings only, by A. Fiori 
and G. Paoletti; reprinted 1969 and 1974.) 

Zangheri, P. (1976). Flora Italica, 2 vols. Cedam, Padova. (1 - gymnosperms, 
pteridophytes, angiosperms; 2 - line drawings.) 


See also: 


Moggi, G. (1975). Données disponsibles et lacunes de la connaissance floristique de 
l’Italie. In CNRS (1975, cited in Appendix 1). Pp. 53-63. (Describes present 
situation of floristic and systematic research in Italy; lists main herbaria and centres 
of floristic study.) 

Pichi Sermolli, R.E.G. and Moggi, G. (1975). Report on the progress of floristic 
research in Italy since 1961. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 623-746. 


A computerized floristic mapping scheme, under the direction of S. Pignatti 
(Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Citta Universitaria I, 00100 Rome), is in progress. 
Based essentially on Pignatti’s Flora d’Italia (1982), it will include species and distribution 
data for the whole country, threatened plant data, biotopes containing threatened species 
and areas of high endemism (Anon, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


Field-guides 

Dalla Fior, G. (1963). La Nostra Flora (Guida alla Conoscenza della Flora della 
Regione Trentino). Casa Editrice G.B. Monauni, Trento. (Not seen.) 

Fenaroli, L. (1971). Flora delle Alpi Vegetazione e Flora delle Alpi e degli altri Monti 
d’Italia, 2nd Ed. Aldo Martello, Milano. 428 pp. (Keys, colour and black and white 
drawings.) 

Fenaroli, L. and Gambi, G. (1976). Alberi: Dendroflora Italica. Museo Tridentino di 
Scienze Naturali, Trento. 717 pp. (Trees - colour and black and white drawings; 
photographs; maps.) 

Rasetti, F. (1980). J Fiori delle Alpi. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Roma. 316 pp. 
(Illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national plant Red Data Book. A 
very preliminary threatened plant list was published in 1972: 


Anon (1972). Specie della Flora italiana meritevoli di protezione (Gruppo di Lavoro per 
la Floristica, Societa Botanica Italiana). Inform. Bot. Ital. 4(1): 12-13. List also in 
Webbia 29(1): 361-363 (1974). (Lists 41 species in need of protection with 
explanatory text in Italian, French, English and German.) 


In 1971 and 1979, the Societa Botanica Italiana published 2 large volumes documenting 
563 sites considered to be of high botanical interest and in need of conservation: 


Pedrotti, F. et al. (Eds) (1971, 1979). Censimento dei Biotopi di Rilevante Interesse 
Vegetazionale Meritevole di Conservazione in Italia, 2 vols. Societa Botanica 
Italiana, Camerino. (Site details - description, threats, proposed protection, maps.) 


See also: 


187 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Corti, R. (1959). Specie rare o minacciate della flora Mediterranea in Italia. In 
Animaux et Végétaux Rares de la Région Méditerranéenne, cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 112-129. (Brief distribution and status details on 65 threatened plant taxa.) 

Filipello, S. (Ed.) (1981). Problemi Scientifici e Tecnici della Conservazione del 
Patrimonio Vegetale. Proceedings of a conference, 18-19 December 1979, Firenze. 
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia. 146 pp. (OPTIMA Leaflet No. 114.) 
(Contains many relevant articles in Italian with English abstracts, e.g. S. Filipello on 
plant species to protect (pp. 13-18); G.G. Lorenzoni on a census of vegetation types 
under threat (pp. 39-46); A. Robecchi-Majnardi on plant and vegetation 
conservation (pp. 33-37); F. Pedrotti on the conservation of wetland vegetation 
(pp. 63-80); P.L. Nimis on a data bank for Italian flora and vegetation (pp. 83-86) 
and F.M. Raimondo on Italian species in threatened biotopes (pp. 103-125).) 

Filipello, S. and Gardini-Peccenini, S. (1985). The Italian Peninsular and Alpine 
Regions. In Gdmez-Campo, C. (Ed.) (1985), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 71-88. 
(Includes lists of threatened plants, species case-histories and details of laws and 
protected areas.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics for mainland Italy, based upon this work: endemic 
taxa - E:6, V:17, R:48, 1:5, K:16, nt:50; doubtfully endemic taxa - V:1, K:1, nt:2; non- 
endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:4, V:34, R:38, I:4 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which included data sheets on 31 Italian Endangered plant species (including 8 in Sicily and 
6 in Sardinia). The IUCN Plant Red Data Book includes 4 Italian threatened species. 


For details of computerized threatened plant data see under Checklists and Floras. 


Laws Protecting Plants There is no national legislation giving protection to wild 
plant species except those regulating the collection of truffles and plants registered under 
the official flora - plants of medicinal or traditional economic value. 13 out of 21 Regions 
and Autonomous Provinces have passed local legislation to protect their flora, in 
particular their rare or characteristic species. Moreover, Law No. 984 of 27 December 1977 
obliged those regions who had not already done so to legislate for the protection of their 
flora by 24 June 1978. Existing Regional and Provincial laws are: 


Regional: 
Abruzzo No.66 of 1980. 
Basilicata No.42 of 22 May 1980 
Emilia-Romagna No.2 of 24 January 1977. 
Friuli-Venezia Giulia No.44 of 18 August 1972. 
Lazio No.61 of 19 September 1974. 
Liguria No.9 of 30 January 1984. 
Lombardia No.58 of 17 December 1973. 
Marche No.6 of 22 February 1973. 
Piedmonte No.24 of 13 August 1974. 
Umbria No.40 of 11 August 1978. 
Valle-d’ Aosta No.6 of 8 November 1956 and 


special decree no. 43 of 
31 January 1957. 
Veneto No.53 of 15 November 1974. 


188 


Ttaly 
Provincial: 


Bolzano No.13 of 28 July 1972. 
Trento No.17 of 25 July 1973. 


Bortolotti, L. (1975). Sulle leggi per la protezione della flora emanate dalle Regioni a 
statuto speciale e ordinario dalle Province autonome. Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 7(2): 
132-139. 

Filipello, S. et al. (Eds) (1979). Repertorio delle Specie della Flora Italiana Sottoposte a 
Vincolo di Protezione nella Legislazione Nazionale e Regionale. Consiglio Nazionale 
delle Ricerche, Pavia. (Includes taxa protected at Regional and Provincial levels.) 

Peyronel, B. (1973). Considerazione su una legge regionale per la conservazione della 
flora: Italia. Inf. Bot. Ital. 5(2): 151-154. 

Region Marche (Ed.) (1979). Flora Protetta delle Marche. Region Marche. 96 pp. 
(Maps; illus.) 

Region Veneto (Ed.) (1975). Fauna Inferiore Flora e Funghi Natura da Salvare. 71 pp. 
(Describes 48 protected species; illus.) 

Sonnino, P.F. (1975). Protezione delle flora alpina e legislazione. Natura e Montagna 
(Italy) 22(2): 41-47. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Associazione Italiana per il World Wildlife Fund (WWF-Italy), Via P.A. Micheli 50, 
00197 Rome. 
Italia Nostra, Via N. Porpora 22, 00100 Rome. 
Societa Botanica Italiana, Via La Pira, 4-50121 Firenze. 


Botanic Gardens Numerous; outlined in Henderson (1983), cited in Appendix 1; 
only those that subscribe to the Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body listed 
here: 


Ente Giardini Botanici Villa Taranto, 28048 Verbania Pallanza, Lago Maggiore. 
Istituto e Orto Botanico dell’ Universita di Pavia, Via San Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia. 


Useful Addresses 
Federazione Nazionale Pro Natura, Via Marchesana 12, 40124 Bologna. 
Food and Agriculture Oganization of the U.N. (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 
00100 Roma. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Ministero dell’ Agricoltura e delle 
Foreste, Direzione generale per 1’>Economia montana e per le Foreste, Divisione II, 
Via G.Carducci 5, 00187 Roma. 


Additional References 

Filipello, S. (1979). Projets, problémes et aboutissements de la conservation de la flore 
et de la végétation en Italie. In Proceedings of the 2nd OPTIMA meeting, 23-29 
May 1977. Webbia 34(1): 63-69. 

Societa Botanica Italiana (1975). Aufruf zum Schutze der Italienischen Flora. 
Willdenowia 7(3): 537-538. (Lists 43 protected species.) 

Toschi, A. (1959). Etablissement des réserves pour la protection de la faune et de la 
flore en Italie. In Animaux et Végétaux Rares de la Région Méditerranéenne. 
Proceedings of the IUCN 7th Technical Meeting, 11-19 September 1958, Athens, 
vol. 5. IUCN, Brussels. Pp. 58-63. 


189 


Italy: Sardinia 


Second largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily, c. 255 km long, 90 km wide, with 
over 1200 km of coastline. 


Area 24,090 sq. km 
Population 1,594,175 (1981 census) 


Floristics 1900-2000 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea. 27 endemic taxa (IUCN figures). Affinities with 
flora of Corsica rather than Sicily. Flora entirely Mediterranean. 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation, especially around the coast. Inland, a zone 
of Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) is dominant, although much has been replaced by dry pastures 
and on the lower ground it has largely been degraded to garigue. Natural formations of 
thorny shrubs are widespread in mountainous areas (S. Pignatti, 1984, in /itt.). 


Checklists and Floras See under Italy, and also a series of papers by different 
authors (B. Corrias, P.V. Arrigoni, I. Camarda, M. Rafaelli and F. Valsecchi) in Boll. 
Soc. Sarda Sci. Nat. entitled ‘Le piante endemiche della Sardegna’. Vols 16 (1977): 
259-280, 287-313; 17 (1978): 177-225, 227-241, 243-328. (Reprinted in OPTIMA Leaflets 
49-54 (1977) and 73-79 (1978); case-studies on individual taxa, with details of distribution 
and ecology; maps; line drawings.) 


Cossu, A. (1968). Flora Pratica Sarda. Gallizi, Sassari. 365 pp. (Includes distribution, 
habitat and cultivation details; illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants See under Italy, and: 


Arrigoni, P.V. (1971). Nuovi reperti di alcune species rare o notevoli della flora sarda 
(New records for some rare or interesting species in Sardinia). Giorn. Bot. Ital. 
105(4): 177-178. 


IUCN statistics: endemic taxa —- E:5, V:3, R:10, K:1, nt:8; non-endemics rare or threatened 
worldwide - E:2, V:5, R:6, I:1 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants See under Italy. 


Additional References 
Arrigoni, P.V. (1968). Fitoclimatologia della Sardegna. Webbia 23(1): 1-100. (English 
summary.) 
Camarda, I. and Valsecchi, F. (1984). Alberi e arbusti spontanei della Sardegna. 
Gallizzi. 480 pp. (Illus.) 


Italy: Sicily 


Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean, is separated from mainland Italy to the 
north-east by the 3-km straits of Messina. 


Area 25,708 sq. km 
Population 4,906,878 (1981 census) 


190 


Italy: Sicily 


Floristics 2250-2450 native vascular species estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea. 41 endemic taxa (IUCN figures). Floristic diversity 
and endemism highest in the north-west, especially the mountains of the Madonie and 
Nebrodi area and the slopes of Mt Etna. A Mediterranean flora. 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation. Most of the land cultivated. The forest 
cover of Sicilian Fir (Abies nebrodensis), once almost continuous in the northern 
mountain range, now confined to tiny fragments in the Madonie area; some broadleaved, 
deciduous forest of oak, chestnut and beech in the Nebrodi and Madonie Mountains and 
the northern slopes of the Rocca Busambra; maquis confined to the drier areas, especially 
the lower slopes of the mountains. The volcanic Mt Etna (3323 m), in north-east Sicily, 
supports oak, birch and chestnut forests, with fragments of beech (1000-1450 m), but 
forest degradation widespread; at higher altitudes, Laricio Pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio), 
giving way to low scrub communities rich in endemics e.g. Genista aetnensis; lower slopes 
are heavily cultivated (Poli Marchese, 1984). For a vegetation map see Gentile ef a/. (1968). 


Checklists and Floras See under Italy and: 


Di Martino, A. and Raimondo, F.M. (1979). Biological and chorological survey of the 
Sicilian flora. In Proceedings of the 2nd OPTIMA meeting, 23-29 May 1977. 
Webbia 34(1): 309-335. (English summary.) 


Information on Threatened Plants See under Italy. 


Case studies have been written about individual threatened and endemic species, e.g. by 
F. Garbari and A. Di Martino on Leopoldia gussonei in Webbia 27(1): 289-297 (1972). 
(English summaries.) 


IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:6, V:5, R:13, 1:4, K:3, nt:10; doubtfully-endemic taxa - 
R:1, nt:1; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:3, V:5, R:9, I:1 (world 
categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants See under Italy. 
Voluntary Organizations See under Italy. 


Botanic Gardens 
Istituto Botanico e Giardino Coloniale, Via A. Lincoln 2, 90133 Palermo. 


Useful Addresses See under Italy and: 


Istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura, Viole S. Margherita, 80/82, 52100 Arezzo, 
Italy. (Involved with a conservation programme for Abies nebrodensis.) 


Additional References 

Gentile, S., Tomaselli, R., Pirola, A. and Balduzzi, A. (1968). Carta della Vegetazione 
Naturale Potenziale della Sicilia, 1/500,000. No. 40. Quaderni, Pavia. 114 pp. 

Poli Marchese, E. (1984). Excursion au M. Etna (10 Juin 1983): une vue synthétique du 
paysage végétal de l’Etna. In Proceedings of the 4th OPTIMA meeting, 6-14 June 
1983, Palermo, Sicily. Webbia 38: 69-78. 

Raimondo, F.M. (1983). On the natural history of the Madonie Mountains. In 
Proceedings of the 4th OPTIMA meeting, 6-14 June 1983, Palermo, Sicily. Webbia 
38: 29-61. (A floristic and ecological account with comments on conservation.) 

Raimondo, F.M., Rossitto, M. and Villari, R. (1982). Bibliografia Geobotanica 
Siciliana. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo. 159 pp. (Includes algae, 
lichens, bryophytes and angiosperms.) 


191 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Riggio, S. and Massa, B. (1974). Problemi di conservazione della natura in Sicilia. 1. 
Contributo. Atti IV Simp. Naz. Conservazione Nat. Bar. 2: 299-425. (Not seen.) 


Ivory Coast 


Area 322,463 sq. km 
Population 9,474,000 


Floristics 3660 species of vascular plants (Aké Assi, 1984); Aké Assi (1971) gives 
4892 species; 4700 species (Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1); 2770 species in the forest 
zone (Aubréville, 1959). 62 endemic angiosperms (Aké Assi, 1984); 41 endemic species 
(Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1); 89 endemic taxa (IUCN figures, see below). 


Floristic affinities predominantly Guinea-Congolian, but flora in north with Sudanian 
affinities. Tai Forest (868 species, Aké Assi and Pfeffer, 1975) and Mt Nimba (shared with 
Guinea and Liberia, 2000 species) are especially important floristically. 


Vegetation Northern quarter covered by Sudanian woodland with Jsoberlinia. 
Remainder of country lowland rain forest interspersed with secondary grassland and 
cultivation; transitional rain forest (between lowland and montane) on Mt Nimba. Small 
area of mangrove and swamp forest at coast. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 2900 sq. km/annum out of 
44,580 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) quotes 
coverage of primary moist forest to be 30,000 sq. km or less (World Bank), which is being 
opened up at a rate of 4000-5000 sq. km/annum. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Ivory Coast is included in the Flora of West Tropical 
Africa. The Ivorian portion of Mt Nimba is included in Flore Descriptive des Monts 
Nimba. Both works are cited in Appendix 1. 


Aké Assi, L. (1964). Contribution a l’Etude Floristique de la Céte d’Ivoire et des 
Territoires Limitrophes. Lechevalier, Paris. 321 pp. (Annotated checklist with 
extensive specimen citations; line drawings.) 

Aké Assi, L. (1984). Flore de la Céte d’Ivoire: Etude Descriptive et Biogéographique, 
avec Quelques Notes Ethnobotaniques, 3 parts in 6 vols. Thesis presented to 
University of Abidjan. 1206 pp. (Part 1 - notes on families, genera, species; 
numerous line drawings; part 2 - checklist of species; part 3 - analysis of the flora; 
list of ailments and plants used in their cure; bibliography.) 

Aké Assi, L. and Pfeffer, P. (1975). Inventaire Flore et Faune du Parc National de 
Tai. BDPA/SEPN, Abidjan. 

Aubréville, A. (1959). La Flore Forestiére de la Céte d’Ivoire, 3 vols. 2nd Ed. (1st Ed. 
1936). Publication No. 15 of the Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur- 
Marne. (Keys, descriptions, broad distributions, line drawings.) 

Guillaumet, J.-L. (1967). Recherches sur la Végétation et la Flore de la Région du Bas- 
Cavally (Céte d’Ivoire). ORSTOM, Paris. 247 pp. (Includes vegetation map 
1:1,000,000; 39 black and white photographs.) 


192 


Ivory Coast 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 89 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic - E:6, 
V:36, R:17, nt:2, K:28. 


Botanic Gardens 
Laboratoire de Botanique, ORSTOM, B.P. 20, Abidjan. 


Additional References 

Adjanohoun, E., Aké Assi, L. and Guillaumet, J.L. (1968). La Cote d’Ivoire. In 
Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 76-81. 

Aké Assi, L. (1971). Progrés dans la préparation de la flore de la Céte d’Ivoire. In 
Merxmiiller, H. (1971), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 27-29. 

Lamotte, M. (1983). The undermining of Mount Nimba. Ambio 12(3-4): 174-179. 
(Photographs, maps.) 

Lanly, J.P. (1969). Régression de la forét dense en Cote d’Ivoire. Bois Foréts Trop. 
127: 45-59. 

Mangenot, G. (1971). Une nouvelle carte de la végétation de la Céte d’Ivoire. In 
Merxmiiller, H. (1971), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 116-121. (With vegetation map 
1:4,000,000.) 


Jamaica 


Jamaica lies south of the eastern extremity of Cuba, in the Caribbean Sea. 235 km long 
and 82 km wide, it consists of coastal plains, divided by the Blue Mountain Range in the 
east which reaches 2256 m, and hills and limestone plateaux in the centre and west. 


Area 11,425 sq. km 
Population 2,290,000 


Floristics 3003 species of flowering plants, with 27.6% endemism (C.D. Adams 
pers. comm., from Proctor, 1982); 579 species of ferns, 82 (13.5%) endemic (Proctor, in 
press). In Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae, both richly represented in Jamaica, endemism is 
30.7% (Adams, 1972). i 


Vegetation Much of lowlands cleared for agriculture; natural vegetation in 
littoral mangrove swamps and salt pans; xeric woodlands, varying from cactus-thorn scrub 
to high forest, on limestone; secondary woodland common on dry alluvial soils of 
southern plains. Native forest, on the limestone hills and plateaux of the interior, modified 
and receding steadily; the largest extent of natural forest is in the Cockpit Country in the 
NW where 101 endemic species have been described. Some well-developed lower montane 
rain forest on limestone in the John Crow Mountains, at the wet NE corner of the island; 
extensive montane rain forest in the upper reaches of the Blue Mountains, steadily 
receding; elfin woodland on the summits and ridges of the Blue and John Crow 
Mountains. 44.9% forested (FAO, 1974, cited in Appendix 1); estimated rate of 
deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 20 sq. km/annum, out of a total of 670 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). The Flora is: 


193 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 
Mona. 848 pp. 


See also: 


Proctor, G.R. (1982). More additions to the Flora of Jamaica. J. Arnold Arbor. 63(3): 
199-315. (115 native species further to Adams, 1972.) 

Proctor, G.R. (in press). Ferns of Jamaica. British Museum (Natural History), 
London. 


Field-guides 
Hawkes, A.D. and Sutton, B.C. (1974). Wild Flowers of Jamaica. Collins. 96 pp. (An 
introduction and guide to 174 taxa, each illustrated.) 


Information on Threatened Plants D.L. Kelly (1985, pers. comm.) estimates 363 
endemic species, 48.8% of the total are rare, very rare or extinct; 90 of them are known in 
recent times only from single sites and 40 only from old collections of which majority are 
probably now extinct. 


Proctor, G.R. Conservation of Jamaican plants: Partial list of endangered species. 
Undated manuscript. 


Threatened plant conservation is discussed in: 


Howard, R.A. (1977). Conservation and the endangered species of plants in the 
Caribbean islands. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 105-114. 


Laws Protecting Plants Existing legislation: 


Bark of Trees Act - regulation of commercial bark removal for specific species. 
Forest Act - declaration of forest reserves. 
Town Planning Act - declaration of Tree Preservation Orders. 


Proposed legislation: 


Wild Life Protection Act: redefinition of ‘Wild Life’ to include plants. 
Trade Law: Inclusion of certain plants under various schedules to regulate export. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Jamaica Orchid Society, c/o Mr. A. Gloudon, 4A Wai Rua Road, Gordon Town, 
St Andrew. 


Natural History Society of Jamaica, c/o Institute of Jamaica, Duke St., Kingston. 


Botanic Gardens 
Bath Garden, Bath, St Thomas. 
Castleton Gardens, St Mary. 
Royal Botanic Gardens (Hope), Hope Road, Kingston 6. 
The Hill Gardens, Cinchona, Hall’s Delight, St Andrew. 


See: 


Eyre, A. (1966). The Botanic Gardens of Jamaica. André Deutsch, London. 96 pp., 
16 plates. (A guide to the gardens, remarks on the areas in which they occur, and 
their history.) 


Useful Addresses 


Department of Botany and Herbarium, University of the West Indies, Mona, 
Kingston 7. 


194 


Jamaica 


Forestry Department, 173 Constant Spring Road, Kingston 8. 

Institute of Jamaica, 12 East Street, Kingston. 

Natural Resource Conservation Division, Ministry of Science, Technology and 
Environment, P.O. Box 305, Kingston 10. 

The Herbarium, Institute of Jamaica, Duke St., Kingston. 


Additional References 

Adams, C.D. (1971). The Blue Mahoe & Other Bush: an Introduction to Plant Life in 
Jamaica. Sangster’s Bookstores Ltd., 97 Harbour Street, Kingston, Jamaica and 
McGraw-Hill Far Eastern Publishers Ltd., Singapore. 157 pp. 

Asprey, G.F. and Loveless, A.R. (1957). The dry evergreen formations of Jamaica. 
J. Ecol. 45: 799-822. 

Asprey, G.F. and Robbins, R.G. (1953). The vegetation of Jamaica. Ecol. Monog. 23: 
359-412. 

Grubb, P.J. and Tanner, E.V.J. (1976). The montane forests and soils of Jamaica: a 
reassessment. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 313-368. 

Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P. and Humphries, M. (Eds) (in press). Forests of Jamaica. 
Institute of Jamaica Publications. 

Woodley, J.D. (Ed.) (1971). Hellshire Hills Scientific Survey 1970. University of the 
West Indies and Institute of Jamaica. 168 pp. 


Japan 


Area 369,698 sq. km 
Population 119,492,000 


Floristics 4022 vascular plant species in 1098 genera (excluding Ogasawara-Gunto 
and Ryukyu Retto); about 500 fern species (Ohwi, 1965). 1371 endemic species (based on 
Ohwi, 1965, quoted in Nishida, 1972); many occur in the high altitude zones. Floral 
elements from Siberia, Manchuria, Korea, southern China, Taiwan and Malesia. 


Vegetation Subtropical broadteaved evergreen forest and warm temperate 
broadleaved evergreen forest near south and east coasts, and in the lowlands of south-west 
Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu; cool temperate broadleaved forest in low mountains and 
highlands of the coastal hinterlands; subarctic coniferous forests on mountains higher 
than 1400-1500 m, in the north, on Shikoku and in the lowlands of Hokkaido. Alpine zone 
with scrub, grassland and rocky desert, above 2500 m in Central Honshu, above 
1900-2000 m in the Tohoku district and above 1400-1500 m in Hokkaido. Many areas of 
lowland vegetation, especially near coasts, cleared for agriculture and urbanization. 


Checklists and Floras The principal Floras are: 


Nakaike, T. (1982). New Flora of Japan. Pteridophyta. Shibundo, Tokyo. 808 pp. 
(About 850 taxa described in Japanese; many photographs.) 

Ohwi, J. (1965). Flora of Japan. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1067 pp. 
(Revised and extended English translation of Nihon Shokubutsu-shi, 1953 and Flora 
of Japan - Pteridophyta, 1957, by the same author. Japanese revision, 1983, by 
M. Kitagawa et al., published by Shibundo, Tokyo.) 


See also: 


195 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Hara, H. and Kanai, H. (1958, 1959). Distribution Maps of Flowering Plants in Japan, 
2 vols. Inoue, Tokyo. (Dot maps of 200 taxa; endemics indicated.) 

Horikawa, Y. (1972, 1976). Atlas of the Japanese Flora: An Introduction to Plant 
Sociology of East Asia, 2 vols so far; 5 planned (according to Frodin). Gakken, 
Tokyo. (Dot maps showing distribution and altitudinal range of 800 taxa; short 
descriptions; vegetation map at scale 1:5,000,000.) 

Kurata, S. and Nakaike, T. (Eds) (1979- ). Illustrations of Pteridophytes of Japan, 

4 vols so far. Univ. Press, Tokyo. (Each volume describes about 100 taxa in 
Japanese; distribution maps; photographs.) 


Field-guides The following illustrated guides cover most of the flora; Japanese 
text includes notes on distribution and habitats for each species: 


Coloured Illustrations of Herbaceous Plants of Japan. Hoikusha, Osaka. Vol. 1 (1958) 
by S. Kitamura, M. Hori and G. Murata (Sympetalae); vol. 2 (1961) by S. Kitamura 
and G. Murata (Choripetalae); vol. 3 (1964) by S. Kitamura, G. Murata and 
T. Koyama (monocotyledons). 

Coloured Illustrations of the Pteridophyta of Japan (1962), by M. Tagawa. Hoikusha, 
Osaka. 207 pp. 

Coloured Illustrations of Wild Plants of Japan (1957-1959), 4 vols by S. Okuyama. 
Seibundo-Shinkosha, Tokyo. (Line drawings, colour photographs, distribution 
maps.) 

Coloured Illustrations of Woody Plants of Japan (1973, 1979), 2 vols by S. Kitamura 
and G. Murata. Hoikusha, Osaka. (Over 1200 taxa described, many illustrated.) 

Satake, Y., Ohwi, J., Kitamura, S., Watari, S. and Tominari, T. (Eds) (1981). Wild 
Flowers of Japan: Herbaceous Plants (Including Dwarf Subshrubs), 3 vols. 
Heibonsha, Tokyo. (In Japanese.) 

Shimizu, T. (1982, 1983). The New Alpine Flora of Japan in Color, 2 vols. Hoikusha, 
Osaka. (About 800 taxa described in Japanese; keys in English; many colour plates.) 

Takeda, H. and Tanebe, K. (1951). Illustrated Manual of Alpine Plants of Japan. 
Hokuryu-Kan, Tokyo. 347 pp. (Short descriptions, line drawings of 432 species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Japan has no national Red Data Book. IUCN 
has a preliminary list of endemic Japanese trees, including E:4, V:4, R:5. See also: 


Shimizu, T. and Satomi, N. (1976). A preliminary list of the rare and critical vascular 
plants of Japan, 2 parts. J. Fac. Liberal Arts, Shinshu Univ. Nat. Sci. 10: 3-16; 11: 
43-54. (Annotated list of ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons and a number of 
dicotyledons; distribution details for Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku.) 


Laws Protecting Plants The conservation of plant life in Japan was first covered 
by law under an act of 1919, which designated various plants as ‘‘national monuments’’. 
This category also includes a number of natural forests and special plant communities. The 
National Park Law and the Nature Conservation Law protect a number of plants and 
vegetation types. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Nature Conservation Society of Japan, 2-8-1 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105. 
WWF-Japan, 6F 39, Mori Building, 2-4-5 Azabudai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106. 


Botanic Gardens Japan has 106 botanic gardens, but none subscribe to the IUCN 
Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body. For a full list of them see Henderson 
(1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


196 


Japan 


Useful Addresses 

Biological Institute and Herbarium, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Shinshu University, 
Matsumoto 390. 

Japan Society of Plant Taxonomists, c/o Department of Botany, National Science 
Museum, Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 

TRAFFIC Japan, 6F 39 Mori Building, 2-4-5 Azabudai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106. 

CITES Management Authority: Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 
International Economic Affairs Division, International Economic Affairs 
Department, International Trade Policy Bureau, 3-1, Kasumigaseki 1-chome, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 


Additional References 

Nishida, M. (1972). An outline of the distribution of Japanese ferns. In Graham, A. 
(Ed.), Floristics and Palaeofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America. Elsevier, 
Amsterdam. Pp. 101-105. (Discussion of distribution patterns, checklists of ferns of 
various floral zones.) 

Numata, M. (Ed.) (1974). The Flora and Vegetation of Japan. Kodansha, Tokyo and 
Elsevier, Amsterdam. 294 pp. (Includes simplified vegetation map.) 

Numata, M., Yoshioka, K. and Kato, M. (Eds) (1975). Studies in Conservation of 
Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems in Japan. Part 1: Vegetation and its Conservation. 
Japanese Committee for IBP. 157 pp. (Not seen.) 


Johnston Island 


Johnston Island (area 129.5 sq. km; population 327, 1980 census) is an unincorporated 
territory of the United States, c. 1150 km WSW of Honolulu in the Pacific Ocean, at 
latitude 16°45’N, longitude 169°31’W. There are 2 highly modified sand and coral islands 
(Johnston and Sand Islands), and 2 completely man-made islands (Akau and Hikina). 


No original vegetation remained on the atoll by 1946 due to military operations (Fosberg, 
1949). A few species have arrived by natural means, but the majority have been 
intentionally or accidentally introduced by man (Christophersen, 1931). 127 vascular plant 
species have so far been recorded; no endemics (Amerson and Shelton, 1976). 


References 

Amerson, A.B. (1973). Ecological Baseline Survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific 
Ocean. Technical Report, Environment Programme, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C. 365 pp. (Plants on pp. 48-61.) 

Amerson, A.B. and Shelton, P.C. (1976). The natural history of Johnston Atoll, 
central Pacific Ocean. Atoll Res. Bull. 192. 479 pp. (Lists 127 vascular species; 
origin and distribution within Johnston Atoll indicated.) 

Christophersen, E. (1931). Vascular plants of Johnston and Wake Islands. Occ. Papers 
Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 9(13). 20 pp. (3 vascular species recorded.) 

Fosberg, F.R. (1949). Flora of Johnston Island, central Pacific. Pacific Science 3: 
338-339. (Includes annotated checklist of 27 vascular plants.) 


197 


Jordan 


Area 97,668 sq. km 
Population 3,375,000 


Floristics c. 2200 vascular plant species so far recorded from eastern Jordan, and 
an additional 100-200 species likely to be found to the west of the Dead Sea (D.M. AI- 
Eisawi, 1985, pers. comm.). No figure for endemics to Jordan; 150 species are endemic to 
Palestine (Shmida, in press). The flora of Jordan has Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, 
Saharo-Arabian and Sudanian elements. The high plateaux of Edom in Trans-Jordan 
include limestone and sandstone areas rich in endemics. 


Vegetation About 88% is desert, less than 1% forested (Kasapligil, 1956). The 
Jordan River Valley, a branch of the African Rift Valley system, divides Jordan into two 
regions. The hilly West Bank area is mainly hammada (stony) desert supporting sparse 
thorn scrub, particularly in the Upper Jordan Valley (Zohary, 1973, cited in Appendix 1). 
The East Bank, and land to the east of the Dead Sea, is the edge of a high plateau which 
supports dwarf shrub steppes with Artemisia, and deciduous steppe forests with 
Amygdalus, Crataegus and Pistacia; Pinus halepensis and evergreen oak forests, with 
Quercus calliprinos, to the north-east of the Dead Sea, between Irbid and Amman, above 
700 m; deciduous oak forests, with Quercus aegilops at lower altitudes; juniper forests on 
the southern mountains above 1000 m, greatly modified by overgrazing. Most of the area 
further east is an extension of the Syrian and North Arabian Desert. There are extensive 
areas of saline marshes to the north and south of the Dead Sea, with Tamarix, Salsola and 
Atriplex. 


Checklists and Floras The first volume of the Flora of Jordan by D. Al-Eisawi is 
in preparation. 3-4 volumes are projected over a period of 10-15 years. A recent checklist 
of the flora is: 


Al-Eisawi, D. (1983). List of Jordan vascular plants. Mitt. Bot. Miinchen 18: 79-182. 
(Covers mainly the area to the east of the Dead Sea; no distribution details.) 


Part of Jordan is covered by the Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai (Post, 1932); Flora 
Palaestina (1966- ); and Eig, Zohary and Feinbrun-Dothan (1931); the whole country will 
be included in the Med-Checklist. All of these are cited in Appendix 1. 


A number of papers in the series ‘Studies on the flora of Jordan’ have been published in 
the journal Candollea since 1975, each describing new species or listing plants in a given 
region. See in particular: 


Boulos, L. (1977). Studies on the flora of Jordan, 5. On the flora of El Jafr-Batir 
Desert. Ibid. 32(1): 99-110. 

Boulos, L. and Al-Eisawi, D. (1977). Studies on the flora of Jordan, 6. On the flora of 
Ras en Nagqb. Jbid. 32(1): 111-120. 

Boulos, L. and Lahham, J. (1977a). Studies on the flora of Jordan, 3. On the flora of 
the vicinity of the Aqaba gulf. Candollea 32(1): 73-80. (Includes annotated checklist 
of 91 angiosperms.) 

Boulos, L. and Lahham, J. (1977b). Studies on the flora of Jordan, 4. On the desert 
flora north-east of Aqaba. Ibid. 32(1): 81-98. (Includes annotated checklist of 250 
vascular plants, mainly collected in 1974 and 1975, in the area between Wadi Yutum 
and Wadi Rum.) 


198 


Jordan 


The series is to continue in Kew Bulletin; papers in press include D. Al-Eisawi on orchids 
of Jordan. 


Information on Threatened Plants Jordan is included in the draft list for North 
Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat 
(1980), cited in Appendix 1. Coverage for Jordan is very incomplete. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, P.O. Box 6354, Amman. 


Useful Addresses 
University of Jordan, Biology Department, Irbid. 
CITES Management Authority: Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (address 
above). 


Additional References 

Al-Eisawi, D.M. (1983). Vegetation in Jordan. Paper presented at the Second 
International Conference on the History and Archaeology of Jordan. 20 pp. Mimeo. 

Gomez-Campo, C. (Ed.) (1985). Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. (See in 
particular L. Boulos on the arid eastern and south-eastern Mediterranean regions.) 

Kasapligil, B. (1956). Report to the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of the 
Jordan on an Ecological Survey of the Vegetation in Relation to Forestry and 
Grazing. FAO, Rome. 39 pp. 

Mountfort, G. (1966). Portrait of a Desert: the Story of an Expedition to Jordan. 
Collins, London. 192 pp. (Mainly covers fauna.) 

Nelson, B. (1973). Azraq: Desert Oasis. Allen Lane, London. 436 pp. (Physical 
geography, vegetation, fauna.) 

Shmida, A. (in press). Endemism in the flora of Israel. Bot. Jahrb. (Analysis of 
endemism includes references to Jordanian flora.) 

Zohary, M. (1962). The Plant Life of Palestine: Israel and Jordan. Ronald Press, New 
York. 262 pp. (Includes useful vegetation map of Palestine.) 

Zohary, M. (1983). Vegetation of Israel and Adjacent Areas. Reichert, Wiesbaden. 
166 pp. 


Juan Fernandez 


The Juan Fernandez, or Robinson Crusoe Islands, consist of 3 precipitous volcanic islands 
— Mas 4 Tierra (Isla Robinson Crusoe), Mas Afuera (Isla Alejandro Selkirk) and Isla Santa 
Clara - situated in the South Pacific Ocean, 665 km west of Chile, between 33-34°S and 
78-81°W. The highest point is El Yunque (916 m), on Mas a Tierra. The islands are 
administered by Valparaiso province, Chile. 


Area 93 sq. km 
Population 650-700 


Floristics 147 native species including 54 ferns (Skottsberg, 1920-1956); 118 
endemic taxa (IUCN figures). 10 endemic genera (of which 5 in Compositae) and one 
endemic family, the monotypic Lactoridaceae. Of the endemics, 50% are confined to Mas 
4 Tierra, 33% to Mas Afuera. Chenopodium santa-clarae is restricted to Isla Santa Clara 
(Perry, 1984). 


199 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Vegetation The Juan Fernandez were originally covered by forests dominated by 
Drimys, Fagara and Nothomyrica; however, the slopes of eastern Mas a Tierra below 
100 m receive less rainfall and may have always been treeless. Throughout the islands, 
native vegetation is now restricted to ridges and cliffs due to overgrazing and competition 
from introduced plants (Sanders et a/., 1982). Remnants of temperate evergreen forest, 
with tree ferns abundant on slopes above 500 m; cloud forest and alpine meadows above 
700 m; secondary scrub with invasive Acaena, Rubus and maqui scrub (Aristotelia) up to 
montane zone; the summit of El Yunque is covered by Ugni, Blechnum and Dendroseris 
scrub. Santa Clara is mainly grassland. For sketch maps showing principal plant 
communities see Skottsberg (1920-1956), vol. 2. 


It is predicted that little of the flora will remain if nothing is done to reduce the abundant 
introduced cattle, sheep, goats and horses. IUCN/WWF plan a rescue programme with 
the Chilean authorities as part of the IUCN/WWF Plant Conservation Programme. 
Although the islands were declared a National Park in 1935 and accepted as a Biosphere 
Reserve in 1977, little has been done so far to save the flora. 


Checklists and Floras 

Nishida, H. (1979). Plants of the Robinson Crusoe Islands. Plant and Nature 13(2): 
27-32; 13(4): 29-33, 35. (In Japanese.) 

Skottsberg, C.J.F. (Ed.) (1920-1956). The Natural History of the Juan Fernandez and 
Easter Island, 3 vols. Almqvist and Wiksell, Uppsala. (See in particular, 1: 193-438, 
derivation of the flora and fauna; 2: 1-46, pteridophytes; 2: 95-240, phanerogams; 
2: 763-792, supplement to the pteridophytes and phanerogams; 2: 793-960, 
vegetation.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 6 species are included in The IUCN Plant Red 
Data Book (1978). See also Marticorena (1980), cited under Chile. 


Perry, R. (1984). Juan Fernandez Islands: a unique botanical heritage. Envir. Conserv. 
11(1): 72-76. (Lists 60 threatened endemic species giving distribution by islands.) 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:1 (Santalum fernandezianum), E:52, V:32, R:9, 
Ted Kel -nt:6: 


An index of threatened plants in cultivation is: 


Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1984). The Botanic 
Gardens List of Rare and Threatened Species of the Galapagos and Juan Fernandez 
Islands. Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body, Report No. 11. IUCN, 
Kew. 6 pp. (Lists 14 rare and threatened taxa, from the Juan Fernandez Islands, 
which are in cultivation, with gardens listed against each.) 


Useful Addresses 
Corporacién Nacional Forestal de Chile (CONAF), Av. Bulnes, 285 Santiago, Chile; 
(park management), V Region, 3 Norte 541, Vina del Mar, Chile. 


Additional References 

Gutierrez, A., Mann, G., Merino, R., Thelen, K.D. and Dalfelt, A. (1976). Plan de 
manejo Parque Nacional Juan Fernandez. Documento Técnico de Trabajo 22. 
Proyecto FAO/RLAT tf-199. Santiago. 

Hemsley, W.B. (1885). Report on the botany of Juan Fernandez and Masafuera. In 
Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the 
Years 1873-76. Botany vol. 1, part 2. HMSO, London. Pp. 1-96. (Includes 
annotated checklist of ferns and flowering plants; botanical history.) 


200 


Juan Fernandez 


Kunkel, G. (1956). Uber den Waldtypus der Robinson-Insel. Forschungen und 
Fortschritte 30(5): 129-137. (Forest types of Robinson Crusoe Island; notes on 
distribution of indigenous plants.) 

Kunkel, G. (1968). Robinson Crusoe’s Islands. Pacific Discovery 21: 1-8. 

Munoz P., C. (1969). El Archipiélago de Juan Fernandez y la conservacion de sus 
recursos naturales renovables. Bol. Acad. Cien. Instituto de Chile, Ser. 1(2): 83-103. 
(Reprinted, 1974, in Serie Educativa. Museo Nac. Hist. Nat., Santiago 9: 17-47.) 

Nishida, H. and M. (1979). The vegetation of the Mas a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe) 
Island, Juan Fernandez. In Nishida, M. (Ed.), A Report of the Palaeobotanical 
Survey to Southern Chile by a Grant-in-Aid for Overseas Scientific Survey, 1979. 
Faculty of Science, Chiba Univ., Japan. Pp. 41-48. (Lists 55 taxa collected during 
botanical survey 1976-1979, includes vegetation map.) 

Sanders, R.W., Stuessy, T.F. and Marticorena, C. (1982). Recent changes in the flora 
of the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Taxon 31(2): 284-289. 


Kampuchea 


Area 181,940 sq. km 
Population 7,149,000 
Floristics No figure for size of flora or number of endemics. 


Vegetation Closed broadleaved forests cover 71,500 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 
About 40% of the forest cover is probably deciduous monsoon forest, including dry 
dipterocarp and semi-evergreen dipterocarp forests, mostly in the north, and extensively 
modified by burning. About 30% of the forest cover is hill evergreen rain forest, mostly in 
southern uplands and along Annamite Chain (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Pine 
forests on Kirikom Plateau; seasonally inundated ‘‘flood forest’? around Great Lake 
(Legris, 1974). Much of Mekong Basin converted to rice cultivation. 


Kampuchea’s forests have been greatly modified over many centuries; little can be 
described as primary forest (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Estimated rate of 
deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 250 sq. km/annum out of a total of 71,500 sq. 
km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras No national Flora. Kampuchea is included in Flore du 
Cambodge, du Laos, et du Vietnam (1960-) and Flore Générale de L’Indo-Chine 
(1907-1951), both cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Additional References 
Legris, P. (1974). Vegetation and floristic composition of humid tropical continental 
Asia. In Unesco, Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources 
Research 12. Paris. Pp. 217-238. 
Vidal, J.E. (1979). Outline of ecology and vegetation of the Indochinese Peninsula. In 
Larsen, K. and Holm-Nielsen, L.B. (Eds), Tropical Botany. Academic Press, 
London. Pp. 109-123. 


201 


Kazan Retto 


Kazan Retto, or the Volcano Islands, comprise 3 volcanic islands - Iwo Jima (18 sq. km), 
Kita Iwo Jima (5 sq. km) and Minami-Iwojima (4 sq. km). The islands are c. 1250 km 
south of Japan, of which they are a dependency. The highest point is 916 m, on Minami- 
Iwojima. The population consists of personnel of the military base on Iwo Jima. Douglas 
(1969, cited in Appendix 1) describes Minami-Iwojima as ‘‘practically inaccessible” and 
“‘one of the least disturbed islands in the world’’. It was designated a Wilderness Area in 
1975. 


The natural vegetation is broadleaved evergreen forest, but much of that on Iwo Jima and 
Kita Iwo Jima has been destroyed by military activities, or else cleared for settlements and 
crops in the past. Minami-Iwojima, on the other hand, still has intact forest dominated by 
Machilus kobu (H. Ohba, 1985, in litt.). 


257 flowering plant species (including introduced species) of which 9 are endemic to Kazan 
Retto and 33 are restricted to Kazan Retto and Ogasawara-Gunto (Ohba, in /itt.). Minami- 
Iwojima has 118 vascular plant taxa of which 4 are endemic to the island and a further 5 
are endemic to Kazan Retto (Ohba in Okutomi, 1982a). The flora is related to that of 
eastern Asia and Ogasawara-Gunto. 


No information on threatened plants. 


References 

Okutomi, K. (Ed.) (1982a). Conservation Reports of the Minami-Iwojima Wilderness 
Area. Nature Conservation Bureau, Environment Agency of Japan, Tokyo. 403 pp. 
(In Japanese with English summary. See in particular H. Ohba on vascular plants, 
with floristic analyses and distribution maps of selected species, pp. 61-143; and 
H. Okutomi, H. Ohba, N. Ishii, Y. Tsukamoto and M. Sato on the endemic flora 
and fauna, pp. 393-403.) 

Okutomi, K. (Ed.) (1982b). Science Report on Nature and Natural Resources in 
Minami-Iwojima. Min. of Environment, Tokyo. 174 pp. (In Japanese.) 


Kenya 


Area 582,644 sq. km 
Population 19,761,000 


Floristics Just under 6000 species, plus about 500 ferns and fern-allies (J.B. 
Gillett, 1984, pers. comm.); 8000-9000 species of flowering plant (Blundell, 1982), but this 
estimate too high. Brenan (1978, cited in Appendix 1), from a sample of the Flora of 
Tropical East Africa, estimates 265 endemic species, but that is probably an under- 
estimate. 


Largely within the Somalia-Masai region; the area from Lake Turkana and the Tana River 
to the Ethiopian and Somalian border is especially rich in regional endemics. Coastal band 
occupied by Zanzibar-Inhambane regional mosaic; forest fragments, including some on 
limestone, are remarkably rich, diverse, and of exceptional biological interest; recognized 
as a major target for conservation effort. Afromontane region mostly on volcanic 
mountains; not notably rich in local species. South-west of Kenya within Lake Victoria 


202 


Kenya 


regional mosaic; Kakamega Forest is the easternmost part of the Guinea-Congolian rain 
forest, and has distinct West African affinities. 


Vegetation Most of the low and medium altitude parts of Kenya are covered with 
bushland, with species of Acacia and Commiphora dominant, including some semi-desert 
with many ephemerals and succulents. Vegetation nearer the coast lusher, with coastal 
bushland, grassland, wooded grassland and small patches of evergreen and dry semi- 
deciduous forest still remaining. Large expanses of wooded grassland, grassland and 
cultivation surrounding the highland areas. High altitudes covered with forest and forest- 
grassland mosaic, with clear altitudinal zonation from forest through bamboo thicket and 
heath thicket to tufted grass moorland above about 3500 m. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 110 sq. km/annum out of 
6900 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) gives a 
figure of 16,702 sq. km total forest, of which 10,521 sq. km is primary moist deciduous 
forest. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Kenya is included in the incomplete Flora of Tropical East 
Africa. Kenya’s plants of high altitudes are listed in Afroalpine Vascular Plants (Hedberg, 
1957). Both works are cited in Appendix 1. 


Agnew, A.D.Q. (1974). Upland Kenya Wild Flowers: a Flora of the Ferns and 
Herbaceous Flowering Plants of Upland Kenya. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 

827 pp. (Excludes grasses and sedges; keys, short descriptions, representative 
specimens, line drawings.) 

Dale, I.R. and Greenway, P.J. (1961). Kenya Trees and Shrubs. Buchanan’s Kenya 
Estates, Nairobi. 654 pp. (Keys, short descriptions, representative specimens; 110 
line drawings, 80 black and white photographs, 31 colour plates.) 

Gillett, J.B. and McDonald, P.G. (1970). .A Numbered Check-List of Trees Shrubs and 
Noteworthy Lianes Indigenous to Kenya. Govt Printer, Nairobi. 67 pp. 


Field-guides A very useful key to families is included in Lind and Tallantire, (in 
press), cited under Uganda. 


Blundell, M. (1982). The Wild Flowers of Kenya. Collins, London. 160 pp. (Short 
descriptions; 310 species illustrated by colour photographs.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List by J.B. Gillett for Kenya, pp. 93-94, 
includes examples of taxa threatened in each of several major vegetation types, and 
includes E:11, V:20, R:4, I:1.) 
Mungai, G.M., Gillett, J.B., and Eagle, C.F. (1980). Plant Species in Kenya: Survival 
or Extinction. Bulletin of Wildlife Clubs of Kenya, Nairobi. 6 pp. (Lists over 20 
species as threatened.) 


IUCN holds records of 44 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; most are 
succulents. (E:15, V:16, R:3, 1:3.) 


Data sheets are published in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978) of two species 
occurring in Kenya and Tanzania, and of three species endemic to Kenya. 


Botanic Gardens 
Mazeras Nurseries, c/o Municipal Council of Mombasa, P.O. Box 90440, Mombasa. 
Mutomo Hill Plant Sanctuary, Kitui. 


203 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Nairobi Arboretum, The Chief Conservator of Forests, Forest Dept, P.O. Box 30513, 
Nairobi. 

National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi. (Surrounding grounds planted 
with many named indigenous trees and shrubs.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
African Wildlife Foundation, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi. 
East Africa Natural History Society, P.O. Box 44486, Nairobi. 
Kenya Orchid Society, P.O. Box 241, Nairobi. 
Wildlife Clubs of Kenya Association, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi. 


Useful Addresses 

East African Herbarium, P.O. Box 45166, Nairobi. 

Environment Liaison Centre, P.O. Box 72461, Nairobi. 

IUCN/WWFEF Programme Representative for Eastern Africa, c/o African Wildlife 
Foundation, P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi. 

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi. 

Kenya Rangeland Ecological Monitoring Unit (KREMU), P.O. Box 47146, Nairobi. 

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi. 

CITES Management Authority: Wildlife Conservation and Management Dept, Ministry 
of Tourism and Wildlife, P.O. Box 40241, Nairobi. 


Additional References 

Edwards, D.C. (1940). A vegetation map of Kenya with particular reference to 
grassland types. J. Ecol. 28: 377-385. (With small-scale vegetation map.) 

Kuchar, P. (1981). The Plants of Kenya: a Handbook of Uses and Ecological Status. 
Technical Report Series, Kenya Rangeland Ecological Monitoring Unit, Ministry of 
Environment and Natural Resources, Nairobi. 

Lucas, G.LI. (1968). Kenya. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 

Pp. 152-166. 

Trapnell, C.G. et al. (1966-1969). Kenya Vegetation, sheets 1-3 (maps 1:250,000). 

Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, U.K. 


Kermadec Islands 


The Kermadec Islands (30°S, 178°30’W) are an outlying volcanic island group, in the 
South Pacific Ocean. They are 976 km north-east of New Zealand, of which they are a 
dependency. Raoul, or Sunday Island (34 sq. km), is the only inhabited island in the 
group. It attains 520 m at the rim of the central crater. Curtis (0.5 sq. km) lies to the south 
of Macauley (3 sq. km). The remaining islets are stacks and rocks scattered around the 
main islands. The island group is now a Nature Reserve. 


Area 33.5 sq. km 
Population 10 (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1) 


Floristics 195 vascular plant species of which 113 native (Sykes, 1977). Raoul has 
c. 120 vascular plant species (Flora of New Zealand, 1961, cited under New Zealand); 23 
endemic vascular plant taxa (figures quoted in Given, 198la, cited under New Zealand). 
About 100 flowering plants and ferns on the Kermadecs are shared with mainland New 


204 


Kermadec Islands 


Zealand; affinities also with Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands. 45 taxa are found in 
Polynesia (Given, 1981a, cited under New Zealand). 


Vegetation Coastal scrub on talus at the foot of cliffs; dry forest dominated by 
Metrosideros, below 240 m; wet forest also dominated by Metrosideros with tree ferns, on 
higher slopes. The islands are still volcanically active; crater floors almost unvegetated. 


Checklists and Floras The Kermadecs are included in the Flora of New Zealand 
(1961, 1970, 1980), cited under New Zealand. See also: 


Sykes, W.R. (1977). Kermadec Islands Flora. An Annotated Checklist. DSIR Bulletin 
no. 219. Wellington. 216 pp. (Enumeration of native and naturalized plants; 
chapters on physical geography.) 


Information on Threatened Plants Given (1976, 1977, 1978, cited under New 
Zealand) includes 5 Kermadec endemic taxa, of which 4 are now Endangered and Hebe 
breviracemosa is probably Extinct. Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:4, R:2, 
nt:2. 


Kiribati 


Kiribati (area 684 sq. km; population 62,000) comprises the Gilbert Group (17 islands), the 
Phoenix Islands (8) and the Equatorial (Line) Islands (8); mostly small coral islands and 
atolls, many only a few metres wide and less than 6 m above sea level; spread over 5 million 
sq. km in the south-west central Pacific Ocean. Banaba (Ocean Island), to the west of the 
main Gilbert group, is an elevated limestone island reaching 81 m. Most of the islands are 
uninhabitated. The Equatorial Islands and Banaba have been worked for guano. 
Christmas Island has been greatly modified by testing nuclear weapons. 


Floristics c. 100 vascular plant species recorded from the Gilbert Islands, of 
which c. 60 are indigenous (Allerton and Herbst, 1973); most are widespread throughout 
the Pacific. Fanning Island, in the southern Line Island group, has 102 taxa of which only 
22 indigenous, including 2 endemic (St John, 1974). Vostok Island (0.25 sq. km), in the 
northern Line Island group, has only 2 vascular plant species (Clapp and Sibley, 1971). 


Vegetation Most of the natural vegetation of the larger islands (Cordia, 
Tournefortia and Scaevola scrub) has been replaced by plantations of coconuts, breadfruit 
and Pandanus. Some areas of Pemphis scrub and mangroves (Catala, 1957; Fosberg, 
1973, cited in Appendix 1). 


Checklists and Floras No complete Flora; the following checklists have been 
published for individual islands: 


Chock, A.K. and Hamilton, D.C. (1962). Plants of Christmas Island. Atoll Res. Bull. 
90. 7 pp. (Lists 41 species.) 

Christophersen, E. (1927). Vegetation of Pacific Equatorial Islands. Bull. Bernice P. 
Bishop Mus. 44. 79 pp. (Includes annotated checklist for Palmyra, Line Islands.) 

Clapp, R.B. and Sibley, F.C. (1971). Notes on the vascular flora and terrestrial 
vertebrates of Caroline Atoll southern Line Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 145. 18 pp. 
(Includes annotated checklist of 35 taxa, many widespread throughout the Pacific.) 

St John, H. (1974). The vascular flora of Fanning Island, Line Islands, Pacific Ocean. 
Pacific Science 28(3): 339-355. 


205 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


The Gilbert Islands and Banaba are included in the regional checklists of Fosberg, Sachet 
and Oliver (1979, 1982), cited in Appendix 1, and will be covered by the Flora of 
Micronesia (1975- ), also cited in Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Additional References 

Allerton, J.G. and Herbst, D. (1972, 1973). Report from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. 
Bull. Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden 2(4): 63-68; 3(1): 2-6. 

Catala, R.L.A. (1957). Report on the Gilbert Islands: some aspects of human ecology. 
Atoll Res. Bull. 59. 187 pp. (Includes list of plants collected, including introductions 
with notes on localities and uses.) 

Christophersen, E. (1927). Vegetation of the Pacific Equatorial Islands. Bull. Bernice 
P. Bishop Mus. 44. 79 pp. (Includes annotated checklist of vascular plants.) 

Clapp, R.B. and Sibley, F.C. (1971). The vascular flora and terrestrial vertebrates of 
Vostok Island, south-central Pacific. Atoll Res. Bull. 144. 10 pp. 

Luomala, K. (1975). Ethnobotany of the Gilbert Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 213. 
129. (List of plants with uses; arranged by vernacular names.) 


Korea, Democratic People’s 
Republic of 


(NORTH KOREA) 


Area 122,312 sq. km 
Population 19,630,000 


Floristics No figure for North Korea, but in the Korean Peninsula 2898 vascular 
plant species (T.B. Lee, 1976). The Korean Peninsula has 407 endemic vascular taxa of 
which 107 restricted to North Korea (Lee, 1983). 


Vegetation Extensive mixed deciduous-coniferous forests between 700-1700 m 
(Sun, 1974b). ‘Taiga’ forest in uplands with larch, pine, fir forests and scrub; lowlands 
mainly cleared for cultivation. Alpine vegetation above 2000 m (Sun, 1974a). 


Checklists and Floras 

Lee, T.B. (1976). Vascular plants and their uses in Korea. Bull. Kwanak Arboretum 1. 
137 pp. (Checklists and statistics of useful plants.) 

Lee, T.B. (1983). Endemic plants and their distribution in Korea. Bull. Kwanak 
Arboretum 4: 71-113. (Lists Korean endemic ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; 
notes on distribution.) 

Lee, Y.N. (1966). Manual of the Korean Grasses (Excluding Bambuseae). Ewha 
Womens Univ. Press, Seoul. 300 pp. (120 taxa described; notes on distribution.) 
Lee, Y.N. (1976). I/lustrated Flora and Fauna of Korea. 18: Flowering Plants. 893 pp. 

Samhwa, Seoul. (In Korean; appendix includes short notes in English on 889 taxa.) 

Mori, T. (1922). An Enumeration of Plants Hitherto Known from Corea. Govt of 
Chosen, Seoul. 546 pp. (Checklist of 2904 species, 506 varieties; endemics to Korean 
Peninsula indicated; separate indices of Japanese and Chinese names.) 


206 


Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of 


Nakai, T. (1915-1939). Flora Sylvatica Koreana, 22 parts. Govt of Chosen, Seoul. (In 
Latin and Japanese; all known woody species recorded for Korea listed before each 
family treatment.) 

Nakai, T. (1952). A synoptical sketch of Korean flora, or the vascular plants 
indigenous to Korea, arranged in a new natural order. Bull. Tokyo Nat. Sci. Mus. 
31. 152 pp. (Systematic list of 3176 vascular plant taxa, with summary.) 

Park, M.K. (1975). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Korea, 16: 
Pteridophyta. 549 pp. Samhwa, Seoul. (Descriptions with notes on distribution, 
habitats; floristic summary and statistical table, includes 272 species.) 

Uyeki, H. (1926). Corean Timber Trees, 1. Ginkgoales and Coniferae. Forestry Expt 
Station, Govt of Chosen, Japan. (In Japanese, maps showing distribution in Korean 
Peninsula.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Botanic Gardens 
The Central Botanical Garden of DPRK, Pyongyang. 


Additional References 
Sun, C.I. (1974a). Taiga, a major flora community in our country. Korean Nature 
2(33): 30-32. 
Sun, C.I. (1974b). Coniferous-deciduous mixed forest zone, a major plant community 
in our country. Korean Nature 3(34): 25-27. 


Korea, Republic of 


(SOUTH KOREA) 


Area 98,447 sq. km 
Population 40,309,000 


Floristics No figure for South Korea, but Korean Peninsula has 2898 vascular 
plant species (T.B. Lee, 1976). 407 taxa endemic to the Peninsula, of which 224 restricted 
to South Korea (Lee, 1983). 


Vegetation Warm temperate, broadleaved evergreen forests, with Quercus, 
Camellia and bamboos, along southern coasts and on offshore islands; temperate forests 
containing Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus densiflora in south; Quercus/Abies forest and 
cold temperate Abies/Betula forest in north and at high elevations in Taebaek Mts. 
Rhododendrons commonly found in understorey of all forest types (Hagman et al., 1978). 
Forests cover about two-thirds of South Korea (Hagman ef al., 1978); about 25% is under 
cultivation. 


Checklists and Floras 
Lee, T.B. (1973). Illustrated Woody Plants of Korea. Forest Expt Station, Seoul. 
262 pp. (Short descriptions of 755 taxa, with line drawings and keys; in Korean.) 
Lee, T.B. (1976). Vascular plants and their uses in Korea. Bull. Kwanak Arboretum 1. 
137 pp. (Checklists and statistics of useful plants.) 
Lee, T.B. (1979, 1982). Illustrated Flora of Korea, 2 vols. Hyangmunsa, Seoul. (Atlas 
flora covering 3160 taxa with descriptions in Korean; no details of distribution or 
ecology; not seen, citation based on Frodin.) 


207 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Lee, T.B. (1983). Endemic plants and their distribution in Korea. Bull. Kwanak 
Arboretum 4: 71-113. (Lists Korean endemic ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; 
notes on distribution.) 

Lee, Y.N. (1966). Manual of the Korean Grasses (Excluding Bambuseae). Ewha 
Womens Univ. Press, Seoul. 300 pp. (240 taxa described; notes on distribution.) 
Lee, Y.N. (1976). Illustrated Flora and Fauna of Korea. 18: Flowering Plants. 893 pp. 

Samhwa, Seoul. (In Korean; appendix includes short notes in English on 889 taxa.) 

Mori, T. (1922). An Enumeration of Plants Hitherto Known from Corea. Govt of 
Chosen, Seoul. 546 pp. (Checklist of 2904 species, 506 varieties; endemics to Korean 
Peninsula indicated; separate indices of Japanese and Chinese names.) 

Nakai, T. (1915-1939). Flora Sylvatica Koreana, 22 parts. Govt of Chosen, Seoul. (In 
Latin and Japanese; all known woody species recorded for Korea listed before each 
family treatment.) 

Nakai, T. (1952). A synoptical sketch of Korean flora, or the vascular plants 
indigenous to Korea, arranged in a new natural order. Bull. Tokyo Nat. Sci. Mus. 
31. 152 pp. (Systematic list of 3176 vascular plant taxa, with summary.) 

Park, M.K. (1975). J/lustrated Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Korea, 16: 
Pteridophyta. 549 pp. Samhwa, Seoul. (Descriptions with notes on distribution, 
habitats; floristic summary and statistical table, includes 272 species.) 

Uyeki, H. (1926). Corean Timber Trees, 1. Ginkgoales and Coniferae. Forestry Expt 
Station, Chosen. (In Japanese, maps showing distribution in Korean Peninsula.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 

Choi, K.-C., Kim, C.-H., Lee, Y.-N., Won, P.-O. and Yoon, I.B. (1981). Rare and 
Endangered Species of Animals and Plants of Republic of Korea. Korean Assoc. for 
Conservation of Nature. 293 pp. (Lists 118 plant taxa, including widespread non- 
endemic species.) 

Lee, T.B. (1980). Rare and endangered species in the area of Mt Sorak. Bull. Kwanak 
Arboretum 3: 197-201. (Mentions 12 taxa with notes on distribution.) 

Lee, T.B. (1984). Endemic and rare plants of Mt. Sorak. Bull. Kwanak Arboretum 5: 
1-6. (Enumeration of 114 vascular plant taxa of which 65 are endemic; 5 taxa are 
‘endangered’, 12 taxa are ‘rare’. 


Preliminary IUCN statistics, mainly based on Choi et a/. (1981), cited above: endemic taxa 
- Ex:1, E:8, V:2, R:20. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Cultural Properties Protection Law (1973) provides 
protection for a number of plant species and their habitats by designating them as natural 
monuments. The law covers 13 taxa at the northern limit of their distribution, and 6 
endemic and threatened taxa (T.B. Lee, 1984, in /itt.). 


Voluntary Organizations A committee has been set up to protect the natural 
habitat of Abeliophyllum (Lee, in litt.). 


Botanic Gardens 
Chollipo Arboretum, Uihangni 1-gu, Sosan Gun, Chungchong Namdo. 
Hongnung Arboretum, Forest Research Institute, Chongnyangni, Tongdaemun-gu, 
Seoul. 
Kumkang Botanic Garden, San 43-1, Changjon 2-Dong, Tongnaegu, Pusan. 
Kwanak Arboretum, College of Agriculture, Seoul National University, Suwon. 


Useful Addresses 
Forest Research Institute, Chung-Ryang-Ri, Tong dae mun-Ku, Seoul. 


208 


Korea, Republic of 


Additional References 

Hagman, M., Feilberg, L., Lagerstrém, T. and Sanda, J.E. (1978). The Nordic 
Arboretum Expedition to South Korea 1976. Forest Research Institute, Helsinki. 
102 pp. (Expedition report, useful background notes on vegetation, forestry 
research in South Korea.) 

Lee, T.B. (1980). Conservation of threatened plants in Korea. Bull. Kwanak 
Arboretum 3: 190-196. (Includes notes on plant re-introductions; summary in 
English.) 


Kuwait 


Area 24,281 sq. km. 
Population 1,703,000 


Floristics About 300 species of vascular plants estimated (quoted in Dickson, 
1955); Halwagy and Macksad (1972) record a further 56 species not previously known 
from Kuwait. Affinities with the flora of Iraq. 


Vegetation Mostly sparse scrub with perennial herbs and ephemerals; in the 
south-east and north-west, principally of the Chenopod Haloxylon salicornicum, in the 
west of the dwarf shrub Rhantherium epapposum, and immediately south and south-west 
of Kuwait City a zone dominated by the sedge Cyperus conglomeratus (Halwagy, 1974). 


Checklists and Floras The late Professor Daoud prepared a Flora of Kuwait, now 
partly in press, edited by Ali al-Rawi (T.A. Cope, 1984, pers. comm.). Works relating to 
the Arabian peninsula as a whole are outlined under Saudi Arabia. See also: 


Burtt, B.L. and Lewis, P. (1949-1954). On the Flora of Kuweit. Kew Bull. 4: 273-308 
(1949); 7: 333-352 (1952); 9: 377-410 (1954). 

Deeb, M. and Salim, K. (1974). Wild and Ornamental Plants of Kuwait. Kuwait. (In 
Arabic.) 

Dickson, V. (1955). The Wild Flowers of Kuwait and Bahrain. Allen and Unwin, 
London. 144 pp. (Notes on species; some illustrated.) 

Dickson, V. and Macksad, A. (1973). Plants of Kuwait. Ahmadi Natural History and 
Field Studies Group, Kuwait. 13 pp. (Computer checklist of 395 plant names.) 
Halwagy, R. and Macksad, A. (1972). A contribution towards a Flora of the State of 
Kuwait and the Neutral Zone. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 65: 61-79. (Lists 100 species of 

flowering plants.) 


Field-guides 
Husain, S.M. and Mirza, J.H. (1979). A Field Key for the Identification of Common 
Trees, Shrubs and Climbers of Kuwait. Newsletter Supplement No. 1, Botany and 
Microbiology Dept, Univ. of Kuwait. 21 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Ahmadi Natural History and Field Studies Group, c/o Kuwait Oil Co., Ahmadi-103. 


Useful Addresses 
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat, Kuwait. 


209 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Additional References 

Clayton, D. and Pilcher, C. (Eds) (1983). Kuwait’s Natural History. An Introduction. 
Kuwait Oil Company. 351 pp. (Fully illustrated with colour photographs. See 
especially chapters by L. Corrall on Vegetation, pp. 24-66, and by C. Pilcher on 
Conservation, pp. 294-316.) 

Halwagy, R. and M. (1974, 1977). Ecological studies on the desert of Kuwait; I: The 
physical environment. J. Univ. Kuwait (Science) 1: 75-86 (1974); II: the vegetation. 
Ibid. 1: 87-95 (1974); III: the vegetation of the coastal salt marshes. Ibid. 4: 33-74. 


Lakshadweep 


Lakshadweep, formerly the Laccadive Islands, are a group of 19 coral atolls north of the 
Maldives and c. 300 km off the Malabar coast of southern India. They are administered as 
a Union Territory of the Republic of India. Area 32 sq. km. 10 islands inhabited; 
population 40,237 (1981 census, Times Atlas, 1983). 


348 vascular plant species recorded (Raghavan, 1977). The flora is related to that of the 
Maldives and Pacific Ocean atolls, rather than to that of the west coast of India. 
According to Prain (1893) and Willis (1901) there are no endemics; many species have 
pantropical and Indo-Pacific distributions. Apart from planted coconuts the vegetation of 
most of the islands consists of littoral communities, with Casuarina, Pandanus and 
Terminalia scrub. 3 islets are open reefs with no vascular plants. 


References 

Prain, D. (1892, 1893). Botany of the Laccadives. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 7: 
268-295; 7: 460-486. (Introduction in first part; second part includes annotated 
checklist of 121 species of which 40 indigenous.) 

Raghavan, R.S. (1977). Floristic studies in India - the Western Circle. Bull. Bot. 
Survey India 19: 95-108. 

Sivadas, P., Narayanan, B. and Sivaprasad, K. (1983). An account of the vegetation of 
Kavaratti Island, Laccadives. Atoll Res. Bull. 266. 9 pp. (Includes checklist of 117 
plants on Kavaratti.) 

Wadhwa, B.M. (1961). Additions to the flora of Laccadives, Minicoy and Aminidives 
groups of islands. Bull. Bot. Survey India 3: 407-408. (Notes on 11 species in 
Cyperaceae and Gramineae.) 

Willis, J.C. (1901). Note on the flora of Minikoi. Annals Royal Botanic Gardens 
Peradeniya 1: 39-43. (Lists 134 species for Minicoy Island.) 

Willis, J.C. and Gardiner, J.S. (1901). The botany of the Maldive Islands. Annals 
Royal Botanic Gardens Peradeniya 1: 45-164. (Includes annotated checklist of 359 
species recorded from Chagos Archipelago, Laccadives and Maldives.) 


Laos 


Area 236,725 sq. km 
Population 4,315,000 


210 


Laos 


Floristics No figure for size of flora or number of endemics. Laos, Kampuchea 
and Viet Nam have c. 600 fern species (Parris, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


Vegetation 27,000 sq. km of tropical lowland and hill evergreen rain forest, 
mainly along the Annamite Chain, the Sekong Valley bordering the Bolovens Plateau, and 
a few patches along the Mekong River; above 1000 m these forests have been extensively 
converted to grasslands (Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1); dry dipterocarp and mixed 
deciduous forests (with dipterocarps and teak) in south and between Vientiane and 
Burmese border; 10,000 sq. km of pine forests in the Xieng Khouang region and on sandy 
soils between 600-1400 m, greatly damaged by military activity; bamboo forests estimated 
at 6000 sq. km (Myers, 1980). 


Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forests 1000 sq. km/annum out of a 
total of 75,600 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Myers (1980) quotes a UNDP/UNIDO 
estimate for ‘‘well-stocked forests’’ of only(46,000 sq. km. Few areas of forest remain 
undisturbed; much has been converted to grasslands. 


Checklists and Floras No national Flora. Laos is included in Flore du Cambodge, 
du Laos, et du Vietnam (1960- ), and Flore Générale de L’Indo-Chine (1907-1951), both 
cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Seidenfaden, G. (1972). An enumeration of Laotian orchids. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Naturelle Bot. 71: 101-152. (Enumeration of about 316 species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Additional References 

Legris, P. (1974). Vegetation and floristic composition of humid tropical continental 
Asia. In Unesco, Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources 
Research 12. Paris. Pp. 217-238. 

Vidal, J. (1934-1960). La végétation du Laos. Trav. Lab. For. Toulouse Tome 5, sect. 
1, vol. 1. (Part 1 - 103 pp.; part 2 - 582 pp.) 

Vidal, J.E. (1979). Outline of ecology and vegetation of the Indochinese Peninsula. In 
Larsen, K. and Holm-Nielset., L.B. (Eds), Tropical Botany. Academic Press, 
London. Pp. 109-123. 


ts 


Lebanon 


Area 10,400 sq. km 
Population 2,644,000 


Floristics No figure for Lebanon, but Syria and Lebanon together have about 
3000 species; 11% of the flora of Syria and Lebanon is endemic (Zohary, 1973, cited in 
Appendix 1). In Lebanon, many endemics are confined to the high mountains of the 
Mediterranean zone in the west. 


Vegetation Steppes and deserts cover most of Lebanon. There is a narrow coastal 
plain along the Mediterranean Sea, with evergreen maquis; further inland are the Lebanon 
Mountains, which rise to 3086 m. The western slopes up to 300 m support evergreen 
maquis, with Quercus calliprinos, Ceratonia and Pistacia; Pinus halepensis forest 
(replaced by P. brutia in north) from sea-level to 1200 m, now reduced to remnants; forests 
with Cedrus libani (Cedar of Lebanon), Pinus nigra and Quercus calliprinos, particularly 


211 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


between 1400-1800 m in the north. The oldest and most famous pure stands of C. libani 
are at Bsharri. The alluvial plains of the Beqaa Valley separate the Lebanon Mountains 
from the Anti-Lebanon Mountains in the east, which reach 2814 m at Mt Hermon. The 
Anti-Lebanon Mountains have Amygdalus/Pistacia scrub, and fragmented deciduous 
forests on their western slopes. There are also remnants of steppe/coniferous forests with 
Abies cilica, Cedrus libani and Juniperus excelsa. Subalpine and alpine communities occur 
above 2500 m in Lebanon. For detailed description of vegetation see Zohary (1973), cited 
in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Lebanon will be covered by the Med-Checklist, cited in 
Appendix 1. See also: 


Bouloumoy, L. (1930). Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, 2 vols. Vigot Freres, Paris. (1 - 
keys; 2 - plates.) 

Mouterde, P. (1966- ). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, 3 vols so far. Dar El- 
Machreg, Beirut. (Vols 1-2 - pteridophytes, gymnosperms, monocotyledons and 
dicotyledons to Umbelliferae and Cornaceae; 3 - so far 3 fascicles, including 
Ericaceae, Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae. In addition there are 2 supplementary 
volumes with line drawings.) 

Mouterde, P. (1973). Novitates florae libano-syriacae. Saussurea 4: 17-25. (17 new 
species and 2 varieties described from Lebanon and Syria.) 

Thiébaut, J. (1936-1953). Flore Libano-Syrienne, 3 vols. Centre National de la 
Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. The section on Lebanon in the draft list 
for North Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN Threatened Plants Committee 
Secretariat (1980), cited in Appendix 1, contains only 41 endemic species without 
categories. The list was taken from Mouterde (1966- ), cited above. 


Additional References 
Charpin, A. and Greuter, W. (1975). Données disponibles concernant la flore de la 
Syrie et du Liban. In CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 115-117. 
Gomez-Campo, C. (Ed.) (1985), cited in full in Appendix 1. 


Lesotho 


Area 30,344 sq. km 
Population 1,481,000 


Floristics 1591 vascular species (Jacot Guillarmod, 1971), predominantly 
herbaceous; one or two endemic species only. 


Flora predominantly Afromontane, but lower altitude land in west in Kalahari-Highveld 
region. 


Vegetation Predominantly montane grassland, with woody montane 
communities in sheltered valleys and south-facing slopes; communities with ericoid shrubs 
at highest altitudes. Most available lower altitude land under cultivation. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


212 


Lesotho 


Checklists and Floras Lesotho is included in the incomplete Flora of Southern 
Africa, and in The Genera of Southern African Flowering Plants (Dyer, 1975, 1976), both 
cited in Appendix 1. The national Flora is: 


Jacot Guillarmod, A. (1971). Flora of Lesotho (Basutoland). Cramer, Lehre. 474 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants 

Hall, A.V. et al. (1980), cited in Appendix 1. (List on pp. 85-86 contains one endemic 
species: Kniphofia hirsuta, V, and 6 non-endemic species: V:1 (regional category), 
R:3, K:2.) 

Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Lesotho, p. 101, by A. Jacot 
Guillarmod, contains five species and three genera: E:6, R:1, I:1.) 

Talukdar, S. (1983). The conservation of Aloe polyphylla endemic to Lesotho. In 
Killick, D.J.B. (1983), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 985-989. (Gives details of 
conservation status and protective legislation.) 


Information on Aloe polyphylla is included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Laws Protecting Plants Legal Notice No. 36 of 1969 defines the monuments, 
relics, fauna and flora protected under Act 41 of 1967 (Historical Monuments, Relics, 
Fauna and Flora Act). The list of protected plants includes all aloes and specifically 
A. polyphylla. 


Additional References 
Bawden, M.G. and Carroll, D.M. (1968). The Land Resources of Lesotho. Land 
Resource Study 3. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, U.K. 89 pp. (With 
vegetation map 1:1,000,000.) 
Jacot Guillarmod, A. (1968). Lesotho. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 253-256. 
Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 


Liberia 


Area 111,370 sq. km 
Population 2,123,000 


Floristics Size of flora unknown. 59 endemic species and 1 endemic genus 
(Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). 


Floristic affinities Guinea-Congolian. Mt Nimba, shared with Guinea and Ivory Coast, 
has an Afromontane element and is especially important floristically, with more than 2000 
species. 


Vegetation Small areas of mangrove along coast. Coastal strip of lowland rain 
forest interspersed with secondary grassland and cultivation; transitional rain forest 
(between lowland and montane) on Mt Nimba. Remainder of country predominantly 
covered with lowland rain forest. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 460 sq. km/annum out of 
20,000 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) quotes 
the following figures: 25,000 sq. km primary forest, plus an additional 23,000 sq. km 


213 


Planis in Danger: What do we know? 


broken forest; primary forest is degraded by shifting cultivators at 300 sq. km/annum, and 
by logging at 2000 sq. km/annum. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Liberia is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa. 
The Liberian portion of Mt Nimba is included in Flore Descriptive des Monts Nimba. Both 
works are cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Kunkel, G. (1965). The Trees of Liberia: Field Notes on the More Important Trees of 
the Liberian Forests and a Field Identification Key. Report No. 3, German Forestry 
Mission to Liberia, Munich. 270 pp. (Illustrations, map.) 

Voorhoeve, A.G. (1979). Liberian High Forest Trees, 2nd Ed. (ist Ed. 1965). Centre 
for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen. 416 pp. (Extensive 
notes on the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees; 72 line drawings, 32 
black and white photographs.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (Includes short list of example species and 
genera, p. 88, by J.M. Thorne.) 


IUCN has records of 103 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, including 
E:2, V:10, R:5, 1:5; the remainder are K. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Forestry Development Authority, P.O. Box 3010, 
Monrovia. 
CITES Scientific Authority: University of Liberia, Capitol Hill, Monrovia. 


Additional References 

Adam, J.-G. (1970). Etat actuel de la végétation des monts Nimba au Libéria et en 
Guinée. Adansonia, Sér. 2, 10: 193-211. (With 10 black and white photographs.) 

Cooper, G.P. and Record, S.J. (1931). The Evergreen Forests of Liberia. Bulletin 31 of 
the Yale Univ. School of Forestry, New Haven. 153 pp. (Includes 26 black and 
white photographs.) 

Lamotte, M. (1983). The undermining of Mount Nimba. Ambio 12(3-4): 174-179. 
(Photographs, maps.) 

Voorhoeve, A.G. (1968). Liberia. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 74-76. 


Libya 


Area 1,759,540 sq. km 
Population 3,471,000 


Floristics c. 1600 species of which about 90% (1440) occupy the coastal region, 
especially Jabal al Akhdar (Boulos, 1975); c. 1800 species (Le Houérou, 1975). Northern 
Cyrenaica has 134 endemics, of which 109 are endemic to Jabal al Akhdar (Bartolo et al., 
1977); IUCN has records of 83 species and infra-specific taxa believed to be endemic. 


214 


Libya 


Floristic affinities Mediterranean and Saharan, although Jabal al Akhdar is the only area 
with a typical Mediterranean flora. The flora of most of the country is small and has 
Saharan affinities. Other coastal areas have a flora transitional between the two. 


Vegetation Mostly desert with little or no perennial vegetation; the only non- 
desert vegetation is in a strip along the coast and has been cultivated and overgrazed with 
the result that very little natural vegetation survives except in a somewhat degraded form in 
the sclerophyllous forests of Jabal al Akhdar. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Libya is included in the incomplete Flore de l’Afrique du 
Nord, the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980), Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and is being covered in 
Med-Checklist; all of these are cited in Appendix 1. Below is the recent Flora, and up-to- 
date checklists: 


Ali, S.I., Jafri, S.M.H. and El-Gadi, A. (Eds) (1976- ). Flora of Libya. Al Faateh 
University, Tripoli. (86 families published so far: mostly small ones, but including 
Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Liliaceae and Brassicaceae.) 

Boulos, L. (1977-1980). A checklist of the Libyan flora. 1. Introduction and 
Adiantaceae to Orchidaceae. Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7/8: 115-141; 2. Salicaceae to 
Neuradaceae. Candollea 34(1): 21-48; 3. Compositae (by C. Jeffrey). Ibid. 34(2): 
307-332; corrections (1980). Ibid. 35(2): 565-567. 


Also published: 


Brullo, S. and Furnari, F. (1979). Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the Flora of 
Cyrenaica (Libya). Webbia 34(1): 155-174. 

Keith, H.G. (1965). A Preliminary Check List of Libyan Flora, 2 vols. Ministry of 
Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Govt of Libyan Arab Republic. 1047 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants Libya is included in the draft list for North 
Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat 
(1980), cited in Appendix 1. 


Boulos, L. (1985). The arid eastern and south-eastern Mediterranean regions. In 
Gomez-Campo, C. (Ed.), Plant conservation in the Mediterranean area. 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:2, V:18, R:18, 1:4, K:20, nt:21; non-endemics 
rare or threatened on a world scale - E:1, V:7, R:6 (world categories). 


Botanic Gardens 
Sidi Mesri Experiment Station, Tripoli. 


Additional References 

Bartolo, G., Brullo, S., Guglielmo, A. and Scalia, C. (1977). Considerazioni 
fitogeografiche sugli endemismi della Cirenaica settentrionale. Archiv. Bot. 
Biogeogr. Ital. 53(3-4): 131-154. 

Boulos, L. (1972). Our present knowledge on the flora and vegetation of Libya: 
bibliography. Webbia 26: 365-400. 

Boulos, L. (1975). The Mediterranean element in the flora of Egypt and Libya. In 
CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 119-124. 

Le Houérou, H.-N. (1975). Etude préliminaire sur la compatibilité des flores nord- 
africaine et palestinienne. In CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 345-350. 


215 


Liechtenstein 


The principality of Liechtenstein is situated in the European Alps between Austria and 
Switzerland. One-third of the country lies in the Upper Rhine valley; the rest is 
mountainous. 


Area 160 sq. km 
Population 27,000 


Floristics Over 1400 native vascular taxa (estimated from Seitter, 1977). 
Elements: Central European, alpine. 


Vegetation About 25% of the country is agricultural; semi-natural and 
plantation forests occupy c. 34%; alpine pastures c. 16%. Widespread drainage, intensive 
agriculture and urban expansion responsible for dramatic loss, in recent years, of 
wetlands, woodlands and alpine pastures (Anon, 1984, cited in Appendix 1 and Broggi, 
1977). 


Checklists and Floras National Flora: 


Seitter, H. (1977). Die Flora des Fiirstentums Liechtenstein. Botanisch-Zoologische 
Gesellschaft, Liechtenstein. 573 pp. (In German; no keys; line drawings and colour 
photographs.) 


Regional Floras: 


Garcke, A. et al. (1972). Illustrierte Flora, Deutschland und Angrenzende Gebiete, 23rd 
Ed. by K. von Weihe. Parey, Berlin. 1607 pp. (Line drawings.) 

Hess, H.E., Landolt, E. and Hirzel, R. (1967- ). Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender 
Gebiete, 3 vols to date. Birkhauser, Basel. (Covers all Switzerland and Liechtenstein 
and parts of Austria, France, Federal Republic of Germany and Italy; 1 - 
pteridophytes and dicotyledons; 2 and 3 - dicotyledons and monocotyledons; line 
drawings, and detailed historical and ecological introduction.) 


Relevant journal: Mitteilungen der Botanisch Zoologischen Gesellschaft Liechtenstein, 
Sargans Werdenberg. 


Field-guides See Grey-Wilson (1979) and Hegi (1935-1979), both cited in 
Appendix 1. 


Information on Threatened Plants A national plant Red Data Book has recently 
been published (reviewed in Oryx 19: 112) identifying 383 rare and threatened flowering 
plant taxa of which 68 are ‘extinct’, 102 ‘endangered’, 91 ‘threatened’ and 122 ‘rare’; 
about one quarter of these are marshland plants. 


Laws Protecting Plants The 1933 Nature Protection Law, revised 1966, (Loi 
relative a la protection de la nature) provides full protection to 34 plant species and partial 
protection to 17 additional species, 1 genus and 1 family. For partially protected plants it is 
prohibited to uproot them, but the picking of their above-ground parts is allowed. Under 
the Law, it is prohibited to promote, to acquire or to offer for sale, in either a fresh or dry 
condition, any plants listed. For the list of protected plants see: 


Anon (1967). Gesetz vom 21 Dezember 1966, betreffend die Abanderung des 
Naturschutzgesetzes. Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt 1967, Nr. 5. Pp. 1-4. 


216 


Liechtenstein 


Voluntary Organizations 
Liechtensteinische Gesellschaft fiir Umweltschutz (Liechtenstein Society for 
Environmental Protection), Heiligkreuz 52, Postfach 53290, 9490 Vaduz. 


Useful Addresses 
Ministére de |’agriculture et des foréts, Département des foréts, Vaduz. 


Additional References 
Broggi, M.F. (1977). Nature conservation and landscape management in Liechtenstein. 
Parks 2(3): 14-16. (A short descriptive account of the history of nature conservation 
in Liechtenstein and habitat degradation.) 


Lord Howe Island 


Lord Howe Island (31°35’S, 159°05’E) is situated 692 km north-east of Sydney, in the 
Tasman Sea. It is a dependency of New South Wales, Australia. Unlike many colonized 
islands of similar size, it retains a significant proportion of its native vegetation and flora. 
In 1981, 8 sq. km were declared the Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve which has 
legislative protection equivalent to a National Park. In 1982, the Lord Howe Island group 
(including Ball’s Pyramid) was designated a World Heritage Site under the World Heritage 
Convention. 


Area 13 sq. km 
Population 300 (1974) 


Floristics 379 vascular plant taxa, of which 219 are native (Rodd and Pickard, 
1983). Of the 48 native fern species, 17 endemic; of the 171 flowering plant species, 57 
endemic (Rodd and Pickard, 1983). A further 5 flowering plant taxa below the rank of 
species are listed as endemic by Rodd and Pickard (1983). Lord Howe has 4 endemic 
genera: Negria (Gesneriaceae) and the monotypic palm genera Howea, Hedyscepe and 
Lepidorrhachis. Much of the flora has affinities with those of New Zealand and the Pacific 
islands. Ske 


Vegetation Lowland evergreen rain forest with Drypetes lasiogyna var. 
australasica and Cryptocarya triplinervis, mostly below 460 m in north; lowland evergreen 
rain forest with Cleistocalyx fullageri and Chionanthus quadristamineus, in south below 
530 m; palm forest dominated by Howea, mostly below 300 m on coral sandstone and 
basalt; palm forest dominated by Hedyscepe on Mount Gower and Mount Lidgbird, pure 
stands mostly above 610 m, but mixed stands as low as 335 m; Pandanus forest mostly in 
south; mixed montane forest on summit plateau of Mount Gower above 760 m; scrub 
vegetation, mostly in south; small areas of grassland on exposed coasts; tiny areas of 
mangroves in sheltered creeks. Less than 20% of the vegetation is disturbed, and less than 
10% cleared (Pickard, 1983b). 


For vegetation maps and more detailed descriptions of vegetation units see (Recher and 
Clark, 1974; Pickard, 1983b). 


Checklists and Floras Lord Howe will be included in a forthcoming volume of 
the Flora of Australia (1981- ), cited under Australia. The most recent checklist is: 


217 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Rodd, A.N. and Pickard, J. (1983). Census of the vascular flora of Lord Howe Island. 
Cunninghamia 1: 267-280. 


See also: 


Recher, H.F. and Clark, S.S. (Eds) (1974). Environmental Survey of Lord Howe 
Island: A Report to the Lord Howe Island Board. New South Wales Govt Printer, 
Sydney. 86 pp. (Includes annotated checklist, endemics indicated; chapter on 
vegetation; vegetation map, scale 2 inches to one mile, prepared by J. Pickard.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Pickard, J. (1983a). Rare or threatened vascular plants of Lord Howe Island. Biol. 
Conserv. 27: 125-139. (Detailed assessment of native and endemic vascular flora of 
Lord Howe in terms of distribution, abundance and threat.) 


A preliminary list of endemic plants with notes on conservation status is given in Leigh et 
al. (1981), cited under Australia. Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:2, V:10, R:58, 
I:3, nt:2, non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - V:3 (world categories). 


Additional References 
Pickard, J. (1973). An annotated botanical bibliography of Lord Howe Island. 
Contrib. N.S.W. Nat. Herb. 4: 470-491. 
Pickard, J. (1983b). Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia 1: 133-265. 
Recher, H.F. and Clark, S.S. (1974). A biological survey of Lord Howe Island with 
recommendations for the conservation of the island’s wildlife. Biol. Conserv. 6: 
263-273. 


Louisiade Archipelago 


About 100 islands 200 km south-east of New Guinea and politically part of Papua New 
Guinea. The largest islands - Tagula, Misima and Rossel - are volcanic and have fringing 
reefs; however, the majority of islands are coral formations. Population 12,000 (1971, 
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1974). 


The Louisiades have tropical rain forest (see the Vegetation Map of Malaysia by van 
Steenis, 1958, cited in Appendix 1); no figure available for current rate of deforestation. 


The flora has affinities with that of New Caledonia. No Flora or checklist has been 
published. No figure for size of flora or number of endemics. No information on 
threatened plants. 


Luxembourg 


Area 2586 sq. km 
Population 363,000 


Floristics About 1200 native and naturalized vascular species (L. Reichling, 1984, 
in litt.). No endemics (IUCN figure). 


218 


Luxembourg 


Vegetation A largely agricultural landscape. Original vegetation cover almost 
entirely modified except for small forest fragments on steep rocky slopes, covering c. 33% 
of country, of which beechwoods comprise 38%, oakwoods 28% and conifer plantations 
33% (Reichling, in /itt.). In the Ardennes, near Echternach, is one of Europe’s most 
ancient forests, of oak, beech and hornbeam, now protected as the Deutsch- 
Luxemburgischer Naturpark (Muller, 1978). 


Checklists and Floras Covered by Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1980), but 
plant records not distinguished from those for Belgium. No recent Flora except: 


De Langhe, J.-E. et al. (1983). Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de 
Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, 3rd Ed. Jardin 
Botanique National de Belgique, Meise. 1016 pp. (Ferns and flowering plants.) 


For a plant atlas see: 


Rompaey, E. van and Delvosalle, L. (1979). Atlas de la Flore Belge et 
Luxembourgeoise, Pteridophtyes et Spermatophytes, 2nd Ed. Jardin Botanique 
National de Belgique, Meise. 


For a floristic bibliography see Hamann and Wagenitz (1977), cited in Appendix 1, and for 
floristical accounts see: 


Reichling, L. (1955- ). Notes floristiques. Observations faites dans le Grand-Duché de 
Luxembourg en 1954. Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Luxembourg. Vol. 59 onwards. 


A computerized floristic databank is to be developed by the Musée d’ Histoire Naturelle de 
Luxembourg (address below) under the direction of the Centre de Recherche Scientifique 
sur l’Environnement Natural (Anon, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


Relevant journal: Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois. 


Information on Threatened Plants A national threatened plant list is in 
preparation (Reichling, in /itt.). Luxembourg is included in the European threatened plant 
list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon 
this work: non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide — E:1, R:1 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the UK Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which includes data sheets on 2 plant species from Luxembourg, both extinct there, 1 
Endangered on a world scale, the other of unknown world status. 


Laws Protecting Plants The 1967 Grand-Ducal Order (Réglement grand-ducal du 
22 décembre 1967 portant protection de certaines espéces végétales) provides 2 main levels 
of protection: 18 species and 3 genera are given “‘strict protection’’, i.e. picking, 
uprooting, sale and transport are prohibited; a further 24 species and 1 genus are given 
more limited protection. For details see: 


Reichling, L. (1981). In Luxembourg Geschiitzte Pflanzen. Ubersicht sowie Anleitung 
zum Kennenlernen der in Luxemburg geschiitzten wildwachsenden Pflanzenarten, 
2nd Ed. Natura (Luxemburger Liga fiir Natur- und Umweltschutz, Luxembourg. 
47 pp. (Outlines the law; describes ecology and threats of plants protected; 
distribution maps; colour photographs.) 


219 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Voluntary Organizations 
NATURA, 6 bd. Roosevelt, 2450 Luxembourg. 
Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois, B.P. 327, 2013 Luxembourg. 


Useful Addresses 
Direction des Eaux et Foréts, Service Conservation de la Nature, 34 av. de la Porte- 
Neuve, 2227 Luxembourg. 
Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Luxembourg, Marché-aux-Poissons, 2345 Luxembourg. 
CITES Management Authority: Ministére de l’Agriculture, de la Viticulture et des Eaux 
et Foréts, Administration des Services Techniques de |’Agriculture, Service de la 
Protection des Végétaux, P.O. Box 1904, 16 Route d’Esch, 1019 Luxembourg. 


Additional References 
Muller, F-C. (1978). One park, two countries. Naturopa 30: 24-25. 


Macau 


Macau, an overseas province of Portugal, consists of the peninsula of the Chinese district 
of Fo Shan and two small islands (Taipa and Coloane), 64 km west of Hong Kong. Area 16 
sq. km; population 309,000. The highest point is 190 m, on Coloane. 


Subtropical evergreen, monsoon forest greatly modified by fuelwood and timber cutting. 
Extensive areas of secondary scrub and grassland. No figure for size of native flora or 
number of endemics. No information on threatened plants. 


References 
Nogueira, A.C. de Sa (1984). Catalogo descritivo de 380 espécies botanicas da Colénia 
de Macau, 2nd Ed. Sevicos Florestais E Agricolas de Macau, Julho. 181 pp. 
(Describes 380 taxa, mostly introductions, in Portuguese.) 


Macquarie Island 


Macquarie Island (54°29’S, 158°58’E) is in the South Pacific Ocean, c. 967 km south-west 
of New Zealand. It is a dependency of Tasmania, Australia. Area 11 sq. km. No 
permanent population, but the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition 
(ANARE) station is manned by about 20 (1981) temporary staff (Clark and Dingwall, 
1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


36 native vascular plants, of which 3 endemic (all grasses). The vegetation is mainly 
tussock grassland and Pleurophyllum herbaceous communities; sedges and rushes occupy 
wetter areas; ‘feldmark’ vegetation, consisting of large areas of open ground with cushion- 
forming vascular plants, mosses and lichens, on exposed uplands above 200 m. Grazing by 
rabbits has reduced Poa foliosa, the dominant tussock grass of coastal slopes. Serious 
erosion has stripped surface peat to reveal bedrock in places (Costin and Moore, 1960). 


Leigh et al. (1981), cited under Australia, provides notes on the conservation status of the 
endemics. Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - V:1, R:1, K:1. 


220 


Macquarie Island 


References 

Cheeseman, T.F. (1919). The Vascular Flora of Macquarie Island. Scientific Report of 
the Australian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914, Ser. C (Zoology and Botany) 7(3): 
63 pp. 

Costin, A.B. and Moore, D.M. (1960). The effects of rabbit grazing on.the grasslands 
of Macquarie Island. J. Ecol. 48: 729-732. 

Greene, S.W. and Walton, D.W.H. (1975). An annotated check list of the sub-antarctic 
and antarctic vascular flora. Polar Record 17(110): 473-484. (Includes tabular list of 
native vascular plants, distributions indicated.) 

Taylor, B.W. (1955). The Flora, Vegetation and Soils of Macquarie Island. ANARE 
Scientific Report, Ser. B, Vol. 2 (Botany). 92 pp. 


Madagascar 


Area 594,180 sq. km 
Population 9,731,000 


Floristics Current estimates of flora between 10,000 and 12,000 species (Rauh, 
1979; Guillaumet and Mangenot, 1975); more than 80% specific endemism (Rauh, 1979), 
but this figure probably too high. Seven endemic families. 


East and West Malagasy regions. East region much richer, with almost 75% of 
Madagascar’s species, while the West region has 25% (Perrier de la Bathie, 1936). Floristic 
affinities principally pantropical, African (especially East African) and Asian. 


Vegetation North and east: tropical rain forest; west: dry deciduous forest; 
south: dry xerophytic scrub (spiny desert). All but about 20% of natural vegetation now 
destroyed; remainder includes 61,500 sq. km rain forest, 25,500 sq. km mountain 
sclerophyllous and deciduous forest and 29,000 sq. km dry xerophytic scrub (Chauvet in 
Richard-Vindard and Battistini, 1972). Most of land surface now uniform grassland with 
chronic problems of erosion, probably caused by man (Rauh, 1979). 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 1500 sq. km/annum out of 
103,000 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) gives a 
figure of 26,000 sq. km of eastern moist forest, half of which is disrupted by shifting 
cultivation which accounts for the destruction of 2000-3000 sq. km/annum. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


For information on Ile de l’Europa (22°20’S 40°20’E) and Juan de Nova (17°02’S 
43°42’B), small islands in the Mozambique Channel, see Bosser (1952), Capuron (1966), 
and Perrier de la Bathie (1921), below. 


Checklists and Floras 
Humbert, H. (1936- ). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. Muséum National 
d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. (c. 80% complete, with 132 families written out of 189, 
the most significant families outstanding being Leguminosae, Rubiaceae and 
Gramineae; many of the early volumes now out of date.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 468 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic - 


feat 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


E:3, V:11, R:23, 1:31, K:375, nt:25. By and large these are succulents, information lacking 
for other life forms. 


One species which occurs in Madagascar (Catharanthus coriaceus) is included in The 
IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Index of potentially threatened plants in cultivation: 


Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980). The Botanic Gardens List of 
Madagascan Succulents 1980. Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body 
Report No. 2. IUCN, Kew. 21 pp. (Lists 235 succulents, most endemic to 
Madagascar, as in cultivation, from a list of 328 species.) 


Laws Protecting Plants No plants or seeds may be exported without permission 
(strongly enforced, and includes botanical collecting), but permission granted for export 
of thousands of rare succulents. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanique de la DRST Tsimbazaza, B.P. 4096, Antananarivo. 


Useful Addresses WWF is represented by Monsieur B. Vaohita, B.P. 4373, 
Antananarivo. 


CITES Management Authority: Direction des Eaux et Foréts et de la Conservation des 
Sols, Foiben’ny Rano sy Ala, MPAEF, B.P. 243, Antananarivo. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Ministére de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologie pour 
le Développement, Antananarivo. 


Additional References 

Bosser, J. (1952). Notes sur la végétation des iles Europa et Juan de Nova. Naturaliste 
Malg. 4: 41-42. (illus.) 

Capuron, R. (1966). Rapport succinct sur la végétation et la flore de l’ile Europa. 
Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Sér. 2/A (Zool.) 41: 19-21. 

Guillaumet, J.-L. and Mangenot, G. (1975). Aspects de la spéciation dans la flore 
malgache. In Miége, J. and Stork, A.L. (1975, 1976), cited in Appendix 1, 
pp. 119-123. 

Humbert, H. and Cours Darne, G. (1965). Carte Internationale du Tapis Végétal et des 
Conditions Ecologiques: ‘‘Madagascar’’. Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. Inst. Frang. 
Pondichéry, Hors Sér. 6. 162 pp. (Illus., with coloured vegetation map 1:1,000,000.) 

IUCN (1972). Comptes Rendus de la Conférence Internationale sur la Conservation de 
la Nature et de ses Ressources a Madagascar, 1970. Publications UICN Nouvelle 
Série 36. 239 pp. (See especially papers by M. Keraudren-Aymonin, pp. 145-151, on 
the Didiereaceae thickets of southern Madagascar, and by R. Melville, pp. 139-142, 
on the floristic significance of Madagascar.) 

Keraudren, M. (1968). Madagascar. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 261-265. 

Koechlin, J., Guillaumet, J.-L. and Morat, P. (1974). Flore et Végétation de 
Madagascar. Cramer, FL-9490, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 687 pp. (With line drawings 
and 188 black and white photographs.) 

Leroy, J.-F. (1978). Composition, origin, and affinities of the Madagascan vascular 
flora. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65(2): 535-589. 

Paulian, R. ef al. (1981). Madagascar, un Sanctuaire de la Nature. Paris. 

Perrier de la Bathie, H. (1921). Note sur la constitution géologique et la flore des iles 
Chesterfield, Juan-de-Nova, Europa et Nosy-Trozona. Bull. Ec. Mad. 170-176. 


222 


Madagascar 


Perrier de la Bathie, H. (1936). Biogéographie des Plantes de Madagascar. Paris. 
156 pp., 40 plates. 

Rauh, W. Various articles on the succulent flora of Madagascar published in the 
journal Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten between 1961 and 1970. 

Rauh, W. (1973). Uber die Zonierung und Differenzierung der Vegetation 
Madagaskars. Tropische und Subtropische Pfanzenwelt 1. 146 pp. 

Rauh, W. (1979). Problems of biological conservation in Madagascar. In Bramwell, D. 
(Ed.), Plants and Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 405-421. 

Richard-Vindard, G. and Battistini, R. (Eds) (1972). Biogeography and Ecology of 
Madagascar. Junk, The Hague. 765 pp. (See especially papers by B. Chauvet, 
pp. 191-199, on the forests, and by J. Koechlin, pp. 145-190, on the flora and 
vegetation, with 14 black and white photographs.) 


The IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, at the request of UNEP, has prepared an 
extensive Environmental Profile of Madagascar, now in press. This provides a 
comprehensive review of the biota, plant and animal, of Madagascar and of the physical 
environment. It includes a chapter on vegetation types and an analysis of forest cover and 
loss. 


Madeira Islands 


A volcanic archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Portugal. Comprises 
Madeira itself and the Desertas to the south-east (uninhabited) and Porto Santo 
(inhabited) to the north-east. Madeira, itself, is a very precipitous, wooded, volcanic island 
c. 58 x 23 km. Its backbone is a serrated mountain range reaching the rugged peak of Pico 
Ruivo (1861 m) and, to the west, the high grassy plateau of Paul da Serra. Deep rugged 
ravines run to the coast. 


Area 796 sq. km 
Population 265,100 (1979 estimate, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics About 760 species of native ferns and flowering plants (Vieira, 1974), 
of which 131 are endemic (IUCN figures); also c. 380 introduced plants, mostly 
subtropical and many extensively naturalized. 


Vegetation When discovered in 1419, most of the island was covered with forest, 
now greatly reduced. Sj6gren (1972) distinguishes 4 vegetation zones: coastal vegetation of 
low shrubs, herbs and succulents (e.g. Aeonium), much now replaced by cultivated land; 
laurel forest, a subtropical evergreen cloud forest mainly of J/ex and Lauraceae, rich in 
endemics and with a large ground flora, occurring between 1300 and 1850 m; a transitional 
zone (700-1250 m) between the previous 2 zones; and above the laurel forest Erica scrub. 


Checklists and Floras Covered in the Flora of Macaronesia checklist (Hansen and 
Sunding, 1979, cited in Appendix 1). Below is a modern checklist and 2 Floras, both very 
old and one of them - Lowe - incomplete: 


Hansen, A. (1969). Checklist of vascular plants of the Archipelago of Madeira. Bol. 
Museu Municipal Funchal 24: 1-62. (Annotated checklist with extensive 
bibliography.) 

Lowe, R.Th. (1857-1872). A Manual Flora of Madeira and the Adjacent Islands of 
Porto Santo and the Desertas. London. 


223 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Menezes, C.A. (1914). Flora do Archipelago da Madeira. Funchal. 282 pp. (In 
Portuguese.) 


The British Museum (Natural History), London, are preparing a Flora of Madeira. 
Hansen has updated his 1969 checklist in a series of papers in Bocagiana (Museu Municipal 
do Funchal, Madeira), namely No. 25 (18 pp., 1970), No. 27 (14 pp., 1971), No. 32 (13 
pp., 1973) and No. 36 (37 pp., 1974). See also: 


Hansen, A. (1976). A botanical bibliography of the archipelago of Madeira. Bol. 
Museu Municipal Funchal 30: 26-45. 


Field-guides 

Christensen, T.B., Dalgaard, V. and Hamann, O. (1970). Oversigt over Madeiras 
Flora. Kobenhavens Universitets. 167 pp. (Includes keys; in Danish.) 

Delagacado de Turismo da Madeira (1976). Plantas e Flores/Plantes et Fleurs/Plants 
and Flowers/Pflanzen und Blumen: Madeira. 151 pp. (Colour photographs of 
selected species both wild and cultivated.) 

Pinto da Silva, A.R. (1975). L’état actuel des connaissances floristiques et 
taxonomiques du Portugal, de Madére et des Acores, en ce qui concerne les plantes 
vasculaires. In CNRS, 1975, cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 19-28. 

Ramirez (1953). Flora da Ilha da Madeira, Pteridofitas. (Not seen.) 

Vieira, R. (1974). Album floristico da Madeira. Funchal. (Colour photographs of 124 
plants, both wild and cultivated; English version available as Flowers of Madeira.) 


Information on Threatened Plants The only known list is that produced by IUCN 
Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat (1980) for North Africa and the Middle East, 
cited in Appendix 1. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemics - E:17, V:30, 
R:39, K:22, nt:23; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - E:2, V:17, R:5 (world 
categories). 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardim Botanico da Madeira, Quinta do Bom Sucesso-Caminho do Meio, 9000 
Funchal. 
Jardim Botanico da Ribeiro Frio (maintained by Servicos Florestais, Departamento de 
Agricultura e Pescas, Avenida do Mar, Funchal). 


Useful Addresses 
Museu Municipal do Funchal, 9000 Funchal. 


Additional References 

Bramwell, D., Montelongo, V., Navarro, B. and Ortega, J. (1982). Informe Sobre la 
Conservacion de los Bosques y la Flora de la Isla de Madeira. Report to 
International Dendrology Society and IUCN, by staff of the Jardin Botanico ‘‘Viera 
y Clavijo’’, outlining proposals for a protected areas system on Madeira. (In 
Spanish and Portuguese.) 

Bramwell, D. and Synge, H. (1983). A conservation project in Madeira. Int. Dendrol. 
Soc. Yb., 1982: 73-74. (Summary of Bramwell et a/., 1982.) 

Malato-Beliz, J. (1977). ConsideracGes sobre a proteccao da flora e da vegetacao na 
Madeira. Natureza e Paisagem 3: 1-11. 

Sj6gren, E. (1972). Vascular plant communities of Madeira. Bol. Museu Municipal 
Funchal 26 (114): 45-125. 

Sjogren, E. (1973). Conservation of natural plant communities on Madeira and in the 
Azores. In Proc. 1 Intern. Congress pro Flora Macaronesica. Pp. 148-153. (Not 
seen.) 


224 


Madeira Islands 


Tavares, C.N. (1965). I/ha da Madeira. O meio e a flora. Lisboa. 174 pp. (In 
Portuguese.) 


Malawi 


Area 94,081 sq. km 
Population 6,788,000 


Floristics c. 3600 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1960, cited in Appendix 1). 
Endemism generally low, but highest in the mountain areas; Brenan (1978, cited in 
Appendix 1) estimates 69 endemic species from a sample of Flora Zambesiaca. Wild (1964) 
lists 30 species apparently endemic to Mt Mulanje. 


Flora principally Zambezian but with a few islands of Afromontane flora, especially the 
Misuku forests and Nyika and Viphya Plateaux in the north, and Mt Mulanje and Zomba 
Plateau in the south. 


Vegetation Predominantly more or less open Brachystegia-Julbernardia 
(Miombo) woodland; also considerable areas of Zambezian woodland dominated by 
species of Combretum, Acacia and Piliostigma around Lilongwe and south of Lake 
Malawi. Afromontane communities occur at higher altitudes, including small patches of 
evergreen forest and large expanses of short grassland. Lowland forest occurs on the 
shores of the northern part of Lake Malawi, on the lower slopes of Mt Mulanje and on the 
Malawi Hills where they rise from the Shire Valley. 


For vegetation maps see Wild and Barbosa (1967, 1968), and White (1983), both cited in 
Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Malawi is included in the incomplete Flora Zambesiaca and 
in Trees of Central Africa (Coates Palgrave et al., 1957), both cited in Appendix 1. 


Binns, B. (1968). A First Check List of the Herbaceous Flora of Malawi. Govt Printer, 
Zomba. 113 pp. ‘pict 

Burtt Davy, J. and Hoyle, A.C. (Eds) (1958). Check Lists of the Trees and Shrubs of 
the Nyasaland Protectorate, 2nd Ed., revised by P. Topham, 1958. Govt Printer, 
Zomba. 137 pp. (1st Ed. 1936 as Check-Lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the 
British Empire. No. 2: Nyasaland Protectorate, Oxford.) 


Field-guides 
Kitchin, A.M. and Pullinger, J.S. (1982). Trees of Malawi, with Some Shrubs and 
Climbers. 229 pp. (Colour paintings of 108 species, mostly by J.S. Pullinger; text by 
A.M. Kitchin.) 


Moriarty, A. (1975). Wild Flowers of Malawi. Purnell, Cape Town. 166 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of c. 130 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
of which roughly half are known to be rare or threatened. Of relevance: 


Chapman, J.D. (1981). Conservation of vegetation and its constituent species in 
Malawi. Nyala 6(2): 125-132. 


225 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Voluntary Organizations 
National Fauna Preservation Society of Malawi, c/o Museums of Malawi, P.O. Box 
30360, Blantyre. (Publishes the journal Nyala.) 
Society of Malawi Historic and Scientific, P.O. Box 125, Blantyre. (Publishes The 
Society of Malawi Journal.) 


Useful Addresses 
Dept of Forestry, Ministry of Forestry and Natural Resources, Lilongwe 3. 
National Herbarium, Chancellor College, P.O. Box 280, Zomba. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authority: The Chief Game Warden, Dept of 
National Parks and Wildlife, P.O. Box 30131, Lilongwe 3. 


Additional References 

Brass, L.J. (1953). Vegetation of Nyasaland. Report on the Vernay Nyasaland 
expedition of 1946. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 8: 161-190. 

Chapman, J.D. (1962). The Vegetation of the Mlanje Mountains, Nyasaland. Govt 
Printer, Zomba. 78 pp. (With 25 black and white photographs.) 

Chapman, J.D. (1968). Malawi. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 215-224. 

Chapman, J.D. and White, F. (1970). The Evergreen Forests of Malawi. 
Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Univ. of Oxford. 190 pp. (Includes a useful 
ecological and phytogeographical bibliography; 60 black and white photographs.) 

Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 

Wild, H. (1964). The endemic species of the Chimanimani Mountains and their 
significance. Kirkia 4: 125-157. 


Malaysia 


Area 332,669 sq. km 
Peninsular Malaysia: 131,587 sq. km; Sabah: 76,115 sq. km; Sarawak: 124,967 sq. km 
Population 15,204,000, of which c. 12,000,000 in Peninsular Malaysia 


Floristics Peninsular Malaysia has c. 8000 flowering plant species in 1500 genera; 
c. 500 species of ferns (Keng, 1983). The flora of the Malay Peninsula comprises mainly 
Malesian elements, with continental Asiatic and some Australian elements at low and 
medium altitudes. Floristic affinities are discussed by Keng (1970). No figure for number 
of species in Sabah or Sarawak, but Borneo (whole island) has c. 10,000-11,000 vascular 
plant species, based on Merrill (1921). 


Vegetation Tropical evergreen rain forest is the natural vegetation of most of 
Malaysia: lowland dipterocarp forest up to 300 m, hill dipterocarp forest at 300-1300 m, 
montane rain forest above; semi-evergreen rain forest occurs in the far north-west of 
Peninsular Malaysia; karst limestone supporting rich endemic flora covers 260 sq. km in 
Peninsular Malaysia (Chin, 1977- ); limestone forests at low elevations south of Kuching 
and at Niah, and at high elevations around Gunung Mulu in Sarawak. 


Peninsular Malaysia Lowland forests have been heavily logged; most hill 
dipterocarp forests selectively logged; only tiny patches of heath forest remaining on east 
coast; freshwater swamp-forest and c. 1136 sq. km of mangrove forest remaining, mostly 


226 


Malaysia 


in south (Corner, 1978). Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 900 
sq. km/annum out of a total of 75,780 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Davison (1982) 
calculated the area of forest in 1980 to be 53,420 sq. km, of which primary rain forest 
occupied 27,925 sq. km. 


Sabah Lowland and hill dipterocarp forests comprise c. 54% of the total forest 
cover; montane forests, 14% (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Most remaining forests are 
‘productive’ or ‘potentially productive’ dipterocarp forests (Myers, 1980, cited in 
Appendix 1). Upper montane forest (1850-3200 m), subalpine rain forest (3200-4100 m) 
and alpine scrub occur on Mt Kinabalu. Mangrove forests cover 3500 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981); peat swamp and mangrove forests in Klias Peninsula now being 
logged. Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 760 sq. km/annum 
out of a total of 49,970 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). According to estimates by the 
Government of Malaysia (quoted in Myers, 1980), there were 61,488 sq. km still forested 
in 1977, of which 31,000-34,521 sq. km were undisturbed. 


Sarawak Mixed dipterocarp forests cover 78.6% of the forest area; peat swamp 
forests about 15%; heath forests (kerangas) 3.9%; mangroves 1.8% (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 
Gunung Mulu National Park contains most of the major vegetation types of Sarawak, 
including high elevation limestone forest. Estimated rate of deforestation of closed 
broadleaved forest 890 sq. km/annum out of a total of 84,200 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 
1981). According to estimates by the Government of Malaysia (quoted in Myers, 1980), 
97,087 sq. km were still forested in 1977, of which 55,687-62,661 sq. km were undisturbed. 
Malaysia is included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958) and on the 
vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora Malesiana region at 
scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Thomas, P., Lo, F.K.C. and Hepburn, A.J. (1976). The Land Capability Classification 
of Sabah, 4 vols. Land Resources Study 25. Ministry of Overseas Development, 
Surbiton, U.K. (Land use and evaluation, includes maps of land capability 
classification at 1:250,000. Vol. 1 - Tawau Residency; 2 - Sandakan Residency; 3 - 
West Coast and Kudat Residencies; 4 - Interior Residency and Labuan.) 

Wyatt-Smith, J. (1964). A preliminary vegetation map of Malaya with descriptions of 
the vegetation types. J. Trop. Geog. 18: 200-213. (Includes vegetation map of 
Peninsular Malaysia with notes on vegetation types.) 


Checklists and Floras Malaysia is included in the very detailed but incomplete 
Flora Malesiana (1948- ), cited in Appendix 1. 


Peninsular Malaysia is covered by: 


A Revised Flora of Malaya, 3 vols. 1 - Orchids of Malaya, by R.E. Holttum. 3rd Ed., 
1964. 759 pp. 2 - Ferns of Malaya by R.E. Holttum, 2nd Ed., 1966. 653 pp. 3 - 
Grasses of Malaya, by H.B. Gilliland (1971). 319 pp. Govt Printer, Singapore. 

Tree Flora of Malaya. Vols 1 and 2 (1972) edited by T.C. Whitmore. Vol. 3 (1978) and 
4 (in press) edited by F.S.P. Ng. Longman, Kuala Lumpur and London. (Excludes 
Dipterocarpaceae, but otherwise complete; keys, descriptions, line drawings of 
selected taxa. For dipterocarps see Flora Malesiana 9(2), 1982.) 


Other accounts include: 


Anderson, J.A.R. (1980). A Checklist of the Trees of Sarawak. Forest Dept, Sarawak. 
364 pp. (Over 2500 species enumerated.) 
Browne, F.G. (1955). Forest Trees of Sarawak and Brunei and Their Products. Govt 


227 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Printer, Kuching. 369 pp. (Descriptions of timber trees with notes on distribution 
and wood properties.) 

Cockburn, P.F. (1976, 1980). Trees of Sabah, 2 vols so far. Forest Dept, Kuching. 

Dransfield, J. (1979). A Manual of the Rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan 
Forestry Records no. 29. Malaysia Forest Dept. 270 pp. (Keys, descriptions, 
drawings; checklist of 104 species.) 

Dransfield, J. (1984). The Rattans of Sabah. Forest Dept, Sabah. 182 pp. (Keys, 
descriptions, drawings; checklist of 82 taxa.) 

Fox, J.E.D. (1970). Preferred Check-list of Sabah Trees. Sabah Forest Record no. 7. 
Borneo Literature Bureau, Kuching. 65 pp. 

Merrill, E.D. (1921). A Bibliographic Enumeration of Bornean Plants. Fraser and 
Neave, Singapore. 637 pp. (Systematic enumeration with notes on distribution; 
introduction covers vegetation, history of botanical investigation.) 

Ridley, H.N. (1922-1925). The Flora of the Malay Peninsula, 5 vols. Reeve, London. 
(Reprinted 1968; Asher, Amsterdam.) 

Whitmore, T.C. (1973). Palms of Malaya. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 132 pp. 

Wyatt-Smith, J. (1952). Pocket Check List of Timber Trees. Malayan Forest Records 
no. 17. Forest Dept, Peninsular Malaysia. (3rd Ed., 1979, by K.M. Kochummen.) 


Field-guides 

Corner, E.J.H. (1952). Wayside Trees of Malaya, 2nd Ed., 2 vols. Govt Printing 
Office, Singapore. 

Henderson, M.R. (1949, 1954). Malayan Wild Flowers, 2 vols. Malayan Nature Soc., 
Kuala Lumpur. (1 - dicotyledons; 2 - monocotyledons; keys, descriptions of a 
selection of wildflowers.) 

Kurata, S. (1976). Nepenthes of Kinabalu. Sabah National Parks, Kota Kinanbalu. 

80 pp. 

Shivas, R. (1984). Pitcher Plants of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Maruzen Asia, 

Singapore. 58 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants No national list of threatened plants has been 
published. 4 species are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). A preliminary 
list of endemics from limestone areas, prepared by S.C. Chin in 1984, includes - E:6, V:2, 
R:72, 1:41, nt:30, K:13. IUCN also has a full list of palms, some of which have 
conservation categories. 


Kiew, R. (1983- ). Portraits of threatened plants. Malayan Naturalist 37(1): 6-7; 37(2): 
6-7; 37(4): 4-6; 38(1): 9-10; 38(2): 6. (Data sheets on Maxburretia rupicola, Ilex 
praetermissa, Didymocarpus primulinus, Maclurodendron magnificum, Melicope 
suberosa, Musa gracilis and Maingaya malayana.) 

Ng, F.S.P. and Low, C.M. (1982). Check List of Endemic Trees of the Malay 
Peninsula. Forest Research Institute, Kepong. 94 pp. (Lists 654 trees endemic to the 
Malay peninsula of which 343 ‘endangered’, based on numbers of herbarium 
specimens.) 

Rao, A.N., Keng, H. and Wee, Y.C. (1983). Problems in conservation of plant 
resources in South East Asia. In Jain, S.K. and Mehra, K.L. (Eds), Conservation of 
Tropical Plant Resources. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. Pp. 181-204. 
(Includes list of 90 endemic taxa threatened in Malaysia; useful bibliography.) 


Voluntary Organizations 
Malayan Nature Society, P.O. Box 10750, Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia. 
Sabah Society, P.O. Box 547, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. 


228 


Malaysia 


WWF-Malaysia, Wisma Damansara, Jalan Semantan, P.O. Box 10769, Kuala Lumpur, 
Peninsular Malaysia. 


Botanic Gardens 

Botanic Gardens, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. 

Forest Research Centre (Arboretum and Herbarium), P.O. Box 1407, Sandakan, 
Sabah. 

Forest Research Institute (Arboretum and Herbarium), Kepong, Selangor, Peninsular 
Malaysia. 

Rimba Ilmu Botanic Garden, Department of Botany, University of Malaya, Lembah 
Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Peninsular Malaysia. 

Sabah Orchid Centre, c/o Cocoa Research Station, P.O. Box 197, Tenom, Sabah. 

Semangoh Arboretum, Sarawak Forest Department, Kuching, Sarawak. 


Useful Addresses 

Sarawak Herbarium, Forest and Department Headquarters, Jalan Badruddin, Kuching, 
Sarawak. 

CITES Management Authority: Wildlife and National Parks, Pejabat-Pejabat 
Kerajaan, Blok K-19, Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur 11-04, Peninsular Malaysia. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Secretary General, Ministry of Science, Technology and 
the Environment, Tingkat 14, Bangunan Oriental Plaza, Jalan Ramli, Kuala 
Lumpur 04-01, Peninsular Malaysia. 


Additional References 

Anderson, J.A.R. (1963). The flora of the peat swamp forest of Sarawak and Brunei, 
including a catalogue of all recorded species of flowering plants, ferns and fern 
allies. Gard. Bull. Singapore 20: 131-228. 

Brunig, E.F. (1974). Ecological Studies in the Kerangas Forests of Sarawak and Brunei. 
Borneo Literature Bureau, Kuching. 237 pp. 

Burkill, I.H. (1966). A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 
2nd Ed., 2 vols. Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur. (2432 species, notes on 
Origin, uses, vernacular names.) 

Chai, P.K. and Choo, N.C. (1983). Conservation of forest genetic resources in 
Malaysia with special reference to Sarawak. In Jain, S.K. and Mehra, K.L. (Eds), 
Conservation of Tropical Plant Resources. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 

Pp. 39-47. — 

Chin, S.C. (1977- ). The limestone hill flora of Malaya. Gard. Bull. Singapore 30: 
165-219; 32: 64-203; 35: 137-190; 36: 31-91. (About 1216 vascular species found on 
limestone, including 261 endemics; keys, annotated checklist.) 

Corner, E.J.H. (1978). The Freshwater Swamp-forest of South Johore and Singapore. 
Gardens Bulletin Supplement 1, Singapore. 266 pp. (Ecology; species lists.) 

Davison, G.W.H. (1982). How much forest is there? Malayan Naturalist 35: 11-12. 

Holttum, R.E. (1954). Plant Life in Malaya. Longmans and Green, London. 254 pp. 
(Useful introduction to the flora.) 

Jacobs, M. (1974). Botanical panorama of the Malesian archipelago (vascular plants). 
In Unesco, Natural Resources of Humid Tropical Asia. Natural Resources Research 
12. Unesco, Paris. Pp. 263-294. 

Keng, H. (1970). Size and affinities of the flora of the Malay Peninsula. J. Trop. 
Geog. 31: 43-56. 

Keng, H. (1983). Orders and Families of Malayan Seed Plants. Singapore Univ. Press. 
441 pp. (Revised edition; keys and brief systematic accounts of 41 orders and 177 
families in the Malayan flora.) 


229 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Kiew, R. (1983). Conservation of Malaysian plant species. Malayan Naturalist 37(1): 
2-5. (Conservation problems and priorities.) 

Lee, D. (1980). The Sinking Ark: Environmental Problems in Malaysia and Southeast 
Asia. Heinemann, Kuala Lumpur. 85 pp. 

Luping, D.M., Wen, C. and Dingley, E.R. (1978). Kinabalu: Summit of Borneo. Sabah 
Society Monograph, Kota Kinabalu. 486 pp. (Covers flora, vegetation, fauna, 
geology, history of exploitation.) 

Shuttleworth, C. (1981). Malaysia’s Green and Timeless World. Heinemann, Kuala 
Lumpur. 221 pp. (Covers flora and fauna). 

Watson, J.G. (1928). Mangrove Forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest 
Records no. 6. Fed. Malay States Govt. 275 pp. 


Maldives 


The Maldives (298 sq. km) comprise 1201 islands, grouped into 19 coral atolls, extending 
north-south for about 885 km south-west of Sri Lanka, between latitudes 7°N and 3°S, 
and longitudes 73-74°E. 202 islands are permanently inhabited; the total population is 
173,000. 


The islands are mostly below 1.5 m above sea-level, and covered by coconut palms, 
grassland or scrub. Little native vegetation remains undisturbed. 


583 vascular plant species (including cultivated plants). According to Adams (1983), there 
are 260 ‘‘native or naturalized’’ species, of which about half are likely to have been 
intentionally introduced. The only recorded endemics are 5 species of Pandanus (St John, 
1961). There are local restrictions on the cutting of any living plant for firewood, except 
Scaevola sericea (C.D. Adams, 1984, in litt.). 


References 

Adams, C.D. (1983). Report to the Government of the Maldive Islands on Flora 
Identification. FAO Project RAS 79/123, Rome. 41 pp. 

Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Afoll Res. Bull. 58. 37 pp. 
(Includes checklist of 4 ferns, one cycad, 322 angiosperms, many of which are 
introductions.) 

Fosberg, F.R., Groves, E.W. and Sigee, D.C. (1966). List of Addu vascular plants. In 
Stoddart, D.R. (Ed.), Reef studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands. Preliminary 
results of an expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. Atoll Res. Bull. 116: 75-92. 
(Checklist of 5 ferns, 2 gymnosperms, 135 angiosperms.) 

St John, H. (1961). Revision of the Genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 5. Pandanus of 
the Maldive Islands and Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean. Pacific Science 15: 
328-346. 

Stutz, L.-C. (1982). Herborisation 1981 aux iles Maldives. Candollea 37: 599-631. (Lists 
123 taxa in Male, Bandos and Thulaagiri; notes on uses, and additional reports on 
31 mainly introduced shrubs.) 

Willis, J.C. and Gardiner, J.S. (1901). The botany of the Maldive Islands. Annals 
Royal Botanic Gardens Peradeniya 1: 45-164. (Includes annotated list of 359 species 
recorded from Chagos Archipelago, Laccadives and Maldives; 284 recorded on 
Maldives, of which c. 90 are native.) 


230 


Mali 


Area 1,240,142 sq. km 
Population 7,825,000 


Floristics 1600 species (J.-P. Lebrun, 1984, pers. comm.), with 11 endemic 
species (Brenan, 1978, cited in Appendix 1). Floristically poor for its enormous size. 


Floristic affinities Saharan, Sahelian and Sudanian in north, centre and south of country 
respectively. 


Vegetation Northern half of country desert and semi-desert with little or no 
perennial vegetation. Southwards: east-west bands of Acacia wooded grassland and 
deciduous bushland, Sudanian woodland without characteristic dominants, and Sudanian 
woodland with Jsoberlinia. Also, a large area of swamp grassland with semi-aquatic 
vegetation in centre of country. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Mali south of c. 18°N is included in the Flora of West 
Tropical Africa. Mali north of c. 16°N is included in Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and 
in the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980); these are all cited in Appendix 1. 


Boudet, G. and Lebrun, J.-P. (in prep.). Catalogues des plantes vasculaires du Mali. 
To be published by the Institut d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays 
Tropicaux, Maisons-Alfort. 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 11 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
including V:2, R:3. 


Jaeger, P. (1956). Contribution a l’étude des foréts reliques du Soudan occidental. Bull. 
IFAN 18A: 993-1053. (Includes small map of distribution of threatened timber tree 
Gilletiodendron glandulosum.) 


Additional References 
Jaeger, P. (1968). Mali. In Hedberg, I. and -O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 51-53. 
Jaeger, P. and Winkoun, D. (1962). Premier contact avec la flore et la végétation du 
plateau de Bandiagara. Bull. IFAN 24A: 69-111. 
Rossetti, C. (1962). Observations sur la Végétation au Mali Oriental (1959). Projet 
Pélerin, Rapp. No. UNSF/DL/ES/4, FAO, Rome. 68 pp. 


Malta 


The Republic of Malta includes Malta, Gozo, Comino and 2 uninhabited islands, in the 
central Mediterranean. 


Area 316 sq. km 
Population 380,000 


231 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Floristics 900 native vascular species (E. Lanfranco, 1984, pers. comm.); 5 
endemics (IUCN figures). A Mediterranean flora. 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation due to agriculture, building construction and 
tourism. Most remaining vegetation is semi-natural and confined to inaccessible coastal 
cliffs, e.g. fragments of garigue and maquis with remnants of Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) 
woodland, now reduced to a few individuals. Inland, on the jagged coralline limestone 
plateau in the north and west, there is a thin scattered scrub of garigue, with occasional 
trees in the valleys. Elsewhere garigue is the dominant vegetation cover with Euphorbia, 
Thymus and Teucrium spp. Little maquis remains. 


Priority areas for protection are as follows: ‘‘Wardija Ridge, the pool and sand dunes at 
Ghadira and in Gozo, the dunes at Ramla bay and the coralline plateau and valley between 
Ta’ Cenc and Mgarr ix-Xini. These together with the Wieds contain much of what is left of 
the semi-natural vegetation of the Islands’’ (Haslam et al., 1977). 


Checklists and Floras Malta is covered by the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin 
et al., 1964-1980), cited in Appendix 1, but plant records are not distinguished from those 
for Sicily. Malta is also being covered by the Med-Checklist (cited in Appendix 1). 
National Floras: 


Borg, J. (1927). Descriptive Flora of the Maltese Islands. Government Printing Office, 
Malta. 846 pp. (Extensive introductory text describes geology, climate, vegetation 
and botanical exploration; reprinted 1976.) 

Haslam, S.M., Sell, P.D. and Wolseley, P.A. (1977). A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 
Malta University Press, Msida. 560 pp. (Introduction outlines history of floristic 
studies in Malta, plant communities and habitats; line drawings.) 


Relevant journal, which includes conservation articles: The Maltese Naturalist, Society for 
the Study and Conservation of Nature (SSCN), address below. 


Field-guides 
Lanfranco, G.G. (1977). Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Malta, 2nd Ed. Progress 
Press, Malta. 83 pp. (Illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No national plant Red Data Book, but see: 


Lanfranco, E. (1976). Report on the present situation of the Maltese flora. The Maltese 
Naturalist 2(3): 69-80. (Describes threats to the flora; lists over 300 extinct and 
endangered taxa in 2 appendices; line drawings of over SO species.) 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: endemic taxa - V:1, R:2, I:1, 
nt:1. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Antiquities Act of 1933 (Article 3) provides 
protection for historical trees and those over 200 years old. This includes Quercus ilex as 
well as several cultivated trees. Legislation for the protection of Maltese wildlife has been 
prepared by the Environment Protection Centre (address below) and now awaits 
finalization. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Society for the Study and Conservation of Nature (SSCN), P.O. Box 459, Valetta. 
(Formerly the Natural History Society of Malta.) 


232 


Malta 


Botanic Gardens 
Argotti Botanic Gardens, Floriana. 


Useful Addresses 


Environment Protection Centre (EPC), Ministry of Health and Environment, Bighi, 
Malta. 


Additional References 

Kramer, K.U. et al. (1972). Floristic and cytotaxonomic notes on the flora of the 
Maltese Islands. Acta Bot. Neerl. 21(1): 54-66. 

Lanfranco, E. (1980). A survey of natural sites in Gozo and the updating of flora and 
fauna lists. Gozo Agricultural Study. Working Paper no. III/i. Unesco and 
University of Malta. (Not seen.) 

Lanfranco, E. (1981). Suggestions on the conservation of the unique flora associated 
with the Gozo Citadel. Soc. Stud. Cons. Nat. 3 pp. 

Lanfranco, E. (1982). Maltese succulents and conservation. Kakti u Sukkulenti Ohra 
24: 13-15. 


Mariana Islands 


14 islands to the north of Guam, in the Pacific Ocean, and extending in a 925 km arc 
between latitudes 12-23°N and longitudes 145-150°E. The northern islands are volcanic, 
some still active; Tinian (102 sq. km) and Rota (86 sq. km) in the south are raised limestone 
terraces overlying extinct volcanoes. The Marianas are part of the United Nations Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands administered by the United States, but currently form the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Ballendorf, 1984). 


Area 477 sq. km 
Population 16,780 (1980 census) 


Floristics No overall figure for the size of the flora, but 478 dicotyledon taxa, 
including introductions. Of the 221 native dicotyledons, 78 are endemic (Fosberg, Sachet 
and Oliver, 1979, cited in Appendix 1). The only native gymnosperm is Cycas circinalis, 
which is non-endemic. There are 64 native fern taxa, of which 3 are endemic (Fosberg, 
Sachet and Oliver, 1982, cited in Appendix 1). The flora is mostly related to that of S.E. 
Asia, Melanesia and New Guinea. 


Vegetation Pioneer stands of Casuarina, broadleaved evergreen thickets, mixed 
scrub forest, with some Miscanthus and Nephrolepis herbaceous communities on the 
northern islands. Broadleaved evergreen forest on old lava flows; Miscanthus and tree 
ferns on ash slopes of those northern islands with dormant volcanoes (Douglas, 1969, cited 
in Appendix 1). Tinian has mostly secondary forests; Rota has some closed evergreen and 
limestone forests (Fosberg, 1973, cited in Appendix 1). Small areas of cloud forest occur 
on the volcanic islands of Saipan, Agrihan, Alamagan and Anatahan (Dahl, 1980, cited 
in Appendix 1). The lower slopes on many islands have been cleared for cultivation. 


Checklists and Floras The Marianas are included in Flora Micronesica (Kanehira, 
1933), the regional checklists of Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver (1979, 1982), cited in 
Appendix 1, and will be covered by the Flora of Micronesia (1975- ), cited in Appendix 1. 
Separate lists include: 


233 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Fosberg, F.R., Falanruw, M.V.C. and Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Vascular flora of the 
Northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22. 45 pp. (Annotated 
checklist with geographical and ecological data.) 

Fosberg, F.R., Falanruw, M.V.C. and Sachet, M.-H. (1977). Additional records of 
vascular plants from the Northern Mariana Islands. Micronesica 13(1): 27-31. 


Information on Threatened Plants Heritiera longipetiolata and Serianthes 
nelsonii are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). 


Additional References 
Ballendorf, D.A. (1984). American social, political and economic interests in 
Micronesia. Ambio 13(5-6): 294-295. 


Marion and Prince Edward 
Islands 


The volcanic islands of Marion and Prince Edward in the Southern Ocean are 22 km apart; 
the nearest continent is Africa 1800 km NNW. Marion Island (46°55’S, 37°45’E) has a 
central highland plateau rising to over 1200 m, the top of which is permanently covered 
with ice. The area of Marion is 300 sq. km; that of Prince Edward is 90 sq. km. There is a 
permanently manned weather and scientific station on Marion, with up to 12 persons. In 
1948 South Africa proclaimed sovereignty of the islands. 


Marion has 22 native and 13 introduced vascular species; Prince Edward has 21 native and 
1 introduced vascular species. One endemic (Elaphoglossum randii). (Gremmen, 1982). 
Cryptogams show quite a high degree of endemism. There are no trees or shrubs. The 
vegetation of the coastal areas consists of herbaceous communities dominated by salt- 
resistant species. Otherwise the islands are mostly covered by various sorts of tundra-type 
mire in which the important peat-forming plants are bryophytes, closed communities of 
tussock-forming grasses, cushion-forming flowering plants, and communities with large- 
leaved perennial species. 


References 

Greene, S.W. and Walton, D.W.H. (1975). An annotated check list of the sub-antarctic 
and antarctic vascular flora. Polar Record 17(110): 473-484. 

Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The Vegetation of the Subantarctic Islands Marion and 
Prince Edward. (Geobotany 3.) Junk, The Hague. 149 pp. (With tables of the 
indigenous vascular plants and their distributions.) 

van Zinderen Bakker Sr, E.M., Winterbottom, J.M. and Dyer, R.A. (Eds) (1971). 
Marion and Prince Edward Islands: Report on the South African Biological and 
Geographical Expedition, 1965-1966. Balkema, Cape Town. 427 pp. (Includes 
numerous papers on the islands; see especially that of B.J. Huntley, pp. 98-160, on 
the vegetation.) 


234 


Marquesas Islands 


The Marquesas are an isolated group of 14 volcanic islands in the central Pacific Ocean, 
between latitudes 7°50’ and 10°35’S, and longitudes 138°25’ and 140°50’W. Their nearest 
neighbours are the atolls of the Tuamotu Archipelago, 483 km to the south. Apart from 
Ua Pu, each island appears to consist of half an original volcanic peak. The highest point 
is 1260 m, on Hiva Oa. The Marquesas form an administrative division of French 
Polynesia. 


Area 1275 sq. km 


Population 800, most on Tahuata and Fatu Hiva (Douglas, 1969, cited in 
Appendix 1). 


Floristics 76 ferns and 171 native angiosperm taxa (Flora of Southeastern 
Polynesia, 1931-1935, cited in Appendix 1); 103 endemic vascular plant taxa (IUCN 
figures). 24 species are found only on Nuku Hiva, 13 are confined to Hiva Oa, 6 to Fatu 
Hiva, 5 to Ua Pu, 2 to Eiao, and one confined to each of Ua Huka and Mohotani 
(Melville, 1970). Lebronnecia and Cyrtandroidea are monotypic endemic genera. 


Vegetation The natural vegetation included upland rain forest, with 
Metrosideros, Weinmannia and tree ferns, above 600 m, in northern and western Nuku 
Hiva, Fatu Hiva, Ua Huku and Ua Pu, and above 1000 m on Hiva Oa; dry forest, with 
Hibiscus, Pandanus, Thespesia and Cordia, on the lower slopes below the cloud line, and 
originally covering most of Eiao and Fatu Huku (Melville, 1970); and intermediate or 
‘mesophytic’ forest, with Hibiscus, Piper and Cordyline, on the plateaux to the west and 
east of Mt Ootua on Hiva Oa, and over most of central Nuku Hiva (Adamson, 1936). 
Eragrostis grassland and xerophytic scrub is still found on the lower, more arid islands 
such as Hatutu. 


All the islands have been devastated by overgrazing by feral and domestic animals. Much 
of the original dry forest on the lower slopes below 1000 m, has been totally destroyed, or 
reduced to Gleichenia and tussock grassland, and on some islands, such as Eiac, the drier 
parts of Nuku Hiva, and in north-west Ua Pu, there is no vegetation left at all (Melville, 
1970, 1979; Schafer, 1977). Feral cattle have caused extensive damage to upland rain 
forests on the larger islands (Melville, 1970).— 


Checklists and Floras The only complete account is the Flora of Southeastern 
Polynesia (Brown and Brown, 1931-1935), cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Flora of the Marquesas, 1: Ericaceae-Convolvulaceae. 
Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 23. 34 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants Lebronnecia kokioides and Pelagodoxa 
henryana are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics: 
endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:17, V:13, R:7, 1:21, K:40, nt:4. 


Additional References 

Adamson, A.M. (1936). Marquesan insects: environment. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 
139. 73 pp. (Includes description of vegetation.) 

Gillett, G.W. Report on botanical research in the Marquesas Islands (1970). Bull. Soc. 
Etud. Océanien. (Not seen.) 

Hallé, F. Arbres et foréts de Iles Marquises. Cah. Pacifigq. 27. (Not seen.) 

Melville, R. (1970). The endemic plants of the Marquesas Islands and their 
conservation status. (Unpublished Red Data Bulletin material.) 


235 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Melville, R. (1979). Endangered island floras. In Bramwell, D. (Ed.), Plants and 
Islands. Academic Press, London. Pp. 361-377. 

Sachet, M.H., Schafer, P.A. and Thibault, J.C. (1975). Mohotani: une ile protégée aux 
Marquises. Bull. Soc. Etudes Océanien 16(6): 557-568. 

Salvat, B. (1974). Mesures en faveur de la Protection de la Iles Marquises. Unpublished 
report. (Not seen.) 

Schafer, P.A. (1977). La Vegetation et L’Influence Humaine aux Iles Marquises. 
Academie de Montpellier, Languedoc. 31 pp. 


Marshall Islands 


The Marshall Islands are the easternmost island group of Micronesia in the western Pacific 
Ocean, between latitudes 8-12°N and longitudes 162-172°E. There are two island chains: 
the Ralik Chain (18 atolls) and the Ratak Chain (15 atolls). They form a district of the 
United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands administered by the United States. 
All the atolls are low with numerous islets, some of which enclose a central lagoon. The 
largest island is Kwajalein (16 sq. km) with 92 islets. 


Area 181 sq. km 
Population 30,873 


Floristics No overall figure for size of flora, but 293 dicotyledon taxa, of which 
88 are native (Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1979, cited in Appendix 1); one native cycad 
(Cycas circinalis) and 10 native fern taxa (Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1982, cited in 
Appendix 1). Most of the atolls are species-poor, the majority of plants having a 
widespread distribution throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. No endemic ferns or 
gymnosperms; 4 endemic Pandanus spp. (St John, 1960). Pokak, in the Ratak Chain, has 
an endemic grass (Lepturus gassaparicensis) (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 


Vegetation Small remnants of atoll/beach forest (mostly comprising pan-Pacific 
species such as Pisonia grandis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Pandanus tectorius and Scaevola 
spp.) on some northern atolls (e.g. Wotho, Ujae and some of the islets of Kwajalein); 
small areas of mangrove forest on Jaluit, Ailinglapalap and Mejit (Dahl, 1980, cited in 
Appendix 1). All the Marshall Islands have been greatly modified; most atolls have 
coconut and breadfruit plantations and some islands have been drastically damaged by the 
testing of atomic weapons. For an account of the condition and status of the forests see 
Fosberg (1973), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras The Marshall Islands are included in Flora Micronesica 
(Kanehira, 1933), the regional checklists of Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver (1979, 1982), and 
will be covered by the Flora of Micronesia (1975- ), all cited in Appendix 1. Separate lists 
for individual islands include: 


Fosberg, F.R. (1955). Northern Marshalls expedition 1951-1952: land biota; vascular 
plants. Atoll Res. Bull. 39. 22 pp. (Annotated list; notes on habitats, distribution. 
For additions see ibid., 68. 9 pp., 1959.) 

Fosberg, F.R. (1956). Military Geography of the Northern Marshalls. U.S. Army 
Engineers and U.S. Geological Survey. 320 pp. (Describes 21 atolls, notes on 
vegetation, lists about 150 species on 13 atolls.) 


236 


Marshall Islands 


Fosberg, F.R. and Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Vascular plants recorded from Jaluit Atoll. 
Atoll Res. Bull. 92. 39 pp. 

Hatheway, W.H. (1953). The land vegetation of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. 
Scientific investigations in Micronesia. Atoll Res. Bull. 16. 68 pp. (Arno has c. 125 
species of which 44 are native; all are wide-ranging species of the Pacific and Indian 
Oceans.) 

Koidzumi, G. (1915). The vegetation of Jaluit Island. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 29: 242-252. 
(59 species listed; 40 indigenous, all of widespread distribution.) 

Okabe, M. (1941). An enumeration of the plants collected in Marshall Islands. J. Jap. 
Forestry Soc. 23: 261-272. 

St John, H. (1951). Plant records from Aur Atoll and Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, 
Micronesia. Pacific Plant Studies 9. Pacific Science 5: 279-286. (Annotated list of 78 
vascular plant taxa collected on the atolls, 43 indigenous.) 

St John, H. (1960). Flora of Eniwetok Atoll. Pacific Science 14: 313-336. (95 taxa 
recorded; 42 indigenous, 4 endemic pandans; includes keys and brief descriptions.) 

Taylor, W.R. (1950). Plants of Bikini and Other Northern Marshall Islands. Ann 
Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press. 227 pp. (Results of investigations carried out 
before the testing of atomic weapons.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Mauritania 


Area 1,030,700 sq. km 
Population 1,832,000 


Floristics 1100 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1). Levels of 
endemism not known, but probably low. Floristic affinities Saharan and Sahelian. 


Vegetation Mostly desert and semi-desert, with little or no perennial vegetation. 
As rainfall increases further south, semi-desert grassland grades into rather low wooded 
grassland with Acacia tortilis, increasing in density and height, reaching 8 m or so high in 
the extreme south. \ 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Mauritania is included in Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), 
and in the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980). The tropical, southern part of Mauritania is included in 
the Flora of West Tropical Africa. These are all cited in Appendix 1. 


Adam, J.G. (1962). Itinéraires botaniques en Afrique occidentale; flore et végétation 
d’hiver de la Mauritanie Occidentale. Les paturages. Inventaire des plantes signalées 
en Mauritanie. J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 9: 85-200, 297-416. Also reprinted 
separately by Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, according to Frodin. 
(With 18 plates of black and white photographs.) 

Monod, T. (1939). Phanérogams. In Contributions a l’Etude du Sahara Occidental, 
vol. 2: 55-211. Larose, Paris. (Publications du Comité d’Etudes Historiques et 
Scientifiques de l’Afrique Occidentale Francaise, Sér. B, No. 5, according to 
Frodin.) 


237 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of only 7 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
including R:3. 


Additional References 

Adam, J.G. (1968). La Mauritanie. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 49-51. 

Audry, P. and Rossetti, C. (1962). Observations sur les Sols et la Végétation en 
Mauritanie de Sud-Est et sur la Bordure Adjacente du Mali (1959 et 1961). Projet 
Pélerin, Rapp. No. UNSF/DL/ES/3, FAO, Rome. 267 pp. (With 24 black and 
white photographs.) 

Monod, T. (1938). Notes botaniques sur le Sahara occidental et ses confins sahéliens. 
Mém. Soc. Biogéogr. 6: 351-374. 

Monod, T. (1952). Contribution a |’étude du peuplement de la Mauritanie. Notes 
botaniques sur |’Adrar (Sahara Occidental). Bull. IFAN 14: 405-449; 16A: 1-48. 

Murat, M. (1944). Esquisse phytogéographique du Sahara occidental. Remarques et 
Commentaires par T. Monod, C. Rungs et C. Sauvage. Mém. Off. Nat. Anti-acrid. 
1: 1-31. 

Naegélé, A. (1958-1960). Contributions a |’étude de la flore et des groupements 
végétaux de la Mauritanie. Bull. IFAN 20A: 293-305, 876-908; 21A: 1195-1204; 22A: 
1231-1247. (Most of these have several black and white photographs.) 

Roberty, G. (1958). Végétation de la guelta de Soungount (Mauritanie méridionale) en 
mars 1955. Bull IFAN 20A: 869-875. 

Rossetti, C. (1963). Observations sur la Végétation: Conclusions sur les Travaux 
Entrepris en 1959 et 1961. Projet Pélerin, Rapp. No. UNSF/DL/ES/5, FAO, Rome. 
71 pp. 


Mauritius 


The volcanic island of Mauritius, part of the Mascarenes group, lies some 840 km east of 
Madagascar. It has very varied topography, with ranges of peaks, plateaux and low-lying 
plains. The highest point is Piton de la Petite Riviére Noire, at 828 m, near the south-west 
coast. Round Island is a small island of 1.6 sq. km 24 km north-east of Mauritius. 


Area 1865 sq. km 
Population 1,031,000 (including Rodrigues, g.v., and other dependencies) 


Floristics 800-900 species (W. Strahm, 1984, in lJitt.), including 186 ferns 
(Lorence, 1978); roughly a third of species endemic; eight endemic genera. Baker (1877, 
cited in Appendix 1) gives 869 ‘wild’ vascular species. 


46 species of ferns and flowering plants recorded from Round Island. 70 species of ferns, 
fern allies and flowering plants recorded from Gunner’s Quoin, 28 of which also occur on 
Round Island; 20 indigenous species and eight species endemic to the Mascarenes. (Bullock 
et al., 1984.) 


Floristically each island of the Mascarenes is related primarily to the others, but 
relationships also exist with Madagascar (Melville, 1970, cited in Appendix 1), and, 
somewhat remotely, with Malesia, India and Sri Lanka (M.J.E. Coode, 1984, pers. 
comm.). 


238 


Mauritius 


Vegetation Most of the island used to be covered with dense tropical evergreen 
forest, with heath and dwarf forest at higher altitudes and palm savannas in the dry eastern 
regions (Procter and Salm, 1975; Vaughan and Wiehe, 1937). Mauritius is now almost 
totally devoid of indigenous vegetation. The best examples remaining are the patches of 
upland forest around the Black River Gorges in the south-west. 


More than 60% of the area of the island is under sugar cultivation, and tea and other 
vegetables are also important. An additional cause of destruction of the indigenous 
vegetation has been the super-abundance of exotic plants and animals introduced 
deliberately or by accident, which prevent natural regeneration of the native species. 


Round Island is now so badly degraded by introduced goats and rabbits that very little 
vegetation of any sort remains on the island. Goats have been exterminated, but rabbits 
continue to be a pest. 


Checklists and Floras Mauritius is included in the incomplete Flore des 
Mascareignes, and in the rather dated Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles (Baker, 1877), 
both cited in Appendix 1. 


Johnston, H.H. (1895). Additions to the Flora of Mauritius as recorded in Baker’s 
‘Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles’. Trans and Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 20: 
391-407. 


Field-guides 
Cadet, L.J.T. (1981). Fleurs et Plantes de la Réunion et de I’Ile Maurice. Editions du 
Pacifique, Tahiti. 131 pp. (Incomplete for indigenous flora.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Mauritius and Rodrigues, p. 103, by 
A.W. Owadally, contains 34 species: E:12, V:2, R:18, 1:2.) 


IUCN has records of 222 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic to Mauritius 
— Ex:19, E:65, V:35, R:39, 1:14, K:11, nt:39. Non-endemic taxa rare or threatened 
worldwide - Ex:1, E:8, V:15, R:9, I:3 (world categories). (Covers the 74 families in Flore 
des Mascareignes (out of 203 in total), and some others as well, including Rubiaceae and 
Myrtaceae.) 


A Red Data Book for Mauritius is being written by W. Strahm as part of the IUCN/ WWF 
Plants Programme (Project 3149). 


Four species which occur in Mauritius are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book 
(1978). 


Laws Protecting Plants The Forests and Reserves Act (1983) gives general 
protection to the island’s forest and reserves, and specific protection to all indigenous 
orchids and ferns, species of three genera, and to five additional species. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Mauritius Wildlife Conservation Society. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Gardens, Curepipe. (Belongs to Curepipe Municipality, but partly managed by 
the Forestry Service, address below.) 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Pamplemousses. (Mailing address: Chief Agricultural Officer, 
Reduit.) 


239 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Useful Addresses 
Curator, Herbarium, Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Reduit. 
CITES Management Authority: The Conservator of Forests, Forestry Service, 
Curepipe. 


Additional References 

Bullock, D., North, S. and Greig, S. (Eds) (1984). Round Island Expedition 1982: final 
report. Unpublished, but available from D. Bullock, Dept of Botany, St Andrews 
KY16 9AL, Scotland. 123 pp. (Includes annotated ckecklists of plants from Round 
Island and Gunner’s Quoin.) 

Cadet, L.J.T. (1984). Plantes Rares ou Remarquables des Mascareignes. Agence de 
Coopération Culturelle et Technique, 13 quai André-Citroén, 75015 Paris. 132 pp. 
(With 48 photographs.) 

Lorence, D. (1978). The pteridophytes of Mauritius (Indian Ocean): ecology and 
distribution. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 76: 207-247. 

Procter, J. and Salm, R. (1975). Conservation in Mauritius 1974. IUCN, Morges, 
Switzerland. (Cyclostyled.) 

Vaughan, R.E. and Wiehe, P.O. (1937). Studies on the vegetation of Mauritius, 1: A 
preliminary survey of the plant communities. J. Ecol. 25: 289-343. (With vegetation 
map, 20 plates of black and white photographs.) 

Vaughan, R.E. and Wiehe, P.O. (1941). Studies on the vegetation of Mauritius, 3: The 
structure and development of the upland climax forest. J. Ecol. 29: 127-160. (With 4 
black and white photographs.) 

Vaughan, R.E. (1968). Mauritius and Rodriguez. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 265-272. 

Vinson, J. (1964). Sur la disparition progressive de la flore et de la faune de I’Ile 
Ronde. Proc. Roy. Soc. Arts Sci. Mauritius 2: 247-261. 


Mexico 


Area 1,972,546 sq. km 
Population 77,040,000 


Floristics Due to its latitudinal and altitudinal range, Mexico contains a very 
diverse flora of an estimated 20,000 vascular plant species (Rzedowski, 1978, Lot and 
Toledo, 1980); 3376 endemic species (Toledo, 1984, pers. comm.); a meeting point of 
boreal and tropical floras. 


Vegetation Tropical and subtropical region (c. one third of Mexico, mainly on 
the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards south of the tropic of Cancer and east of the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec): Rain forests, the northernmost in the Americas, once formed a continuous 
corridor from Veracruz to Chiapas, covering 6% of Mexico; half of them now destroyed, 
the largest remaining being the 13,000 sq. km Lacandon Forest along the Guatemala 
border, now partly protected (Estrada and Coates-Estrada, 1983). Where rainfall is lower 
and the winter dry season more pronounced, the forest canopy is lower and the percentage 
of deciduous species increases sharply. Low deciduous forest (Selva Baja Caducifolia), 
with many broadleaved species to c. 15 m tall, occupies 16% of the area. 


240 


Mexico 


Temperate region (one third of Mexico), occupying the main cordilleras: The principal 
forest is of pines (Pinus spp.) and oaks (Quercus spp.) in varying proportions and with 
numerous constituent species. In the higher parts of the cordilleras, to 3300 m, forests of 
silver fir (Abies spp.). In all, these vegetation types occupy about 15% of Mexico. 


Semi-arid and arid zone, also about a third of Mexico, mainly in the north and centre 
(Sonoran and Chihuahuan desert regions and central altiplano): Mostly open shrubland 
(matorral), the principal variants dominated by (i) small-leaved shrubs, (ii) cacti, and (iii) 
xerophytic monocotyledons (Agave, Yucca, Dasylirion, Nolina spp., Bromeliaceae). 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 4700 sq. km/annum, out of 
a total of 265,700 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras The tropical part of Mexico, principally east of the Isthmus 
of Tehuantepec, is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, described in Appendix 1; 
the part south of the Tropic of Cancer by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). State and regional Floras are: 


Flora de Veracruz (1978- ). (Various authors). Instituto de Investigaciones sobre 
Recursos Bidticos (INIREB). 39 family fascicles so far. (The output of a substantial 
project to provide a database on Veracruz flora, described by Gdmez-Pompa et al., 
1984, cited under ‘Additional References’, below.) 

Flora of Chiapas (1981- ). (Various authors). Published by the California Academy of 
Sciences, two parts completed so far: 1 - introduction and descriptions of vegetation 
types and their endemics, by D.E. Breedlove (1981, 35 pp.); 2 - ferns, by A. Smith 
(609 species). (Breedlove, 1981, refers to 8200 vascular plant species recorded from 
Chiapas; ‘‘the number ... will probably climb to between 9000 and 10,000 by the 
time the entire Flora is published’’.) 

Flora Yucatanense project. Edited by V. Sosa, INIREB, Calle 43 No 506, Apdo Postal 
281, CP 97000, Mérida, Yucatan. (2100 species - Toledo, 1985, cited in Appendix 1, 
quoting Sosa, pers. comm.) 

Johnston, M.C., Henrickson, J. et al. (in press). Chihuahuan Desert Flora. Prepared at 
Dept of Botany, University of Texas at Austin, Texas, U.S.A. (About 3000 species 
of vascular plants, from southern New Mexico to San Luis Potosi.) 

McVaugh, R. (1974- ). Flora Novo-Galiciana. University of Michigan. 17 vols planned, 
by various authors. Gramineae (Vol. 14) published; Compositae (12) to be 
completed in late 1984, Orchidaceae (16) in 1985, Leguminosae (5) in 1986. (Covers 
Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Colima, and parts of Nayarit, Durango, 
Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Michoacan.) 

Martinez, M. and Matuda, E. (1953-1972). Flora del Estado de México. Many 
separates, reissued as 3 vols by Biblioteca Enciclopédica del Estado de México, 1979. 

Rzedowski, J. and Rzedowski, G.C. de (1979- ). Flora Fanerogdmica del Valle de 
México. Ed. Continental, México. Vol. 1 (introductory, gymnosperms, dicotyledons 
Saururaceae to Polygalaceae) published, Vol. 2 in press, Vol. 3 in prep. 

Sanchez Sanchez, O. (1968). La Flora de Valle de México. Herrero, México. 519 pp. 

Shreve, F. and Wiggins, I.L. (1964). Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert, 

2 vols. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford. 1740 pp. (Vegetation types and 
representative species, vegetation map.) 

Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Flora of Baja California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford. 

1025 pp. (2705 species with 686 endemic taxa.) 


See also: 


241 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Bravo-Hollis, H. (1978- ). Las Cactdceas de México, Ed. 2. Vol. 1. Univ. Nacional 
Autonoma de México. 743 pp. Vol. 2 in press. 

Cowan, C.P. (1983). Listados Floristicos de México. I. Flora de Tabasco. Instituto de 
Biologia, UNAM, México. (Checklist with cited specimens.) 

Gentry, H.S. (1942). Rio Mayo Plants: A Study of the Flora and Vegetation of the 
Valley of the Rio Mayo, Sonora. Carnegie Institution Publication 527, Washington, 
D.C. 328 pp. (Annotated list of 1276 species.) 

Gentry, H.S. (1982). Agaves of Continental North America. Univ. Arizona Press, 
Tucson, Arizona. 670 pp. 

Lundell, C.L. (1942). Flora of eastern Tabasco and adjacent Mexican areas. Contrib. 
Univ. Mich. Herb. 8: 1-74. (Annotated list of c. 700 species.) 

Martinez, M. (1963). Las Pindceas Mexicanas, 3rd Ed. Universidad Nacional 
Autonoma de México. 401 pp. 

Pennington, T.D. and Sarukhan, J. (1968). Los Arboles Tropicales de México. 
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, México and FAO, Rome. 413 pp. 

Sousa S., M. and Cabrera C., E.F. (1983). Listados Floristicos de México. II. Flora de 
Quintana Roo. Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, México. (Checklist with cited 
specimens.) 

Standley, P.C. (1920-1926). Trees and shrubs of Mexico. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 
23(1-5). 1721 pp. 

Standley, P.C. (1930). Flora of Yucatan. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 3(3): 
157-492. (Annotated list of 1263 plants.) 

Tellez V., O and Sousa S., M. (1982). Imagenes de la Flora Quintanarroense. Centro 
de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo, Puerto Morelo, Q.R. 

Williams, L.O. (1951). The Orchidaceae of Mexico. Ceiba 2(1): 1-321. (600 species.) 


Selected bibliographies: 


Jones, G.N. (1966). An Annotated Bibliography of Mexican Ferns. Univ. Illinois Press, 
Urbana. 297 pp. (1200 author entries.) 

Langman, I.K. (1964). A Selected Guide to the Literature of the Flowering Plants of 
Mexico. Univ. Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1015 pp. 


The National Council of the Flora of Mexico, which includes about 40 institutions, is 
promoting and co-ordinating a catalogue of Mexican plants (Flora de México Project). 


Field-guides 

Clark, P. (1972). A Flower Lover’s Guide to Mexico. Minutiae Mexicana, México: 
128 pp. (Guide to common species.) 

Coyle, J. and Roberts, N.C. (1975). A Field Guide to the Common and Interesting 
Plants of Baja California. Natural History Publishing Co., La Jolla, Calif. 206 pp. 
(259 plants, endemics indicated.) 

Tellez Valdes, O. and Sousa Sanchez, M. (1982). Imagenes de la flora Quintanarroense. 
Puerto Morelos, Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo, A.C. (116 of known 
1300 species described, illus.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. The 
most comprehensive list published so far is that of Vovides (1981), see below. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The list of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa - Ex:8, E:72, V:176, R:320, 1:66, K:2084, nt:732; non-endemics rare 
or threatened worldwide - E:3, V:22, R:36, I:4 (world categories). 


Threatened plants are mentioned in several papers in: 


242 


Mexico 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular J.T. 
Mickel on rare and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore on endangerment 
in palms (pp. 267-282), P. Ravenna on endangered bulbous plants (pp. 257-266), 
and A.P. Vovides and A. Gdmez-Pompa (cited below). 


Other relevant publications: 


Anon (1979). Especies en peligro de extincién. Macpalxochitl, Bol. Bimestral de Soc. 
Bot. México 79: 3-4. (24 taxa listed.) 

Howard, T.M. (1981). Current status of some endangered Mexican Hymenocallis 
species. Pl. Life 37(1-4): 157-158. 

Hunt, D.R. (1982). The conservation status of Mexican Mammillarias: a preliminary 
assessment. Cact. Succ. J. Great Britain 44(4): 87-88. (IUCN categories assigned to 
each of 233 taxa.) 

Perez D., J.F. (1982). Especies amenazadas y en peligro de extincién de la peninsula de 
Baja California. Publ. Espec. Inst. Nacion. Invest. Forest. México 37: 62-67. 

Pina, I. (1980). Rare and threatened Agavaceae and Cactaceae of Mexico. Sociedad 
Mexicana Cactologia. (Unpublished.) 

Rzedowski, J. (1979a). Extincién de especies vegetales. In Rzedowski, J. and G. (Eds), 
Flora Fanerogamica del Valle de México: Vol. 1. Cited under Checklists and Floras, 
above. Pp. 42-45. 

Rzedowski, J. (1979b). Deterioro de la Flora. Memorias sobre Problemas Ambientales 
en Mexico. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela de Ciencias Biolégicas. 

Pp. 51-57. 

Toledo, V.M. (1985). Criterios fitogeograficos para la conservacion de la flora de 
México. In Gomez, L.D. (Ed.), Memorias del Simposio de Biogeografia de 
Mesoamerica. In press. 

Vovides, A.P. (1981). Lista preliminar de plantas Mexicanas raras o en peligro de 
extinciOn. Bidtico 6(2): 219-228. (Preliminary list of 210 rare, threatened and 
endangered species.) 

Vovides, A.P. and Gomez-Pompa, A. (1977). The problems of threatened and 
endangered plant species of Mexico. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), 
cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 77-88. 


Laws Protecting Plants No information. The U.S. Government has determined 
Abies guatemalensis (Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras) as ‘Threatened’ 
under the U.S. Endangered Species ahi 


Voluntary Organizations 
Asociacién Mexicana de Orquideologia A.C., Apdo Postal 53-123, 11320 México 17, 
D.F. 
Pronatura A.C., Apdo Postal 20-768, Del. Alvaro Obregén, 01000 México, D.F. 
Sociedad Botanica de México, Apto Postal 70-385, México 200, D.F. 
Sociedad Mexicana de Cactologia A.C., 2a Juarez 42, Col. San Alvaro, Deleg. 
Azcapotzalco, 02090 México, D.F. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico, Centro de Investigacién Cientifico de Yucatan, Mérida, Yucatan. 
Jardin Botanico, Centro de Investigaciénes de Quintana Roo, 77500 Puerto Morales, 
Quintana Roo. 
Jardin Botanico, Escuela Nacional de Ensefiaza Profesional, Universidad Nacional 
Autonoma de México, Ixtapalapa. 


243 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Jardin Botanico, La Estacion de Biologia Tropical ‘‘Los Tuxtlas’’, Instituto de 
Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Municipio de San Andres 
Tuxtla, Catemaco, Veracruz. 

Jardin Botanico ‘‘Francisco J. Clavijero’’, INIREB, Km 2.5 Antigua Carretera A. 
Coatepec, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz. 

Jardin Botanico, INIREB, Km 7, Camino San Cristobal de Las Casas a Comitan, San 
Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas. 

Jardin Botanico, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. 

Jardin Botanico, Universidad Auténoma Agraria ‘‘Antonio Narro’’, Buenavista, 
Saltillo, Coahuila. 

Jardin Botanico, Departamento de Difusion y Ensefianza, Universidad Nacional 
Auténoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Deleg. Coycoacan, 04510 México, D.F. 

Jardin Botanico Medicinal, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Histéria, Matamoros 
200, Colonia Acapanzingo, Cuernavaca, Morelos. 


A Union of Mexican Botanical Gardens has recently been formed. 
Index of threatened plants in cultivation: 


Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1985). The Botanic 
Gardens List of Rare and Threatened Species of Mexican Cacti. Botanic Gardens 
Conservation Co-ordinating Body, Report No. 13. IUCN, Kew. 25 pp. (Lists all 
but 20 of 301 rare, threatened and insufficiently known taxa reported in cultivation, 
with gardens listed against each.) 


Useful Addresses 
Direccién General de Flora y Fauna Silvestres, Netzahuackoyotl No. 109, 1° Piso, 
Deleg. Cuauhtemoc, 06080 México, D.F. 
Herbario Nacional de México, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM), 
Apdo Postal 70-367, México 20, D.F. 
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bidticos (INIREB), P.O. Box 63, 
Xalapa, Veracruz. 


Additional References 

Avila, J.A.R., Calderon, G. and Chapa, H. (1961). Los recursos naturales de México; 
estado actual de las investigaciones de hidrologia y pesca. Instituto Mexicana de 
Recursos Naturales Renovables. 421 pp. 

Estrada, A. and Coates-Estrada, R. (1983). Rain forest in Mexico: research and 
conservation at Los Tuxtlas. Oryx 17: 201-204. 

Flores Mata, G. et al. (1971). Mapa de Tipos de Vegetacion de la Republica Méxicana. 
Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos, México. Map (1:2,000,000), with explanatory 
text. 

Gomez-Pompa, A. (1973). Ecology of the vegetation of Veracruz. In Graham, A. (Ed.) 
(1973), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 73-148. 

Gomez-Pompa, A., Moreno, N.P., Gama, L., Sosa, V. and Allkin, R. (1984). Flora of 
Veracruz: Progress and prospects. In Allkin, R. and Bisby, F.A. (Eds), Databases in 
Systematics. Academic Press, London. Pp. 165-174. (Systematics Assoc. Special 
Vol. No. 26.) 

Hagsater, E. (1976). Orchids and conservation in Mexico. Orchid Review 84: 39-42. 

Lot, A. and Toledo, V.M. (1980). Hacia una Flora de México: vamos por buen 
camino. Macpalxochitl 88/89: 1-31. 


244 


Mexico 


McCullough, R. (1981). Mexico and its orchids. In Stewart, J. and van der Merwe, 
C.N. (Eds), Proceedings of the 10th World Orchid Conference. South African 
Orchid Council, Johannesburg. Pp. 111-114. 

Miranda, F. and Hernandez, E. (1963). Los tipos de vegetacidn de México y su 
clasificacién. Bol. Soc. Bot. Méx. 28: 29-179. 

Pesman, M.W. (1962). Meet Flora Mexicana. Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona. 
278 pp. (2nd Ed. by R. Bye and E. Linares Mazari in press.) 

Rzedowski, J. (1966). Vegetacién de Estado de San Luts Potosi. Universidad 
Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, México. 291 pp. (Vegetation zones and 
representative species.) 

Rzedowski, J. (1978). Vegetaciédn de México. Editorial Limusa, México. 432 pp. 


Midway Islands 


Midway (5 sq. km), an unincorporated territory of the United States, lies 1850 km north- 
west of the Hawaiian Islands, in the central Pacific Ocean, at latitude 28°12’N, longitude 
177°24’W. It is an atoll with 2 islets, Eastern Island (135 ha) and Sand Island (384 ha) 
surrounding a lagoon. The population is over 2220 (1970). The vegetation includes 
extensive Casuarina plantations, Scaevola and Boerhavia scrub. 90 vascular plant species, 
most of which have been recently introduced (Neff and DuMont, 1955). Military activity 
and the construction of air and submarine bases has greatly modified the vegetation. 


References 
Neff, J.A. and DuMont, P.A. (1955). A partial list of the plants of the Midway 
Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 45. 11 pp. 


Minami-Tori-Shima 


Minami-Tori-Shima (Marcus Island) is a raised coral atoll with a fringing reef, of area 
300 ha, situated 965 km east south-east of the Ogasawara Islands in the north-west Pacific 
at 24°14’N and 154°E. It is a Japanese dependency. Following extensive levelling, the 
highest point on the island is 7 m. The vegetation, which has been greatly modified by war 
damage and construction works, consists mainly of Tournefortia and Pisonia scrub. 
Papayas and bananas have been introduced (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 


The flora consists of widespread angiosperms, including 18 dicotyledon taxa, of which 9 
are indigenous (Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1979, cited in Appendix 1); 4 species of 
monocotyledons (Sakagami, 1961). There are no endemics. 


References 
Sakagami, S.F. (1961). An ecological perspective of Marcus Island, with special 
reference to land animals. Pacific Science 15: 82-104. (Includes plant list, notes on 
vegetation.) 


245 


Mongolia 


Area 1,565,000 sq. km 
Population 1,851,000 


Floristics 2272 vascular plant species; of these 229 endemic and a further 143 
species restricted to Mongolia and the adjacent territories of Inner Mongolia, Altai and 
Tuva in the U.S.S.R., and Dzungaria in China (V.I. Grubov, 1984, in litt.). 


Vegetation Almost 90% grassland, semi-desert and desert; c. 10% forested, 
mainly of larch, cedar and pine. In the south, the vast Gobi Desert covers c. 1,300,000 sq. 
km, and supports sparse scrub with Artemisia, Ephedra and Haloxylon; in the west, the 
vegetation cover is less than 5% and is mainly Nitraria scrub; on dunes above 10 m there is 
no plant life at all. The only natural forests of the Gobi are in the west, around Ala Shan, 
where Populus diversifolia and Tamarix spp. are found along river banks. Northern 
Mongolia has semi-deserts and grass steppes. 


Checklists and Floras 

Grubov, V.I. (1955). Konspeckt Flory Mongol’skoi Narodnoi Respubliki. Mongolian 
Commission. 307 pp. (Annotated checklist of 1875 species.) 

Grubov, V.I. (1972). Additions and corrections to the ‘‘Concised Flora of the 
Mongolian People’s Republic’. Novitates Syst. Plantarum Vascularium 9: 275-305. 
(Enumeration of 133 species described since Grubov, 1955.) 

Grubov, V.I. (1982). Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia (with an Atlas). Academy 
of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Leningrad. 441 pp. (In Russian.) 


Mongolia is also covered in Grubov (1963- ) and by the Flora of the Mongolian Steppe 
and Desert Areas (Norlindh, 1949), cited in full in Appendix 1. See also: 


Inner Mongolia Botanical Records Compiling Group (1977-1982). Flora 
Intramongolica, 6 vols. Typis Intramongolicae Popularis, Huhhot. (In Chinese.) 


Information on Threatened Plants IUCN has a preliminary list, compiled by V.I. 
Grubovy, which includes 11 threatened plants, of which one is endemic to Mongolia, and a 
further 10 species are also found in Inner Mongolia (China). 


Gubanov, I.A. (1982). Zametki o redkikh rasteniyakh Mongolii (Notices on rare plants 
of Mongolia). Byull. Most. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir. Biol. 87(\): 122-129. (In Russian.) 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanic Garden, The Academy of Sciences of the MPR Institute of Botany, Ulan 
Bator. 


Additional References 
Printz, H. (1921). The Vegetation of the Siberian-Mongolian Frontiers (The Sayansk 
Region). Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab. 458 pp. (Includes 
enumeration of plants in region.) 
Walker, E.H. (1941). Plants collected by R.C. Ching in southern Mongolia and Kansu 
Province, China. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 28(4): 563-675. 


246 


Montserrat 


Montserrat is a Dependent Territory of the United Kingdom, in the Leeward Islands of the 
Eastern Caribbean, 43.5 km north-west of Antigua. It is a small island of 104 sq. km and 
with a population of 13,000. It consists of a serrated range of volcanic peaks; the Soufriére 
is still active. It has among the best natural vegetation in the Leewards: high forest 
practically non-existent due to cultivation to near summits and hurricane activity but 
secondary rain forest to summit peaks; palm brake and elfin woodland along ridges; 
secondary thickets of young trees and dry scrub woodland below; north slopes of hills 
better wooded than south slopes due to favourable moist conditions; 40% forested 
according to FAO (1974, cited in Appendix 1). For botanical information, see the account 
for Antigua and Barbuda. 


R.A. Howard is preparing a checklist of the flora for Montserrat National Trust, 
Plymouth, Montserrat. 


Morocco 


Area 659,970 sq. km 
Population 22,848,000 


Floristics 3500 species (Le Houérou, 1975); 3600 species (Lebrun, 1976, cited in 
Appendix 1); 3700 species (Sauvage, 1975). 600-650 endemic species estimated, of which 
c. 170 are from the high Moroccan Atlas (Quézel, 1978, cited in Appendix 1); IUCN 
figures, from existing Floras, record 537 endemic taxa. 


Flora in north and centre of Morocco with Mediterranean affinities; Saharan flora along 
southern border; transition zone between the two. 


Vegetation Desert along southern border, with little or no perennial vegetation. 
Semi-desert and transition from Mediterranean scrubland to succulent semi-desert 
shrubland along west coast and in east-central part of country. Mediterranean 
sclerophyllous forest in band along north coast and at lower altitudes on the Atlas 
mountains. Mediterranean montane forest, altimontane shrubland and Cedrus forests on 
the Atlas mountains. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Morocco is included in the incomplete Flore de l’Afrique 
du Nord, the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980), Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and is being covered in 
Med-Checklist. These are all cited in Appendix 1. 


Jahandiez, E. and Maire, R. (1931-1941). Catalogue des Plantes du Maroc, 4 vols. 
Alger. (Annotated checklist; 4th vol. by M.L. Emberger and R. Maire. For 
additions see Sauvage, C. and Vindt, J. (1949-1956), 4 papers in Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 
Maroc 29: 131-162, 32: 27-51, 34: 217-234, 36: 185-222.) 

Négre, R. (1961, 1962). Petite Flore des Régions Arides du Maroc Occidental, 2 vols. 
CNRS, Paris. 413, 566 pp. (Covers only west-central Morocco; keys, descriptions, 
distributions, line drawings, and several colour photographs.) 


247 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Sauvage, C. (1961). Flore des subéraies marocaines: catalogue des cryptogames 
vasculaires et des phanérogames. Trav. Inst. Sci. Chérif., Sér. Bot. 22. 252 pp. 

Sauvage, C. and Vindt, J. (1952, 1954). Flore du Maroc, analytique, descriptive et 
illustrée. Trav. Inst. Sci. Chérif. 4 and Ibid., Sér. Bot. 3. (Incomplete, covering only 
Ericaceae to Boraginaceae.) 


Field-guides 
Emberger, L. (1938). Les Arbres du Maroc et Comment Les Reconnaitre. Larose, 
Paris. 317 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants Morocco is included in the draft list for North 
Africa and the Middle East produced by IUCN Threatened Plants Committee Secretariat 
(1980), cited in Appendix 1. 


Mathez, J., Quézel, P. and Raynard, C. (1985). The Maghrib countries. In Gémez- 
Campo, C. (Ed.), Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area. 

Sauvage, C. (1959). Au sujet de quelques plantes rares et menacées de la flore du 
Maroc. In Animaux et Végétaux Rares de la Région Méditerranéenne. Proceedings 
of the IUCN 7th Technical Meeting, 11-19 September 1958, Athens, vol. 5. IUCN, 
Brussels. Pp. 156-158. 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - E:1, V:3, R:162, 1:23, K:54, nt:294. Non-endemic 
taxa rare or threatened worldwide - V:2 (world category). 


Botanic Gardens 
Institut Scientifique Chérifien, Laboratoire de Phanérogamie, Avenue Moulay Chérif, 
Rabat. 
Jardins Exotiques de Rabat-Sale, km 13 Route No. 2 par Sale, Rabat. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Comité national de l’Environnement, Division de 
l’environnement, Direction de l’aménagement du territoire Ministére de |’habitat et 
de l’aménagement du territoire, B.P. 600, Rabat. 


Correspondence to: 


Administration des Eaux et Foréts et de la Conservation des Sols, Division de la 
Protection de la Nature, Ministére de |’Agriculture et de la Réforme Agraire, Rabat. 


Additional References 

Braun-Blanquet, J. and Maire, R. (1924). Etudes sur la végétation et la flore 
marocaines. Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 8(1). 244 pp. (20 black and white 
photographs.) 

Emberger, L. (1939). Apercu général sur la végétation du Maroc. In Riibel, E. and 
Liidi, W. (Eds), Ergebnisse der internationalen pflanzengeographischen Exkursion 
durch Marokko und Westalgerian 1936. Verdff. Geobot. Inst. Ziirich 14: 40-157. 
(With coloured vegetation map 1:1,500,000.) (Published also as an out-of-series 
number of Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc.) 

Froédin, J. (1923). Recherches sur la végétation du Haut Atlas. Lunds Univ. Arsskr., 
N.F., Avd. 2, 19(4): 1-24. 

Ionesco, T. and Sauvage, C. (1962). Les types de végétation du Maroc. Essai de 
nomenclature et de définition. Rev. Géogr. Maroc. 1-2: 75-83. 

Le Houérou, H.-N. (1975). Etude préliminaire sur la compatibilité des flores nord- 
africaine et palestinienne. In CNRS (1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 345-350. 


248 


Morocco 


Maire, R. (1924). Etudes sur la végétation et la flore du Grand Atlas et du Moyen 
Atlas marocains. Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 7. 220 pp. (32 black and white 
photographs.) 

Mathez, J. (1973). Nouveaux matériaux pour la Flore du Maroc. Fasc. 2. Contribution 
a l’étude de la flore de la région d’Ifni. Trav. RCP 249(1): 105-120. CNRS, Paris. 

Négre, R. (1959). Recherches phytogéographiques sur |’étage de végétation 
méditérranéen aride (sous-étage chaud) au Maroc occidental. Trav. Inst. Sci. 
Chérif., Sér. Bot. 13. 385 pp. (With coloured vegetation map 1:500,000; 16 black 
and white photographs.) 

Sauvage, C. (1975). L’état actuel de nos connaissances sur la flore du Maroc. In CNRS 
(1975), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 131-139. 


Mozambique 


Area 784,754 sq. km 
Population 13,693,000 


Floristics 5500 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1960, cited in Appendix 1). Brenan 
(1978, cited in Appendix 1) estimates 219 endemic species, from a sample of Flora 
Zambesiaca. Northern part of coast especially rich in local endemics because of extension 
of coastal mosaic south from Tanzania. 


Inland flora predominantly Zambezian, with Afromontane elements on high ground. The 
flora of a broad band along the coast is part of the so-called Zanzibar-Inhambane region, 
which extends from southern Mozambique to southern Somalia; it has substantial floristic 
affinities with the Guinea-Congolian region of central and western tropical Africa. 


Vegetation Predominantly dry Brachystegia-Julbernardia (Miombo) woodland, 
but wetter Miombo in the north and large areas of Colophospermum mopane (Mopane) 
woodland along the Zambezi and Limpopo valleys in the north-west and south. Also 
woodland without characteristic dominants in extreme south and in centre of country. 
Coastal strip occupied by East African coastal mosaic consisting of a rather dry woodland 
with abundant Adansonia, ae and Commiphora; also abundant mangrove forests. 
Montane communities confined to the border with eastern Zimbabwe. Estimated rate of 
deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 100 sq. km/annum out of 9350 sq. km 
(FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


For vegetation maps see Wild and Barbosa (1967, 1968), and White (1983), both cited in 
Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Mozambique is included in the incomplete Flora 
Zambesiaca, cited in Appendix 1. 


Fernandes, A. and Mendes, E.J. (Eds) (1969- ). Flora de Mocambique. Junta de 
Investigacdes Cientificas do Ultramar, Lisboa. (Incomplete: 64 families plus 
Pteridophytes published, c. 55% of it, so far.) 

Gomes e Sousa, A. (1966, 1967). Dendrologia de Mocambique, 2 vols. Instituto de 
Investigagao Agronémica de Mocambique. 822 pp. (Numerous black and white 
photographs and line drawings.) 


249 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants; IUCN has records of 195 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, 
including E:6, V:5, R:59, 1:15, nt:19. 


Botanic Gardens 
Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane/Biologia, C.P. 257, 
Maputo. 
Jardim Municipal, Camara Municipal, Lourenco Marques. 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority (Plants): Unidad de Direccao de Florestal, Maputo. 
CITES Scientific Authority (Plants): Instituto Nacional de Investigacéo Agronémica, 
P.O. Box 3656, Maputo. 


Additional References 

Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1968). Mocambique. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 224-232. 

Bruton, M.N. (1981). Major threat to the coastal dune forest in Maputoland. The 
Naturalist (South Africa) 25(1): 26-27. (Discusses invasion by Bardados Gooseberry.) 

Mendonca, F.A. (1952/1955). The vegetation of Mozambique. Lejeunia 16: 127-135. 

Pedro, J. Gomes and Barbosa, L.A. Grandvaux (1955). A vegetacao. In Esbo¢o do 
Reconhecimento Ecolégico-Agricola de Mocambique, Mems Trab. Cent. Invest. 
Cient. Algod. 23(2): 67-224. (With coloured vegetation map 1:2,000,000.) 

Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 


Namibia 


Area 824,293 sq. km 
Population 1,507,000 


Floristics 3159 species (Merxmiiller, 1966-1972). Unknown levels of endemism, 
but 11 taxa endemic to the Brandberg (Nordenstam, 1974). 


The flora of the north-eastern part bordering Angola has Zambezian affinities. The flora 
of the Namib desert along the coast is related to the flora of the Karoo further south. Most 
of the centre of the country has a flora transitional between the two, the so-called 
Kalahari-Highveld transition zone, with affinities with the Kalahari flora. 


Vegetation Vegetation predominantly of a dry type. Rainfall decreases from the 
north-east to the coastal Namib desert and to the south. In the north-east corner mosaic of 
dry deciduous forest (rich in species) and transition from woodland without characteristic © 
dominants to Acacia deciduous bushland and wooded grassland. Large areas of Kalahari 
Acacia wooded grassland and deciduous bushland, sand dunes with sparse grass- 
land/wooded grassland, Colophospermum mopane woodland, scrub woodland (including 
the swampy Etosha pan), and shrubland. Parallel with the coast: band of bushy shrubland 
and, along the coast, the Namib desert. This is almost devoid of vegetation, but includes 
the desert gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), and for vegetation map of Caprivi Strip only see 
Wild and Barbosa (1967, 1968). Both are cited in Appendix 1. 


250 


Namibia 


Checklists and Floras Namibia is included in the incomplete Flora of Southern 
Africa, and in The Genera of Southern African Flowering Plants (Dyer, 1975, 1976), both 
cited in Appendix 1. The Caprivi Strip is included in Flora Zambesiaca, cited in Appendix 
1. See also: 


Merxmiiller, H. (1966-1972). Prodromus einer Flora von Stidwest-afrika, 35 fasc. 
Cramer, Lehre. (Keys, descriptions, distributions, specimens. For additions see 
Roessler, H. and Merxmiiller, H. (1976). Nachtrage zum Prodromus einer Flora von 
Siidwestafrika. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. Miinchen 12: 361-373.) 

Nordenstam, B. (1970). Notes on the flora and vegetation of Etosha Pan, South West 
Africa. Dinteria 5: 3-18. (Includes list of 134 species.) 

Nordenstam, B. (1974). The flora of the Brandberg. Dinteria 11: 3-67. (Annotated 
checklist of 337 species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Hall, A.V. et al. (1980), cited in Appendix 1. (List for Namibia, p. 78, contains 12 
endemic: R:4, I:3, K:5 and 44 non-endemic: V:2 (regional category), R:17, 1:3, K:22 
species and infraspecific taxa.) 


IUCN has records of 31 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; most are 
succulents. (R:4, 1:4, K:23.) 


Laws Protecting Plants 49 taxa (mostly whole genera but including all orchids) 
are specifically protected under Ordinance No. 4 of 1975 (Nature Conservation 
Ordinance). This also prohibits the picking of any indigenous plant without written 
permission from the owner of the land. 


Useful Addresses 
Dept of Agriculture and Nature Conservation, Private Bag x13306, Windhoek 9000. 


Additional References 

Giess, W. (1962). Some notes on the vegetation of the Namib Desert. Cimbebasia 2: 
1-35. (Includes annotated list of plants; black and white photographs throughout.) 

Giess, W. (1971). A preliminary vegetation map of South West Africa. Dinteria 4: 
5-114. (Includes 70 black and white photographs and coloured vegetation map 
1:3,000,000.) 

Giess, W. and Tinley, K.L. (1968). South West Africa. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), 
cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 250-253. 

Werger, M.J.A. (1978), cited in Appendix 1. Citation includes list of relevant chapters. 


Nauru 


A raised limestone island of 20.7 sq. km in the west-central Pacific Ocean at 0°31’S, 
160°56’E. Population 8000. The highest point is 71 m surrounded by a terrace and fringing 
reef. Vegetation of mixed plateau forest, dominated by Calophyllum; a few remaining 
areas of atoll forest, with Pandanus and Cocos (Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1). 
About two-thirds of the island has been mined for phosphates. 


4 native fern species, no gymnosperms (Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1982, cited in 
Appendix 1); no figure for monocotyledons but 87 dicotyledon taxa, of which 35 native 


251 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


(Fosberg, Sachet and Oliver, 1979, cited in Appendix 1). One endemic, an undescribed 
Phyllanthus. 


Nauru will be covered by the Flora of Micronesia (1975- ), cited in Appendix 1. 


Navassa Island 


A 3.5 sq. km islet, belonging to U.S.A., at 18°25’N, 75°00’W, 50 km west of the western 
extremity of Hispaniola in the West Indies. Uninhabited except for lighthouse staff and a 
large introduced population of goats; no streams or rivers. 


102 species of vascular plants, 44 possibly indigenous to the island and only 4 species of 
trees (Ekman, 1929). 


The island rises abruptly from the sea to a table-land. Towards the margin of the table- 
land forest of low stunted trees; in centre, grass savanna; on lower terraces, similar but 
more stunted savanna, with cacti and shrubs, usually less than 30 cm (Ekman, 1929). 


Ekman, E.L. (1929). Plants of Navassa Island, West Indies. Arkiv for Botanik 
22A(16): 1-12. Plates. 


Nepal 


Area 141,414 sq. km 
Population 16,107,000 


Floristics An estimated 6500 species of flowering plants of which c. 315 endemic; 
30 species of gymnosperms, and c. 450 species of ferns (Hara et al., 1978). Many endemics 
in Western Himalaya do not extend into the wetter Eastern Himalaya (Stainton, 1972). 
Sino-Japanese floristic elements in east and centre; western Himalayan and Mediterranean 
elements in west; central Asiatic elements north to Himalayan foothills; Indo-Gangetic 
elements in southern Himalayan foothills and in the plains (Terai). 


Vegetation Tropical moist deciduous or Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in northern 
Terai and valleys of Churia hills below 1000 m, little remaining; tropical evergreen rain 
forest along river valleys below 1000 m, the richest forests being those in the east; 
subtropical mixed broadleaved forest (1000-2000 m) with Schima-Castanopsis in east, dry 
oak forest in centre, and Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest in west; moist temperate 
broadleaved forest, with laurel, evergreen oak and rhododendron at 1500-3000 m, in east 
and centre; mixed coniferous forests on Churia hills, Mahabharat range (1000-1800 m) and 
southern Himalayas (above 2450 m). Subalpine forests occur around 3500 m; alpine scrub 
dominated by birch and rhododendron, and alpine meadows at 4000-4500 m; alpine 
steppes north of Dhaulagiri-Annapurna massif (Stainton, 1972). Estimated rate of 
deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 800 sq. km/annum out of a total of 16,100 sq. 
km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


252 


Nepal 


Checklists and Floras No modern Flora, but see the Flora of British India 
(Hooker, 1872-1897), cited in Appendix 1. For ferns see Beddome (1892) and, Nayar and 
Kaur (1972), cited in Appendix 1. Recent checklists of the flora are: 


Flora of Eastern Himalaya (1966-1975), 3 vols, by H. Hara (vols 1-2) and H. Ohashi 
(vol. 3), cited in full in Appendix 1. 

Hara, H. et al. (1978-1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal, 3 vols. 
British Museum (Natural History), London. (1 - gymnosperms, monocotyledons, 
including keys and notes on distribution; 2-3 - dicotyledons. Vols 1 and 2 by 
H. Hara, W.T. Stearn and L.H.J. Williams; vol. 3 by H. Hara, A.O. Chater and 
L.H.J. Williams.) 


Other relevant literature: 


Banerji, M.L. (1965). Contributions to the Flora of East Nepal. Rec. Bot. Survey India 
19(2). 90 pp. (Enumeration of 583 dicotyledons; introductory notes on vegetation.) 

Kitamura, S. (1955). Flowering plants and ferns. In Kihara, H. (Ed.), Fauna and Flora 
of Nepal Himalaya: Scientific Results of the Japanese Expeditions to Nepal 
Himalaya 1952-1953, 1. Fauna and Flora Research Society, Kyoto. Pp. 73-290. 
(Annotated checklist of 34 ferns, 14 gymnosperms and 910 angiosperms; notes on 
vegetation.) 

Malla, S.B., Shrestha, A.B., Rajbhandari, S.B., Shrestha, T.B., Adhikari, P.M. and 
Adhikari, S.R. (Eds) (1976). Flora of Langtang and Cross Section Vegetation Survey 
(Central Zone). Bull. Dept of Medicinal Plants no. 6, Kathmandu. 269 pp. 
(Enumeration of 911 vascular species; northern half of area covered by Langtang 
National Park; detailed analysis of vegetation types.) 


An earlier list, covering about half the flora is: 


Malla, S.B., Shrestha, A.B., Rajbhandari, S.B., Shrestha, T.B., Adhikari, P.M., and 
Adhikari, S.R. (1976). Catalogue of Nepalese Vascular Plants. Bull. Dept Medicinal 
Plants no. 7, Kathmandu. 211 pp. (Lists 308 ferns and fern allies, 24 gymnosperms 
and 3121 angiosperm species; based mainly on collections by the Dept of Medicinal 
Plants, address below.) 


Field-guides 
Polunin, O. and Stainton, J.D.A. (1984). Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University 
Press. 580 pp. ahi 
Storrs, A. and J. (1984). Discovering Trees in Nepal and the Himalayas. Sahayogi 
Press, Kathmandu. 366 pp. (Descriptions and photographs of nearly 200 species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Sahni, K.C. (1979). Endemic, relict, primitive and spectacular taxa in eastern 
Himalayan flora and strategies for their conservation. Indian J. Forestry 2(2): 
181-190. (Mentions 30 taxa rare or threatened in the Himalayan region, including 
Nepal; notes on vegetation.) 


IUCN/WWFE are sponsoring an inventory of endemic and threatened plants, to result ina 
Nepalese Plant Red Data Book, as part of their Plants Programme. 


Botanic Gardens 
Royal Botanical Garden, Department of Medicinal Plants, Ministry of Forests, 
Godawari, Lalitpur. 


253 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Useful Addresses 
Department of Medicinal Plants, Thapathali, Kamaladi, Kathmandu. 
Royal Nepal Academy, Kamaladi, Kathmandu. 
The King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation, P.O. Box 3712, National Parks 
Building, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu. 
CITES Management Authority: The Director General, Dept of Botany, Thapathali, 
Kathmandu. 


Additional References 

Dobremez, J.F. et al. (1969-1975). Cart Ecologique du Nepal. Documents de 
Cartographie Ecologique 15: 1-7. Grenoble. (Vegetation maps covering central and 
eastern Nepal, at 1:50,000 and 1:250,000.) 

Hara, H. (1968). Photo-Album of Plants of Eastern Himalaya. Inoue, Tokyo. 89 pp. 
(249 plates with notes on vegetation; in Japanese.) 

Khadka, R.B. (1983). Mountain flora and their conservation in Nepal. In Jain, S.K. 
and Mehra, K.L. (Eds), Conservation of Tropical Plant Resources. Botanical Survey 
of India, Howrah. Pp. 132-141. (Includes outline of vegetation and human impact 
on mountain flora.) 

Majupuria, T.C. (Ed.) (1984). Nepal - Nature’s Paradise (Insight into Diverse Facets of 
Topography, Flora and Ecology). White Lotus, Bangkok. 476 pp. (Chapters cover 
vegetation; checklists of ferns in Nepal; orchids of Kathmandu Valley; economic 
plants; man and the environment.) 

McNeely, J.A. (1985). Man and nature in the Himalaya: what can be done to ensure 
that both can prosper. 14 pp. (Paper presented to the International Workshop on 
the Management of National Parks and Protected Areas in the Hindukush, 
Himalaya. Kathmandu, Nepal, 6-11 May 1985.) 

Nakao, S. (1964). Living Himalayan Flowers. Mainichi Newspapers, Tokyo. 194 pp. 
(253 colour plates with chapters covering vegetation and major plant families; 
introduction to Himalayan plants by S. Kitamura.) 

Numata, M. (Ed.) (1983). Biota and Ecology of Eastern Nepal. Chiba University, 
Japan. (Includes plant lists.) 

Stainton, J.D.A. (1972). Forests of Nepal. Murray, London. 181 pp. 


For useful background to the Himalayas see Lall and Moddie (1981), cited in Appendix 1. 


A Prospectus for a National Conservation Strategy was prepared in 1983 by His Majesty’s 
Government of Nepal and IUCN as a first step toward the formulation of a complete 
National Conservation Strategy. 


Netherlands 


Area 41,160 sq. km 
Population 14,339,551 (1983 estimate) 


Floristics 1400-1600 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, cited 
in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 1436 native and naturalized species (Meijden et al., 
1983); no endemics. Floristic element: predominantly Atlantic, although the rocky terrain 
of the far south (Limburg district) supports an isolated central European flora. 


254 


Netherlands 


Vegetation Natural vegetation grossly modified by agriculture, forestry and 
urban development; c. 40% of land-surface is man-made, the result of reclamation from 
the sea. Despite the drainage of the large marsh and peat bog region (the Polders) in the 
west, a valuable wetland flora still remains in places. The original acid oak woodland of 
the higher parts of the east and south, and oak/beech woodland with birch, was cleared in 
the middle of the 19th century. Remaining areas of floristic interest: the Wadden Sea area, 
dunes along the North Sea, especially the Isle of Voorne, relict heathlands of the Veluwe 
and the Biesbos delta (J. Mennema, 1984, in Jitt.). 


Checklists and Floras Included in the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980) cited in Appendix 1. National Floras include: 


Heimans, E., Heinsius, H.W. and Thijsse, J.P. (1983). Geillustreerde Flora van 
Nederland, 22nd Ed. Versluys, Amsterdam. 1242 pp. (Line drawings.) 

Heukels, H. and Meijden, R. van der (Ed.) (1983). Flora van Nederland, 20th Ed. 
Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen. 583 pp. (Line drawings.) 

Weevers, T. et al. (Eds) (1948- ). Flora Neerlandica: Flora van Nederland. De 
Koninklijke Nederlands Botanische Vereeniging, Amsterdam. 9 parts to date. (Line 
drawings.) 


For a detailed checklist see: 


Meijden, R. van der, Arnolds, E.J.M., Adema, F., Weeda, E.J. and Plate, C.L. 
(1983). Standaardlijst van de Nederlandse Flora 1983. Rijksherbarium, Leiden. 


32 pp. 


The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS - address below) has a data-bank on plant 
distributions, using a 5 km square grid system (Anon, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 


Field-guides The popular field-guide in English by Fitter, Fitter and Blamey 
(1974), cited in Appendix 1, has been translated into Dutch and revised by H. Korthof and 
J. Mennema (1984) (Elseviers Nieuwe Bloemengids, Elsevier, Amsterdam). See also: 


Heukels, H. and Ooststroom, S.J. van (1968). Beknopte School-En Excursieflora voor 
Nederland, 12th Ed. by S.J. van Oostroom. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen. 425 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants A national plant Red Data Book is in 
preparation (J. Mennema, 1984, in litt.). The first 2 volumes of the plant atlas by 
Mennema ef al. (1980- ) are devoted to extinct, threatened and rare species: 


Mennema, J., Quené-Boterenbrood, A.J. and Plate, C.L. (Eds) (1980- ). Atlas van de 
Nederlandse Flora, 1 vol. so far, by Kosmos, Amsterdam. English edition by Junk, 
The Hague. 226 pp. 3 vols planned. (1 - Uitgestorven en zeer zeldzame planten 
(Extinct and very rare species); contains conservation data and maps for over 300 
vascular plant species (native and introduced); ecological and phytogeographical 
descriptions. 2 (in press) - zeldzame en vrij zeldzame planten (Rare and rather rare 
species); includes a chapter, by E.J. Weeda, about the changes in the occurrence of 
vascular plants in the Netherlands; Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht. 3 (in 
prep.) — Vrij algemene en algemene planten (Rather common and common species); 
a threatened plant list will be included in the introduction.) 


See also: 


Leeuwen, C.G. van and Westhoff, V. (1961). De nivellering van flora en vegetatie. 
Natura 58: 132-140. 


Z55 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Mennema, J. (1973). La régression des espéces végétales en Hollande, basée sur les 
premiers résultats de l’atlas de la flore néerlandaise en préparation. Rijksherbarium, 
Leiden. 9 pp. (Mimeo.) 

Mennema, J. (1975a). Threatened and protected plants in the Netherlands. Naturopa 
22: 10-13. 

Mennema, J. (1975b). Zeldzame planten tellen (Census of rare plants). Levende Nat. 
78(2): 29-31. 

Quené-Boterenbrood A.J. (1974). Een ‘tussenrapport’ over zeldzame Nederlandse 
plantesoorten (An interim report of rare Dutch plant species). Natuur en Landschap 
28: 297-308. 

Westhoff, V. (1956). De verarming van flora en vegetatie (The impoverishment of the 
flora and vegetation). In Gedenkboek 50 jaar Natuurmonumenten. Pp. 151-184. 
(Not seen.) 

Westhoff, V. (1976). Die Verarmung der Niederlandischen Gefasspflanzenflora in den 
letzten 50 Jahren und ihre Teilweise Erhaltung in Naturreservaten (The decline of 
the Dutch vascular plant flora during the past 50 years and the contribution of 
nature reserves to its conservation). Schr.-R. Vegetationskunde 10: 63-73. 

Westhoff, V. (1979). Bedrohung und Erhaltung seltener Pflanzengesellschaften in den 
Niederlanden. In Wilmans, O. and Tiixen, R. (Eds), Werden und Vergehen von 
Pflanzengesellschaften, Vaduz. Pp. 285-313. 

Westhoff, V. and Weeda, E.J. (1984). De achteruitgang van de Nederlandse flora sinds 
het begin van deze eeuw. (The decline of the Dutch flora since the beginning of the 
first century). Natuur en Milieu 8(8): 8-17. 

Wijnands, D.O. (1981). Bedreigde Nederlandse Waterplanten (Threatened Dutch water 
plants). Bull. Arbor. Waasland 4(1): 38-42. (English translation pp. 48-50; describes 
over 40 species.) 


See also a series of papers written by many authors (S.L. van Oostroom, J. Mennema and 
Th.J. Reichgelt et a/.) entitled ‘Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in Nederland’ (New 
discoveries of rare plants in the Netherlands) in Gorteria from 1964 onwards. 


Included in the European threatened plant list (Threatened Plants Unit, 1983, cited in 
Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this work: non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - V:5, R:1, I:1 (world categories). 


In 1982 IUCN, under contract to the EEC through the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council, 
prepared a report (unpublished), Threatened Plants, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Mammals (excluding Marine Species and Bats) of the European Economic Community, 
which included a data sheet on 1 Dutch plant, now extinct in the country. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Besluit of 6 August 1973 specifies 31 plant species 
and 5 genera as being absolutely protected. It is prohibited to uproot or take any part of 
these plants. In addition, it is forbidden to possess these plants, or to offer them for sale, 
unless they have originated from propagated stock in a nursery or garden. In some 
provinces and municipals there are local regulations forbidding the collection of certain 
plants, for example Eryngium maritimum. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Christian Youth Organization for Nature Study (ACJN), Driebergseweg 16, 3708 7B 
Zeist. 
Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereeniging (KNBV) (Royal Botanical Society of 
the Netherlands), Lange Nieuwstraat 106, 3512 PN Utrecht. 


256 


Netherlands 


Netherlands Youth Organization for Nature Study (NJN), Noordereinde 60, 1243 77 
’s-Graveland. 

Royal Naturalists’ Organization for the Netherlands (KNNV), Burg. Hoogenboomlaan 
24, 1718 B7 Hoogwoud. 

Vereniging tot behoud van Natuurmonumenten in Nederland (Society for Nature 
Preservation in the Netherlands), Schaep en Burgh, Noordereinde 60, 1243 JJ 
’s-Graveland. 

WWFE-Netherlands (Wereld Natuur Fonds), P.O. 7, 3700 AA Zeist. 


Botanic Gardens Numerous botanic gardens, as listed in Henderson (1983), cited 
in Appendix 1. Only subscribers to the Botanic Gardens Conservation Co-ordinating Body 
are listed below: 


Arboretum Trompenburg, Groene Wetering 46, 3062 PC Rotterdam. 

Botanical Gardens of the State University, Harvardlaan 2, Postbus 80-162, 3508 TC 
Utrecht. 

Botanische Tuinen en Belmonte Arboretum Wageningen, Generaal Foulkesweg 70, 6703 
BL Wageningen. 

Botanische Tuin I.V.N.-Elsloo, Op den Berg 7, Elsloo. 

Botanische Tuin ‘‘Jochum-Hof’’, Maashoek 2b, Steyl, Gem. Tegelen. 

Hortus Botanicus der Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED 
Nijmegen. 

Hortus Botanicus der Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Nonnensteeg 3, 2311 VJ Leiden. 

Hortus Botanicus Vrije Universiteit, Postbus 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam. 

University of Amsterdam Botanic Garden, Plantage Middenlaan 2, 1018 DD 
Amsterdam. 


Useful Addresses 

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Department of the Natural Environment, P.O. Box 
959, 2270 AZ Voorburg. 

Institute for the Investigation of the Vegetation in the Netherlands (IVON), 
Schelpenkade 6, 2313 ZT Leiden. 

Natuur en Milieu (Foundation for Nature Conservation and Environmental Protection), 
Donkerstraat 17, 3511 KB Leiden. 

Natuurbeschermingsraad (Nature Conservancy Council), Maliebaan 12, 3581 CN 
Utrecht. : 

Research Institute for Nature Management (RIN), Kasteel Broekhuizen, 3956 ZR 
Leersum. 

Rijksherbarium, Schelpenkade 6, 2313 ZT Leiden. 

Staatsbosbeheer (Government Nature Conservancy Service), P.O. 20020, 3505 CA 
Utrecht. 

CITES Management Authority: Hoofd van de Directie Natuur-en- 
Landschapsbescherming, Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij, Prins Clauslaan 6, 
P.O. 20401, 2500 EK ’s-Gravenhage. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Adviescommissie wet bedreigde uitheemse diersoorten, 
Prins Clauslaan 6, P.O. 20401, 2500 EK ’s-Gravenhage. 

TRAFFIC (Nederland), Muur 10, 1422 Uithoorn. 


Additional References 
Bakker, P.A. (1979). Vegetation science and nature conservation. In Werger, M.J.A. 
(Ed.), The Study of Vegetation. Junk, Den Haag. Pp. 249-288. (Historical and 
theoretical account of nature conservation; maps and diagrams.) 


257 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Donselaar, J. van (1970). De Nederlandse natuurbescherming gezien in internationaal 
verband-Botanie (Dutch nature conservation in the context of international botany). 
In J.C. van de Kramer et al., Het Veerstoorde Evenwicht. Oosthoek, Utrecht. Pp. 
231-244. (Describes important botanical areas in international context; in Dutch.) 

Leeuw, W.C. de (1935). The Netherlands as an Environment for Plant Life. E.J. Brill, 
Leiden. 19 pp. (Describes edaphic, climatic and biotic factors; maps.) 

Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Recreation and Social Welfare (1981). Conservation in the 
Netherlands: Factsheet on the Netherlands. 7 pp. (History of growth of nature 
conservation in the Netherlands, including plants; statistics.) 

Ooststroom, S.J. van (1975). Floristic literature published in the Netherlands mainly 
between 1962 and 1972. Mem. Soc. Brot. 24(2): 747-763. 

Westhoff, V., Bakker, P.A., Leeuwen, C.G. van and Voo, E.E. van der (1970-1973). 
Wilde Planten - Flora en Vegetatie in Onze Natuurgebieden (Wild Plants - Flora 
and Vegetation in our Nature Areas), 3 vols. Vereniging tot Behoud van 
Natuurmonumenten in Nederland. 320 pp, 303 pp, 359 pp. (1 - Algemene inleiding, 
duinen, zilte gronden; 2 - Het lage land; 3 - De hogere gronden.) 

Westhoff, V. and Den Held, A.J. (1975). Planten Gemeenschappen in Nederland 
(Plant communities in the Netherlands). W.J. Thieme and CIE-Zutphen. 324 pp. 


Netherlands Antilles 


The Netherlands Antilles, two widely separated groups of islands of the Lesser Antilles in 
the Caribbean, are an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The southern 
group, igneous with coral reefs, comprises Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire and are less than 
100 km off the coast of Venezuela. The northern group, volcanic and within the Leeward 
Islands, comprise St Eustatius, Saba and the southern part of St Martin (see also under 
Guadeloupe and Martinique). 


Area 993 sq. km 
Population 260,000 


Floristics Accounts of Flora of the region are incomplete but the study of 
published Floras revealed 7 species endemic to the southerly group and 12 doubtfully 
endemic. 


Vegetation On the southern group of Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire xerophytic 
vegetation of thorny shrubs and cacti; on St Eustatius, Saba and St Martin, where the 
climate is more humid, vegetation of Croton shrubs and some woodland; mostly modified 
by man. 


Checklists and Floras St Eustatius, St Martin and Saba are covered by the Flora 
of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands (only monocotyledons and ferns 
published so far, Howard, 1974- , cited in Appendix 1) and by the family and generic 
monographs of Flora Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). See also: 


Arnoldo, M. (A.N. Broeders) (1967). Handleiding tot het gebruik van inheemse en 
ingevoerde planten op Aruba, Bonaire en Curacao. Uitgare: Boekhandel ‘St. 
Augustinus’, Curacao. 257 pp. (In Dutch, with keys and black and white 
photographs.) 


258 


Netherlands Antilles 


Arnoldo, M. (A.N. Broeders) (1971). Gekweekte en Nuttige Planten van de 
Nederlandse Antillen. Utigaven van de Natuurwetenschappelijke Werkgroep 
Nederlandse Antillen, Curagao no. 20. 279 pp. (In Dutch, with keys and black and 
white photographs.) 

Stoffers, A.L. et al. (1963, 1966). Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, Uitgaven 
‘Natuurwetenschappelijke, studierkring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen’, 
Utrecht. 3 parts. (Covers ferns and 25 angiosperm families.) 


Field-guides 
Arnoldo, M. (A.N. Broeders) (1964). Zakflora, wat in het wild groeit en bloeit op 
Curacao, Aruba en Bonaire (Pocket Flora of Curacao, Aruba & Bonaire.) Uitgaven 
van de Natuurwetenschappelijke Werkgroep Nederlandse Antillen, Caracao no. 16. 
2nd Ed. 232 pp. (68 plates; in Dutch, with keys.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


New Caledonia 


The French Overseas Territory of New Caledonia, 1200 km east of Australia in the south- 
west Pacific Ocean, includes the main island of New Caledonia (16,750 sq. km), the 
Loyalty Islands (2227 sq. km), the Isle of Pines (134 sq. km) and the uninhabited Huon 
Islands. In addition, Hunter (40.5 ha), Matthew (12 ha) and Walpole (125.5 ha) are 550 km 
east of the main island, whereas the Chesterfield Islands are 450 km to the west. The 
highest point, Mt Panié (1649 m), is on the main island. The Loyalty and Huon Islands are 
low coral; Walpole is a raised limestone island; Hunter and Matthew are active volcanoes. 


Population 152,000 


Floristics c. 3250 vascular plant species (Morat, ef a/., 1984), including c. 300 fern 
species (Parris, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). 2474 endemic vascular plant species (Morat et 
al., 1984), including all conifers (44 spp.), Cunoniaceae (70-80 spp.), Proteaceae (43 spp.) 
and palms. 5 endemic families - Amborellaceae (1 sp.), Oncothecaceae (2 spp.), 
Paracryphiaceae (1-2 spp.), Phellineaceae (10 spp.), Strasburgeriaceae (1 sp.). Pantropical 
and Indo-Australian genera represent 45% of the rain forest flora, Malesian genera 9.6% 
(Morat ef al., 1984). Lowland rain forests, and maquis scrub on ultrabasic rocks 
(especially serpentine) have a large number of primitive relict species. 


Vegetation Tropical evergreen rain forest up to 1000 m; tropical montane rain 
forest above 1000 m; a variant of evergreen rain forest, sometimes with Araucaria 
columnaris, dominant near coast on raised coral, especially on Loyalty Islands and Isle of 
Pines; dry sclerophyllous forest on western slopes; various types of maquis scrub on acidic 
and ultrabasic rocks (e.g. peridotites and serpentinites), covering about 30% of the land 
area; mangroves along western coasts. About 50% of the land area covered by secondary 
forests, savanna and grasslands, due to clearance for mining, logging and agriculture. 
Hunter has some grassland with occasional trees; Walpole is covered by dense scrub 
(Douglas, 1969, cited in Appendix 1); Matthew has almost no vegetation. 


According to figures of the Forestry Department (quoted in Myers, 1980, cited in 
Appendix 1), forests of all types cover 16,000 sq. km; however, Thomson and Adloff 
(1971) estimated that relatively undisturbed rain forest covered only 10% of the territory, 
and that ‘‘the high forest resource will be exhausted in 30-40 years’’. For a more detailed 


259 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


account of vegetation and maps, see Morat, Jaffré, Veillon and MacKee (1981). See also 
Schmid (1978). 


Checklists and Floras 

Aubréville, A., Leroy, J.-F. and MacKee, H.S. (Eds) (1967- ). Flore de la Nouvelle- 
Calédonie et Dépendances. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. (13 fascicles so 
far, covering ferns, gymnosperms, and 25 flowering plant families, including 
Apocynaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Orchidaceae, and Proteaceae.) 

Guillaumin, A. (1911). Catalogue des plantes phanérogames de la Nouvelle-Calédonie 
et Dépendances. Ann. Mus. Col. Marseille 19. 86 pp. (Includes checklists; rather 
dated and incomplete.) 

Guillaumin, A. (1948). Flore Analytique et Synoptique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie - 
Phanérogames. Office de la Recherche Scientifique Coloniale, Paris. 369 pp. (Keys 
to families, genera, species; rather dated.) 

Morat, Ph., Veillon, J.-M. and MacKee, H.S. (1984). Floristic relationships of New 
Caledonian rain forest phanerogams. In Radovsky, F.J., Raven, P. and Sohmer, 
S.H. (Eds), Biogeography of the Tropical Pacific. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Special 
Publ. no. 72. Honolulu. Pp. 71-128. (Includes checklist of c. 1000 rain forest 
species; endemics indicated.) 

Sarasin, F. and Roux, J. (Eds) (1914-1921). Nova Caledonia - Recherches Scientifiques 
en Nouvelle-Calédonie et aux Iles Loyalty. Kreidel, Berlin. 311 pp. (Checklists of 
lower plants, ferns and some flowering plants; chapters on plant geography.) 


Separate lists for Hunter, Matthew, Walpole, Chesterfield, Loyalty-and the Huon Islands 
include: 


Cochic, F. (1959). Report on a visit to the Chesterfield Islands, September 1957. Afoll 
Res. Bull. 63. 11 pp. (Lists 20 vascular plant species; notes on vegetation.) 

Guillaumin, A. (1973). Contributions a la flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, 130: plantes 
des jles Walpole et Matthew. Bull. Mus. National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris), sér. 
3, 192 (Bot., no. 12): 180-183. (Lists 45 species from Walpole, 10 from Matthew.) 

Guillaumin, A. and Veillon, J.M. (1969). Plantes des archipels Huon et Chesterfield. 
Bull. Mus. National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris), sér. 2, 41: 606-607. (Lists 10 
species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published list of threatened plants. 2 
palms, Burretiokentia hapala and Cyphophoenix nucele, are included in The IUCN Plant 
Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:1, E:14, V:24, R:108, 
1:21, nt:48 (mainly covering gymnosperms, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Palmae). 


Voluntary Organizations It is reported that a nature protection association has 
recently been formed. 


Additional References 

Jaffré, T. (1980). Végétation des Roches Ultabasiques en Nouvelle Calédonie. Traveaux 
et Documents no. 124. ORSTOM, Nouméa. Pp. 228. (Includes map.) 

Morat, Ph., Jaffré, T., Veillon, J.M. and MacKee, H.S. (1981). Les Formations 
Végétales, Carte no. 15 Atlas de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. ORSTOM, Nouméa. (Scale 
1:1,000,000.) 

Sarlin, P. (1954). Bois et Foréts de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Centre Technique Forestier 
Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 303 pp. (Includes treatments of principal forest 
trees.) 


260 


New Caledonia 


Schmid, M. (1978). The Melanesian forest ecosystems (New Caledonia, New Hebrides, 
Fiji Islands and Solomon Islands). In Unesco/UNEP/FAO (1978), cited in 
Appendix 1. Pp. 654-683. 

Schmid, M. (1981). Fleurs et Plantes de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les éditions du Pacifique. 
Papeete, Tahiti. 164 pp. (181 taxa with notes on distribution, ecology, and 
vegetation; many colour photographs.) 

Thomson, V. and Adloff, R. (1971). The French Pacific Islands: French Polynesia and 
New Caledonia. Univ. Press, Berkeley, California. 

Thorne, R.F. (1965). Floristic relationships of New Caledonia. Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. 
Hist. 20(7): 1-14. 

Virot, R. (1956). La végétation Canaque. Mem. Mus. Nat. Paris (Bot.) 7. 398 pp. 


New Zealand 


Area 268,704 sq. km 
Population 3,264,000 


Floristics c. 2000 species of flowering plants and ferns; about 81% endemic 
(Given, 1981a), reaching over 90% in the alpine flora. Over 200 species are shared with 
Australia. There are also subantarctic and palaeotropical elements (Flora of New Zealand, 
1961). 


Vegetation Kauri (Agathis australis) forests in the warmer parts of North Island, 
north of latitude 38°S; lowland podocarp and mixed podocarp/beech (Nothofagus)/ 
hardwood forests along west coast of South Island; beech forests over much of South 
Island and south of latitude 39°S in North Island, and in montane and subalpine regions 
(Molloy, 1984); remnants of swamp-forest in west South Island. The forested area is 
reduced from 80% (1200 years ago) to 26% today, of which 23% consists of montane 
remnants of the indigenous forests, and 3% plantations of exotic softwoods (Molloy, 
1984). Scrubland, wetland and coastal communities have also been seriously depleted. 


Checklists and Floras The Flora is: 


Flora of New Zealand (1961, 1970, 1980). Vol. 1 by H.H. Allan. Owen, Wellington. 
1085 pp. (Ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms, dicotyledons; bibliography.) Vol. 2 by 
L.B. Moore and E. Edgar. Shearer, Wellington. 354 pp. (Monocotyledons except 
Gramineae; bibliography.) Vol. 3 by A.J. Healy and E. Edgar. Hasselberg, 
Wellington. 220 pp. (Adventive monocotyledons; covers 168 introduced species.) 


See also: 


Eagle, A. (1982). Eagle’s Trees and Shrubs of New Zealand: Second Series. Collins, 
Auckland. 382 pp. (405 botanical paintings, notes on distribution, short 
descriptions.) 

Poole, A.L. and Adams, N.M. (1963). Trees and Shrubs of New Zealand. Owen, 
Wellington. 250 pp. (Complete coverage; line drawings of 400 species.) 


Field-guides 
Cooper, D. (1981). A Field Guide to New Zealand Native Orchids. Price Milburn, 
Wellington. 103 pp. 


261 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Mark, A.F. and Adams, N.M. (1979). New Zealand Alpine Plants, 2nd Ed. Reed, 
Wellington. 262 pp. 

Moore, L.B. and Adams, N.M. (1963). Plants of the New Zealand Coast. Paul’s, 
Auckland and Hamilton. 113 pp. 

Richards, E.C. (1956). Our New Zealand Trees and Flowers, 3rd Ed. Simpson and 
Williams, Christchurch. 297 pp. 

Salmon, J.T. (1963). New Zealand Flowers and Plants in Colour. Reed, Wellington. 
203 pp. (Colour photographs and short descriptions of over 500 species arranged 
according to habitats.) 

Salmon, J.T. (1968). Field Guide to the Alpine Plants of New Zealand. Reed, 
Wellington. 326 pp. 

Wilson, H.D. (1978). Field Guide: Wild Plants of Mount Cook National Park. Field 
Guide Publications, Christchurch. 294 pp. 

Wilson, H.D. (1982). Field Guide: Stewart Island Plants. Field Guide Publication, 
Christchurch. 528 pp. 


Information on Threatened Plants New Zealand is covered by a technical loose- 
leaf Red Data Book (Given, 1976, 1977, 1978), an official RDB (Williams and Given, 
1981) and a popular account of threatened plants (Given, 1981a). 


Given, D.R. (1976, 1977, 1978). Threatened Plants of New Zealand: A Register of Rare 
and Endangered Plants of the New Zealand Botanical Region. DSIR, Christchurch. 
(Loose-leaf series of detailed double-paged sheets on 50 selected threatened species.) 

Given, D.R. (1976). A register of rare and endangered indigenous plants in New 
Zealand. N.Z. J. Bot. 14(2): 135-149. (Lists 314 taxa under consideration for 
threatened status.) 

Given, D.R. (1981a). Rare and Endangered Plants of New Zealand. Reed, Wellington. 
154 pp. (Descriptive text, chapters on each threat, with examples, introductory 
chapters on vegetation; lists 279 taxa, the majority of which are rare and threatened 
endemics; includes ‘Code of Conduct for conservation of wild plants’.) 

Williams, G.R. and Given, D.R. (1981). The Red Data Book of New Zealand: Rare 
and Endangered Species of Endemic Terrestrial Vertebrates and Vascular Plants. 
Nature Conservation Council, Wellington. 175 pp. (Includes data sheets on 66 
selected threatened plants.) 


For a more comprehensive bibliography of publications and papers on the conservation of 
New Zealand’s flora, see Given (198la). 11 species from New Zealand, including 
Xeronema callistemon from the Poor Knights, and Hen and Chicken Islands, are included 
in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978). Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:4, 
E:41, V:5, R:86, 1:23. 


Laws Protecting Plants The Native Plants Protection Act (1934) gives limited 
protection to native plants growing on any Crown Land, or in any State Forest or public 
reserve, or roads. Under the provisions of the Act it is an offence to take native plants 
from such land without the consent of the owner or occupier. A few serious weeds are 
exempt from the Act. A Supreme Court ruling in 1973 decided that the Act does not apply 
to trees, and does not recognize degrees of endangerment with provision for various levels 
and types of protection. An extensive revision of the Act is proposed following discussion 
and public submissions (D. Given, 1984, in litt.). 


Other legislation giving various degrees and types of protection to threatened plants 
include: 


262 


New Zealand 


The Forest Act (1949): makes it illegal to take, destroy or injure without lawful authority, 
forest produce in, on or from any State Forest land. 


The National Parks Act (1980): gives similar protection to plants in National Parks and 
Reserves administered by the Department of Land and Survey. 


The Town and Country Planning Act: has provision for preservation of ‘‘trees, bushes, 
plants, or landscape of scientific, wildlife, or historic interest or visual appeal’’. 


Provisions in the Land Act (1961) make it an offence to interfere with forest, wood or 
timber, or to remove bark and flax from Crown lands without permission. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Auckland Botanical Society, c/o Secretary, 14 Park Road, Titirangi, Auckland 7. 
Canterbury Botanical Society, P.O. Box 8212, Christchurch. 
Waipahihi Botanical Society (Inc.), c/o Secretary, 45 Ingle Avenue, Taupo. 
Wellington Botanical Society, c/o Secretary, 116 Korokora Road, Petone. 
WWF-New Zealand, 110-116 Courtenay Place, P.O. Box 6237, Wellington. 


Botanic Gardens 

Auckland City Council Botanic Garden, Private Bag, Wellesley Street, Auckland. 

Botany Division Experimental Gardens, DSIR, Private Bag, P.O. Box 237, 
Christchurch. 

Christchurch Botanic Gardens, Parks and Recreation Dept, City Council, P.O. Box 
237, Christchurch. 

Dunedin Botanic Garden, Parks and Recreation Dept, City Council, P.O. Box 5045, 
Dunedin. 

Massey University Botanic Garden, Palmerston North. 

Otari Open-Air Native Plant Museum, Wilton, P.O. Box 2199, Wellington. 

Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust (Inc.), P.O. Box 385, New Plymouth. 

Pukekura Park, Parks and Recreations Dept, City Council, Private Bag, New 
Plymouth. 

Timaru Botanic Garden, Parks and Recreation Dept, City Council, P.O. Box 522, 
Timaru. 


Index of threatened plants in cultivation: 


Threatened Plants Unit, IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1983). The Botanic 
Gardens List of New Zealand Threatened Species. Botanic Gardens Conservation 
Co-ordinating Body, Report No. 8. IUCN, Kew. 11 pp. (Lists 96 rare and 
threatened endemic taxa reported in cultivation, with gardens listed against each.) 


Useful Addresses 
Botany Division, DSIR, Private Bag, Christchurch. 
Nature Conservation Council, Box 12/200, Wellington North. 


Additional References 

Given, D.R. (1981b). Threatened plants of New Zealand: documentation in a series of 
islands. In Synge, H. (Ed.), The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. 
Wiley, Chichester. Pp. 67-80. 

Given, D.R. (Ed.) (1983). Conservation of Plant Species and Habitats. Nature 
Conservation Council, Wellington. 128 pp. (Symposium proceedings of 15th Pacific 
Science Congress, Dunedin, February 1983. See in particular D.R. Given on 
monitoring and strategies for threatened plant conservation in New Zealand, 
pp. 83-101; K. Thompson on the status of New Zealand’s wetlands, pp. 103-116.) 


263 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Molloy, L.F. (1984). The reservation of commercially important lowland forests in New 
Zealand. In McNeely, J.A. and Miller, K.R. (Eds), National Parks, Conservation, 
and Development: the Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society. Smithsonian 
Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Pp. 394-401. (Proceedings of the World 
Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, 11-22 October 1982.) 


Nicaragua 


Area 148,000 sq. km 
Population 3,162,000 


Floristics Not explored botanically in great detail; an estimated 5000 species of 
vascular plants (Gentry, 1978, cited in Appendix 1); 57 endemic species known so far 
(IUCN figures). 


Vegetation In the Mosquitia region tropical moist forest (believed to be the 
largest remaining tract in Central America, about 3600 sq. km still undisturbed); 
coniferous forest (c. 1300 sq. km); at the upper reaches of the cerros and cordilleras moist 
cloud forests; in some summit areas elfin forest, some undisturbed and rich in new species. 
Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 1050 sq. km/annum out of 
41,700 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras Nicaragua is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, 
described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). Also ‘‘most plants’’ of Nicaragua are included in the 
completed Flora of Guatemala and related articles in Fieldiana, outlined under 
Guatemala. Country accounts are: 


Hamer, F. (1983). Orchids of Nicaragua. Part 2, 3. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum 8, 9: 
701-900. (Descriptions, illustrations and dot maps.) 

Seymour, F. (1980). A check list of the vascular plants of Nicaragua. Phytologia 
Memoirs 1: 1-314. (List of species based on collections made by the author, 
1968-1976.) 


A 10-year project to prepare a 2-volume Flora of Nicaragua Manual (in Spanish) was 
begun in 1977 under the aegis of the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Herbario Nacional 
de Nicaragua, Universidad Centroamericana. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The list of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa - Ex:1, R:6, K:48, nt:2; non-endemics rare or threatened worldwide - 
V:7, R:6, I:1 (world categories). 


7 species are listed as threatened in the Annex to the Convention on Nature Protection and 
Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (1940). Threatened plants are mentioned 
in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104), J.T. Mickel on rare 
and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328). 


264 


Nicaragua 


Useful Addresses 
Herbario Nacional de Nicaragua, Universidad Centroamericana, Apdo 69, Managua. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Departamento de Regulacion y 
Control, Instituto Nicaragiiense de Recursos Naturales y de Ambiente (IRENA), Km 
12 1/2 Carretera Norte, Apdo Postal 5123, Managua. 


Additional References 
Ashton, J. (1945). On the plant resources and flora of Nicaragua. In Verdoorn, F. 
(Ed.), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 60-64. 
Holdridge, L.R. (1962). Mapa Ecolégico de Nicaragua. Agencia para el Desarollo 
Internacional de Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de America, Managua. 


Niger 


Area 1,186,408 sq. km 
Population 5,940,000 


Floristics 1178 species (Lebrun ef al/., 1983), 2 dubiously endemic (Brenan, 1978, 
cited in Appendix 1). 


Flora north of c. 16°N with Saharan affinities; flora of central and southern parts, 
including the Air and Ténéré area with Sahelian affinities. In extreme south flora has 
Sudanian affinities. The Air and Ténéré area is especially rich floristically, with even 
Mediterranean and Afromontane elements. 


Vegetation Mostly desert and semi-desert. As rainfall increases further south, 
semi-desert grassland grades into low wooded grassland with Acacia tortilis, increasing in 
density and height, and grading into Sudanian woodland without characteristic dominants 
in extreme south. Saharamontane vegetation, including woody shrubland and grassland 
communities, occurs on the northernmost peaks of Air. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Niger south of c. 18°N is included in the Flora of West 
Tropical Africa. Niger north of c. 16°N is included in Flore du Sahara (Ozenda, 1977), and 
in the computerized Atlas der Pflanzenwelt des Nordafrikanischen Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg and Klaus, 1980). These are all cited in Appendix 1. 


Boudouresque, E., Kaghan, S. and Lebrun, J.-P. (1978). Premier supplément au 
“‘Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger’’. Adansonia, Sér. 2, 18(3): 377-390. 
Lebrun, J.-P., Boudouresque, E., Dulieu, D., Garba, M., Saadou, M. and Roussel, B. 
(1983). Second supplément au ‘‘Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Niger’’. Bull. 

Soc. Bot. Fr. 130 (Lettres Bot.) 1983(3): 249-256. 

Peyre de Fabrégues, B. (1979). Lexique de Noms Vernaculaires de Plantes du Niger, 
2nd Ed. Institut d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons- 
Alfort. 156 pp. 

Peyre de Fabrégues, B. and Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du 
Niger. Institut d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons- 
Alfort, France. 433 pp. (Annotated checklist with botanical bibliography of Niger.) 


265 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Information on Threatened Plants 
Gillet, H. and Peyre de Fabrégues, B. (1982). Quelques arbres utiles, en voie de 
disparition, dans le centre-est du Niger. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 36(3): 465-470. 
(Includes Khaya senegalensis, Terminalia avicennioides.) 


No published lists of rare or threatened plants; IUCN has records of 4 species and 
infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic; no categories available. 


One species which occurs in Niger (Olea laperrinei) is included in The IUCN Plant Red 
Data Book (1978). 


Useful Addresses 
CITES Management Authority: Ministére de I’hydraulique et de l’environnement, B.P. 
241, Niamey. 


Additional References 
Dundas, J. (1938). Vegetation types of the Colonie du Niger. Inst. Pap. Imp. For. Inst. 
15. 10 pp. (With small-scale vegetation map.) 
Fairbairn, W.A. (1943). Classification and description of the vegetation types of the 
Niger Colony, French West Africa. Inst. Pap. Imp. For. Inst. 23. 38 pp. (With 
small-scale vegetation map.) 


Nigeria 


Area 923,850 sq. km 
Population 92,037,000 


Floristics 4614 species (quoted in Lebrun, 1976, cited in Appendix 1); northern 
region (as defined in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, cited in Appendix 1) with mainly 
Sudanian (but also Guinea-Congolian) affinities, 39 endemic species; western and central 
region (38 endemic species) and eastern region (128 endemic species) with Guinea- 
Congolian affinities. Eastern region especially rich round Oban (Brenan, 1978, cited in 
Appendix 1). 


Vegetation Large areas of mangrove and swamp forest round the Niger River 
delta. Inland, lowland rain forest, changing gradually to Guinea Savanna of Jsoberlinia 
doka woodland, and, in the most northerly regions of Nigeria, Sudanian woodland 
without characteristic dominants. Montane communities including forest and grassland 
are found on the Jos Plateau, and in places on high ground near the south and eastern 
border (Vogel Peak massif, Mambilla Plateau complex, and Obudu Plateau). 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 3000 sq. km/annum out of 
59,500 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). However, Myers (1980, cited in Appendix 1) gives the 
following figures: 45,000 sq. km moist forests remaining, of which 25,495 sq. km are 
worth classifying as forest reserves and of which 16,000 sq. km are sufficiently stocked to 
warrant further timber exploitation. 


For vegetation map see White (1983), cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Nigeria is included in the Flora of West Tropical Africa, 
cited in Appendix 1. 


266 


Nigeria 


Gbile, Z.O. (1981). Dichotomous key to the Nigerian species of ferns and fern-allies. 
Nigerian J. For. 11(1,2): 33-48. 

Keay, R.W.J., Onochie, C.F.A. and Stanfield, D.P. (1960, 1964). Nigerian trees, 2 
vols. Dept of Forest Research, Ibadan. 334, 495 pp. (Keys, including multi-access 
key to genera; descriptions, specimens, distributions; line drawings.) 

Lowe, J. and Stanfield, D.P. (Eds) (1970- ). The Flora of Nigeria. Ibadan University 
Press, Ibadan. (Published in fascicles; only 2 produced so far: Grasses + 
illustrations, 1970, 118 pp., 58 plates, by D.P. Stanfield; Sedges, 1974, 144 pp., by 
J. Lowe and D.P. Stanfield. Multi-access keys included.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 

Chapman, J.D. (1982). Conservation of Afromontane forest: Ngel Nyaki Forest 
Reserve. Nigerian Field 47(1-3): 133. 

Gbile, Z.O., Ola-Adams, B.A. and Soladoye, M.O. (1978). Endangered species of the 
Nigerian flora. Nigerian J. For. 8(1,2): 14-20. 

Gbile, Z.O., Ola-Adams, B.A. and Soladoye, M.O. (1981). List of rare species of the 
Nigerian flora. Research Paper (Forest Series) 47. Forest Research Institute of 
Nigeria, Ibadan. 

Hedberg, I. (1979), cited in Appendix 1. (Only three species reported as known to be 
threatened, p. 92.) 

Kinako, P.D.S. (1977). Conserving the mangrove forest of the Niger Delta. Biol. 
Conserv. 11(1): 35-39. (Includes map.) 


IUCN has records of 282 species and infraspecific taxa believed to be endemic, including 
E:8; no other categories assigned. 


Laws Protecting Plants There are forest laws restricting harvesting of timber 
trees without permission. 


Botanic Gardens 
Biological Gardens, University of Ife, Ife-Ife, Oyo State. 
Botanical Garden, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State. 
Dept of Biological Sciences, University of Zaria, Zaria, North Central State. 


Useful Addresses 
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Ibadan. 
CITES Management Authority: Federal Department of Forestry, Federal Ministry of 
Agriculture, P.M.B. No. 12613, 6, Ijeh Village, Obalende, Lagos. 


Additional References 
Charter, J.R. (1968). Nigeria. In Hedberg, I. and O. (1968), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 91-94. 
Keay, R.W.J. (1948-1959). An Outline of Nigerian Vegetation. Govt Printer, Lagos. 
52 pp. with coloured vegetation map 1:3,000,000 (1948). 2nd Ed., 55 pp. (1953). 3rd 
Ed. (minor corrections only), 1959. 
Ola-Adams, B.A. (1977). Conservation of genetic resources of indigenous forest tree 
species in Nigeria: possibilities and limitations. Forest Genetic Resources Inf. 7: 1-9. 
Ola-Adams, B.A. and Iyamabo, D.E. (1977). Conservation of natural vegetation in 
Nigeria. Envir. Conserv. 4(3): 217-226. (With two black and white photographs.) 


267 


Niue 


Niue (169°55’W, 19°2’S), a self-governing territory associated with New Zealand, is a 
raised coral plateau 480 km east of Tonga, in the south-west Pacific Ocean. Area 259 sq. 
km; population 4000. Mutalau Reef reaches 61 m, Alofi Terrace 25 m. Soils are shallow 
and porous, and on Mutalau Reef only present in pockets. Settlements are found on the 
coast; much of the interior is uninhabited. 


629 vascular plant taxa, of which c. 175 indigenous (Sykes, 1970). Most species are also 
found on Tonga and the Samoan Archipelago; many are widespread throughout the 
Pacific. No information on threatened plants. 


Niue was originally covered by tropical rain forest, now found only in the centre, east and 
south-east; coastal forests on the terraces; large areas of secondary forest and scrub in 
central basin. Shifting cultivation has greatly modified the vegetation over much of the 
island. 


There was an Environmental Protection Ordinance with conservation provisions under 
consideration in 1975; current status not known. 


References 
Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the Flora of Niue. DSIR, Bull. no. 100. 
Christchurch, N.Z. 321 pp. 
Yuncker, T.G. (1943). The flora of Niue Island. Bull. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 178. 
126 pp. 


Norfolk Island 


The Norfolk Island complex, an External Territory of Australia, is an isolated volcanic 
outcrop, c. 800 km north-west of New Zealand, in the south-west Pacific Ocean, at 
latitude 29°S and longitude 168°E. It comprises Norfolk (36 sq. km), Philip (2.5 sq. km), 
Nepean and satellite islands. 


Area 39 sq. km 
Population 1700 (1980 estimate, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics Norfolk Island has 174 native vascular plant species (Turner ef ai., 
1968), of which 48 are endemic. Philip Island has 3 endemic species (Melville, 1969). 


Vegetation On Norfolk Island, forests greatly reduced by clearance for 
agriculture and settlement, and disturbed by timber exploitation. There are remnants of 
coniferous, mixed hardwood, palm/hardwood and palm/tree fern forest, particularly in 
the Norfolk Island National Park (formerly the Mt Pitt Reserve, of area 460 ha), which 
includes 100 native plants and is the best plant site remaining on the island (Australian 
National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1984). 


Philip Island originally supported a dense forest but has been devastated by introduced 
pigs, goats and rabbits. Today little vegetation remains; WWF-Australia are sponsoring a 
rescue project for the endemic Hibiscus insularis and the Australian National Parks and 
Wildlife Service are controlling the rabbits, as described by Coyne (1983). 


268 


Norfolk Island 


Checklists and Floras Norfolk Island will be included in a forthcoming volume of 
the Flora of Australia (1981- ), cited under Australia. 


Turner, J.S., Smithers, C.N. and Hoogland, R.D. (1968). Conservation of Norfolk 
Island. Australian Conservation Foundation Special Publ. no. 1. 41 pp. (Includes 
checklist of plants on the islands with notes on local distribution, frequency, 
habitats; chapters on conservation problems and recommendations.) 


Information on Threatened Plants 49 vascular plants of Norfolk and Philip 
islands, with notes on conservation status are listed in Leigh ef a/. (1981), cited under 
Australia. Hibiscus insularis and Streblorrhiza speciosa are included in The IUCN Plant 
Red Data Book (1978). See also: 


Melville, R. (1969). The endemics of Phillip Island. Biol. Conserv. 1: 170-172. (Of the 
3 endemics, Agropyron kingianum was last seen in 1912, Streblorrhiza speciosa is 
Extinct and Hibiscus insularis is Endangered.) 


Latest IUCN statistics: endemic taxa - Ex:5, E:11, V:29, I:1; non-endemic taxa rare or 
threatened worldwide - V:3 (world categories). 


Botanic Gardens In 1984 the Norfolk Island Government changed the status of 
Mt Pitt Reserve to a National Park and decided to establish a Botanic Garden for native 
species (P. Coyne, 1984, in litt.). 


Useful Addresses 
Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 310, Norfolk Island. 


Additional References 
Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service (1984). Plan of Management Norfolk 
Island National Park and Plan of Management Norfolk Island Botanic Garden. 
ANPWS, Canberra. 112 pp. 
Coyne, P. (1983). Revegetation attempt on Philip Island, South Pacific. Threatened 
Plants Newsletter 12:14. 


Norway 


Area 323,895 sq. km 
Population 4,140,000 


Floristics Based on Flora Europaea, D.A. Webb (1978, cited in Appendix 1) 
estimates a flora of 1600-1800 native vascular species; 1 endemic species and 1 endemic 
subspecies (IUCN figures). Elements: Arctic/alpine, Boreal and Atlantic. 


Vegetation Large tracts of vegetation still untouched. Forests, mostly coniferous, 
occupy c. 30% of country. Species diversity highest in south-east with deciduous forest of 
oak, elm and lime up to 550 m, replaced by widespread pine and spruce at higher altitudes. 
Atlantic influence felt only in extreme south-west. Along west coast, forests of birch, oak 
and alder predominate together with blanket bogs and mires. On the central, longitudinal 
mountains at 1200-1600 m, alpine flora with dwarf shrubs, while at higher levels plant 
communities become dominated by cryptogams. In the extreme north and north-east pine 
and birch gives way to Arctic/alpine vegetation with lichen-tundra accompanied by dwarf 
shrubs, grasses and rushes. 


269 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras Included in the completed Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 
1964-1980) and Lindman’s Nordens Flora (1964), both cited in Appendix 1. Below are 
recent national and regional Floras: 


Hylander, N. (1953, 1966). Nordisk Kdrlvaéxtflora, 2 vols. Almqvist and Wiksell, 
Stockholm. (Line drawings.) 

Lid, J. (1974). Norsk og Svensk Flora, 4th Ed. Norske Samlaget, Oslo. 808 pp. (Covers 
Norway and Sweden; line drawings.) 

Nordhagen, R. (1940-1970). Norsk Flora, 2 vols. Aschehoug, Oslo. 766 pp., 638 plates. 
(1 - text with keys; 2 - illustrations of pteridophytes and angiosperms.) 


For plant atlases see Hultén (1971), cited in Appendix 1, and: 


Faegri, K. et al. (Eds) (1960). Maps of Distribution of Norwegian Vascular Plants. 
Vol. 1. Coast plants. Oslo Univ. Press, Oslo. 134 pp. (Describes geography of 
Norway and ecology of coast plants; 156 taxa mapped.) 


Relevant journals: Blyttia, Journal of the Norwegian Botanical Society (Norsk Botanisk 
Forening); Nordic Journal of Botany, Copenhagen; Norsk Natur, Journal of the 
Norwegian Society for Nature Conservation (Norges Naturvernforbund). 


Information on Threatened Plants The National Council for Nature 
Conservation (Statens Naturvernrad), address below, publishes the list of threatened 
Norwegian plant species and undertakes a regular revision of the list every 4 years 
(Norderhaug, 1984). There is no national plant Red Data Book but see: 


Gjerlaug, H.C. (1975). Liste over truede ogleller sjeldne planter i Norge, 
karsporeplanter og froplanter. Oslo. (Unpublished; includes a list of rare and 
threatened plants; not seen.) 

Gjerlaug, H.C. (1977). Liste over antatt utdedde, truete, sarbare og sjeldne plantearter 
i Norge. (Unpublished.) 7 pp. 

Halvorsen, R. and Fagernaes, K.E. (1980- ). Sjeldne og sarbare plantearter i Sor-Norge 
(Rare and threatened plant species in South Norway). Blyttia 38(1): 3-8; 38(3): 
127-132; 38(4): 171-179; 40(2): 85-93 (by T. Schumacher, E. Bendiksen and 
R. Halvorsen); 40(3): 163-173. (English summaries.) 

Norderhaug, M. (Ed.) (1984). Truete Planter og Dyr i Norge (Threatened Plants and 
Animals in Norway). Statens Naturvernrad. 24 pp. (A popular booklet prepared by 
the National Council for Nature Conservation (address below) outlining general 
problems related to threatened species and their conservation; lists 126 threatened 
vascular plants with IUCN categories; in Norwegian with English summary; colour 
illus.) 


Norway is included in the Nordic Council of Ministers’ threatened plant list (Ovesen ef a/., 
1978, 1982, cited in Appendix 1) and in the European threatened plant list (Threatened 
Plants Unit, 1983, cited in Appendix 1); latest IUCN statistics, based upon this latter 
work: endemic taxa - E:1, nt:1; doubtful endemics - V:1; non-endemics rare or threatened 
worldwide - V:6, R:8, I:1 (world categories). 


Laws Protecting Plants Section 13 of the Nature Conservation Act 1970 states 
that ‘‘The King may decide that wild-growing plant species or plant colonies which are rare 
or are in danger of extinction, shall be protected in the whole country or in specified 
areas’’. Only 4 plant species are nationally protected: Viscum album, Aster sibiricus, 
Oxytropis deflexa subsp. norvegica and Braya purpurascens. The following taxa have a 
lower grade of protection: Saxifraga paniculata, Cladium mariscus, Papaver radicatum 


270 


Norway 


subsp. relictum, Carex scirpoidea, Polemonium boreale and Onopordium acanthium. For 
details see Koester (1980, cited in Appendix 1). 


Voluntary Organizations 

Norges Naturvernforbund (The Norwegian Society for Conservation of Nature), Box 
8268, Hammersborg, Oslo 1. 

Norsk Botanisk Forening (Norwegian Botanical Society), Botanical Museum, University 
of Oslo, Trondheimsveien 23 B, 0560 Oslo 5. 

Nyttevekstforeningen, Botanical Museum, University of Oslo, Trondheimsveien 23 B, 
0560 Oslo 5. 

WWF-Norway (Verdens Villmarksfond - Norge), Rosenkrantzgt. 22, 0160 Oslo 1. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Garden, University of Oslo, Trondheimsveien 23 B, 0560 Oslo 5. 
Botanisk Hage, P.O. Box 12, 5014 Bergen. 
Milde Arboretum, P.O. Box 41, 5067 Store Milde. 
Ringve Botaniske Hage, University of Trondheim, 7000 Trondheim. 


Useful Addresses 
Statens Naturvernrad (National Council for Nature Conservation), Postboks 266, 3101 
Tonsberg. 
The Norwegian NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, c/o The Norwegian Society for 
Conservation of Nature, address as above. 
CITES Management Authority: Miljoverndepartementet, Ministry of Environmental 
Affairs, Postboks 8013 Dep., Oslo 1. 


Additional References 

Holmboe, J. (1924-1925). Einige Grundziige von der Pflanzengeographie Norwegens. 
Bergens Museums Aarbok. 54 pp. 

Kleppa, P. (1973, 1979). Norsk Botanisk Bibliografi 1814-1964, and 1964-1975, 2 vols. 
Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 

Miljoverndepartementet (1976). Oversikt over omrader og forekomster i Norge som er 
fredet eller vernet etter naturvernloven, samt omrader og forekomster som er 
administrativt fredet (List of areas and objects in Norway protected by the Nature 
Conservation Act, and areas and objects protected by administrative regulations). 
Norwegian Ministry of Environmental Affairs. 

Wielgolaski, F.E. (1971). IBP Ecosystems studies in Norway. Biol. Conserv. 4(1): 
71-72. 


Ogasawara-Gunto 


72 small volcanic islands, formerly called the Bonin Islands, 966 km south of Tokyo. Area 
73 sq. km; population 1798 (1984 official report). The islands are a dependency of Japan. 


483 vascular plant species of which 369 native (Kobayashi, 1978). Of the 70 species of 
pteridophytes, 25 are endemic; of the 298 angiosperm species, 126 endemic. The only 
native gymnosperm (Juniperus taxifolia) is endemic. The Ogasawaras are floristically 
distinct from the adjacent Mariana Islands (van Balgooy, 1971, cited in Appendix 1). 
There are Asian and tropical Pacific elements represented in both broadleaved evergreen 
and broadleaved deciduous forests (Tuyama, 1972). Many areas cleared for agriculture, 
grazing and settlements. 


271 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Checklists and Floras 
Kobayashi, S. (1978). A list of the vascular plants occurring in the Ogasawara (Bonin) 
Islands. Ogasawara Research 1: 1-33. (Annotated checklist, endemics indicated, 
notes on distribution and habitats.) 


A number of species from Ogasawara-Gunto are included in the Atlas by Horikawa (1972, 
1976), cited under Japan. 


Information on Threatened Plants 

Woolliams, K.R. (1978, 1979). Observations on the flora of the Ogasawara Islands. 
Notes from Waimea Arboretum 5(2): 2-10; 6(1): 6-14. (Reports on 19 species, most 
of which are threatened.) 

Woolliams, K.R. (1983). Ogasawara Islands: news from Hahajima. Notes from 
Waimea Arboretum 10(1): 4-5. (Notes on 4 rare or threatened plants.) 

Yoshida, A. and Tannawa, T. (1977). Endangered plant species of the Ogasawara 
Islands. Notes from Waimea Arboretum 3(2): 8-12. (Tentative list of 31 
‘endangered’; 17 ‘rare’ and 6 ‘depleted’ taxa.) 


Additional References 

Toyota, T. (1981). Flora of Bonin Island. Abochsha, Kamakura. 396 pp. (Covers 236 
taxa in Japanese, colour photographs.) 

Tuyama, T. (1972). The status of the Bonin Islands flora in the Pacific. In Graham, A. 
(Ed.), Floristics and Palaeofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America. Elsevier, 
Amsterdam. Pp. 79-81. (Discussion of floristic affinities.) 

Tuyama, T. and Asami, S. (1970). The Nature in the Bonin Islands, 2 vols. Hirokawa 
Shoten, Tokyo. (1 - Notes on flora and fauna, in Japanese; 2 - coloured 
illustrations.) 

Wilson, E.H. (1919). The Bonin Islands and their ligneous vegetation. J. Arnold Arb. 
1: 97-115. (Descriptive account with lists of important trees, shrubs and climbers.) 


Oman 


Area 271,950 sq. km 
Population 1,181,000 


Floristics A very provisional estimate is 1100 species (Edmondson, 1980; A.G. 
Miller, 1984, in litt.), with up to 50 endemic species (Miller, in /itt.). Most endemics 
concentrated in the southern part of Dhofar. 


Floristic affinities of the south (southern Dhofar) Sudano-Deccanian, with Africa, Yemen 
and southern India. Affinities of northern Dhofar and the edge of the Empty Quarter 
Saharo-Sindian, with the Sahara and north-west India. Affinities of northern Oman: low 
altitudes Irano-Turanian, with Iran; at higher altitudes, affinities with western Himalayas. 


Vegetation Most of country desert to semi-desert with patches of extreme verdure 
on mountain masses and along the coastal strip. In extreme south Oman (part of Dhofar), 
on a coastal strip 100 miles long and up to 20 miles deep, the vegetation is rather atypical, 
consisting of grassland, thick scrub and forest with a very low canopy. On the mountains 
there is extensive cover of grassland and thicket, and a low juniper ‘‘forest’’ on Jabal 


272 


Oman 


Akhdar in the north. The Musandam peninsula in the north consists mostly of stony 
mountains with small patches of alluvium producing rich grassy pastures. 


Checklists and Floras Works relating to the Arabian peninsula as a whole are 
outlined under Saudi Arabia. See also: 


Mandaville, J.P. (1977). Plants. In Harrison, D.L. et al. (Eds), Scientific Results of the 
Oman Flora and Fauna Survey 1975. J. Oman Studies, Special Report, Ministry of 
Education and Culture. Pp. 229-267. (Includes list of plant species collected from 
the mountains of northern Oman.) 

Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1979). Flora. In Interim Report on the Results of the Oman Flora 
and Fauna Survey, Dhofar, 1977. Sultanate of Oman. Pp. 41-48. (Selected species 
only; brief description of vegetation, with colour plates.) 


A new checklist of the flora of Oman by A.G. Miller and R. Whitcombe is in preparation 
which they hope will be published in 1985. 


Field-guides 
Mandaville, J.P. (1978). Wild Flowers of Northern Oman. Bartholomew Books, 
London. 64 pp. (85 species, illustrated in colour by D. Bovey; available in Arabic 
and English.) 


Information on Threatened Plants No published lists of rare or threatened 
plants. Two species from Oman are included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book (1978): 
Dionysia mira and Ceratonia sp. nov., now Ceratonia oreothauma. 


Voluntary Organizations There is a Natural History Group, based at the Natural 
History Museum. 


Useful Addresses 
Conservation Adviser, Diwan of Royal Court Affairs, The Palace, Muscat. 
Natural History Museum, Ministry of National Heritage and Culture, P.O. Box 668, 
Muscat. 


Additional References 
Edmondson, J.R. (1980). Botanical collections from Oman, February-March 1980. 
Unpublished report. 16 pp. | 
Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1980). The vegetation of Dhofar. In Scientific Results of the 
Oman Flora and Fauna Survey 1977 (Dhofar). J. Oman Studies, Special Report No. 
2. Pp. 59-86. (Includes systematic plant list.) 


A group of IUCN consultants will be in Oman in 1985 to investigate setting up reserves, 
conservation laws, etc. 


Pakistan 


Area 803,941 sq. km 
Population 98,971,000 


Floristics 5500-6000 vascular plant species (M.N. Chaudhri, 1984, in litt.); c. 300 
of these are endemic (Ali, 1978). Centres of endemism are in western and northern 
mountain regions, over 1200 m (Ali, 1978). 


273 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Vegetation Little natural vegetation left due to agricultural encroachment, 
overgrazing and urbanization. In the south (Sind, Baluchistan), extensive areas of semi- 
desert and desert, with tropical thorn scrub of Prosopis, Capparis and Acacia; subtropical 
dry evergreen scrub to 1000 m, greatly modified by grazing and fuelwood harvesting; small 
patches of broadleaved forests with Quercus and Juglans on mountains above 1500 m; 
Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest between 900-1650 m; temperate coniferous forest 
between 1650-3000 m; ‘‘juniper tracts’? in Baluchistan at 2000-3000 m with Juniperus 
macropoda, Pistacia and Fraxinus; alpine scrub between 2850-3600 m with Abies, Betula 
and Rhododendron; riverine forest along the Indus; mangrove swamps along the Sind 
coast (Stewart, 1982). Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 10 sq. 
km/annum out of a total of 8600 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras The national Flora is: 


Nasir, E. and Ali, S.I. (Eds) (1970-1979). Flora of West Pakistan, continued as Flora 
of Pakistan (1980- ). Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad. (Presently 
157 fascicles, covering c. 160 families.) 


See also: 


Stewart, R.R. (1972). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of West 
Pakistan and Kashmir. Islamabad. 1028 pp. (Part of Nasir and Ali, 1970-1979, 
Flora of West Pakistan, cited above; enumeration of 128 ferns, 23 gymnosperms, 
c. 1140 monocotyledons and c. 4500 dicotyledon taxa, including introductions.) 


Pakistan is included in the Flora of British India (Hooker, 1872-1897), cited in Appendix 
1, and for ferns in Beddome (1892) and the companion volume by Nayar and Kaur (1972), 
both of which are cited in Appendix 1. The North-West Frontier Province is covered by the 
incomplete Flora Iranica (1963- ), cited in Appendix 1. Other relevant works include: 


Bamber, C.J. (1916). Plants of the Punjab: A Descriptive Key to the Flora of the 
Punjab, North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir. Govt Printing Press, Lahore. 
652 pp. 

Jafri, S.M.H. (1966). The Flora of Karachi (Coastal West Pakistan). Book 
Corporation, Karachi. 375 pp. (Covers 403 native vascular plant species.) 


Information on Threatened Plants On 18 March 1984 WWF-Pakistan launched a 
Plant Conservation Programme, which includes the identification of threatened plants. A 
preliminary list of c. 500 species, suspected to be rare or threatened, has been compiled by 
K.H. Sheikh, based on accounts of c. 160 families in Nasir and Ali (1978- ). 


IUCN also has a preliminary list by S.I. Ali which includes 8 threatened medicinal plants 
and 10 other rare species. 


Voluntary Organizations 
WWE-Pakistan, P.O. Box 1312, Lahore. 


Botanic Gardens 
Botanical Garden, Karachi. 
Botanical Gardens, Punjab University, New Campus, Lahore. 
Botanical Gardens, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. 
Government College Botanical Garden, Lahore. 
Pakistan Forest Institute Botanical Garden, Peshawar. 


274 


Pakistan 


Useful Addresses 
National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, House 97G, Street 1, 
F-7/4, Islamabad. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authority: National Council for Conservation of 
Wildlife in Pakistan, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Government of 
Pakistan, 4-G, Street No. 51 F. 6/4, Islamabad. 


Additional References 

Ali, S.I. (1978). The flora of Pakistan: some general and analytical remarks. Notes 
Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 36: 427-439. (Describes ‘Flora of Pakistan’ project; 
notes on endemism.) 

Kitamura, S. (Ed.) (1964). Plants of West Pakistan and Afghanistan. Kyoto Univ. 283 
pp. (Results of Kyoto Univ. expedition to Karakoram and Hindukush, 1955.) 

Stewart, R.R. (1982). History and exploration of plants in Pakistan and adjoining 
areas. In Nasir, E. and Ali, S.I. (Eds), Flora of Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural 
Research Council, Islamabad. 186 pp. (Published as a separate fascicle of the 
Flora.) 


Panama 


Area 78,513 sq. km 
Population 2,134,000 


Floristics An estimated 8000-9000 species of vascular plants (Gentry, 1982); 1226 
endemic taxa (IUCN figures). Areas high in endemism are Santa Rita Ridge, El Valle de 
Anton and Cerros Azul, Pirre, Campana, Jefe and Pilon. 


Vegetation Principally tropical forest; under the Holdridge system, Panama has 
the following Life Zones: Tropical| Moist Forest (extensive areas along the Caribbean 
seaboard), Tropical Dry Forest (mainly in the south), Subtropical Moist Forest (small 
strips surrounding Tropical Dry Forest), Montane Wet Forest and Lower Montane Wet 
Forest (along the Cordillera Central east from Costa Rica, the former small in extent), 
surrounded by Subtropical Dry Forest on either side; and two Transition Zones: Tropical 
Moist Forest (Transition) (the major part of the east of Panama, from the Darién to the 
Pacific coast), and Tropical Dry Forest (Transition) (smaller areas also in the east) 
(Holdridge and Budowski, 1959; Porter, 1973). Also extensive mangrove, especially on 
Pacific coast. Panama’s largest and most species-rich forest is in Darién Province, partly 
protected but much threatened. 


According to FAO/UNEP (1981), estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved 
forest 360 sq. km/annum out of 41,650 sq. km; according to Myers (1980, cited in 
Appendix 1), out of 40,816 sq. km officially classified as forests, 38,873 sq. km is lowland 
rain forest and 1736 sq. km moist montane forest. But he states that reputedly at least 
10,000 sq. km of these have been seriously disrupted by slash-and-burn agriculture, 
especially on the Panama Canal watersheds. 


Checklists and Floras Panama is covered by the Flora Mesoamericana Project, 
described in Appendix 1, as well as by the family and generic monographs of Flora 
Neotropica (cited in Appendix 1). The country Flora is: 


275 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Woodson, R.E. et al. (1943-1980). Flora of Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 30-67. 
(All families covered, but numerous new species and new records discovered 
subsequently.) 


Staff at the Missouri Botanical Garden are making final revisions to the Flora of Panama 
Database in preparation for the first Flora of Panama Checklist. The following cover parts 
of Panama: 


Croat, T. (1978). Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford Univ. Press, California. 
943 pp. (Includes account of vegetation and map; covers 1369 taxa of vascular 
plants for a 15.6 sq. km island in Gatun Lake.) 

Johnston, I.M. (1949). Flora of San Jose Island. Sargentia 8: 1-306. 

Standley, P.C. (1928). Flora of the Panama Canal Zone. Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 27: 
1-416. 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. IUCN is 
preparing a threatened plant list for release in a forthcoming report The List of rare, 
threatened and endemic plants of Middle America. Latest IUCN statistics, based upon this 
work: endemic taxa - Ex:2, E:19, V:35, R:92, 1:51, K:830, nt:197; non-endemics rare or 
threatened worldwide - E:5, V:31, R:16, 1:3 (world categories). 


Threatened plants are mentioned in several papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular W.G. 
D’Arcy on endangered landscapes in the region (pp. 89-104), J.T. Mickel on rare 
and endangered ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore on endangerment in palms 
(pp. 267-282). 


Botanic Gardens 
Summit Gardens, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, address below. 


Useful Addresses 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, P.O. Box 2072, Balboa, Panama; and APO, 
Miami, Florida 34002, U.S.A. 
CITES Management Authority: Direccién Nacional de Recursos Naturales Renovables 
(RENARB), Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario, Apdo 2016-Paraiso, 
Corregimiento de Ancon, Panama 5. 


Additional References 

Croat, T.B. and Busey, P. (1975). Geographical affinities of the Barro Colorado Island 
Flora. Brittonia 27: 127-135. 

Gentry, A.H. (1982). Phytogeographic patterns as evidence for a Chocd Refuge. In 
Prance, G.T. (Ed.) (1982), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 112-136. 

Holdridge, L.R. and Budowski, G. (1959). Mapa Ecoldgica de Panama. Instituto 
Interamericano Ciencias, Agricolas, Turrialba, Costa Rica. (Life Zone map.) 

Porter, D.M. (1973). The vegetation of Panama: a review. In Graham, A. (Ed.) (1973), 
cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 168-201. (Review of knowledge and papers on Panamanian 
vegetation.) 

RARE (1983). Draft plan for the development of a private sector initiative in natural 
resource and environment programs in the Republic of Panama. RARE, c/o 
WWE-U.S. (address under U.S.A.) 42 pp. 

Tosi, J.A., Jr. (1970). Mapa Ecoldgico de Panama. Programa de las Naciones Unida 
para Desarollo, Rome. 


276 


Papua New Guinea 


Area 462,840 sq. km 
Population 3,601,000 


Floristics Good (1960) estimates that the island of New Guinea, of which Papua 
New Guinea is the eastern portion, has c. 9000 angiosperm species, of which 90% endemic, 
and Parris (1985, cited in Appendix 1) estimates that it has c. 2000 fern species; R. Johns 
(1984, in litt.) believes there to be more than 11,000 vascular plant species. There are 1465 
genera in New Guinea, of which 124 are endemic (van Balgooy, in Paijmans, 1976). 
According to Gressitt (1982), 55% of the vascular flora of Papua New Guinea is endemic. 
The flora of the lowland forests is mainly related to that of Malesia, whereas the montane 
flora is mainly related to that of Australasia (Paijmans, 1976). 


Vegetation c. 85% has some form of forest cover, including subclimax secondary 
forest. Tropical lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests on the coastal plains; 
these forests differ markedly from those elsewhere in Malesia with dipterocarps poorly 
represented; extensive limestone rain forests, especially in west (Whitmore, 1984). 
Extensive mangroves, brackish-water forest with the salt-water palm (Nypa fruticans), 
freshwater swamp-forest with sago palm (Metroxylon sagu), particularly along the south 
coasts around the Gulf of Papua and along the Sepik and Fly rivers; Saccharum/Imperata 
grassland on alluvial plains; dry evergreen forests and mixed savanna woodlands, with 
Acacia and Proteaceae in south-west. Much of the country is mountainous, rising to over 
4000 m in the central highlands; montane forests above 1200 m with Araucaria, 
Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Nothofagus; alpine vegetation above 4000 m (e.g. on Mt 
Wilhelm). Extensive Jmperata and Themeda grasslands due to fires, and forest clearance 
for. shifting and permanent agriculture (Paijmans, 1976; Whitmore, 1975b, cited in 
Appendix 1). 


Estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved forest 220 sq. km/annum out of a 
total of 337,100 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981); however, c. 40,000 sq. km of forestland have 
been either denuded or rendered unproductive, and another 2500 sq. km, including at least 
250 sq. km of primary forest, are cleared each year for shifting cultivation (figures quoted 
in Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Over 1000 sq. km of primary forest were cleared in 
1978 as a result of commercial logging (figures quoted in Myers, 1980). 


For vegetation maps see: 


Haantjens, H.A. (Ed.) (1964-1965). CSIRO Land Research Series. Melbourne. (Land 
use and evaluations; includes maps of land use and forest types at 1:250,000. Vol. 
10 - Buna-Kokoda area; 12 - Wanigela-Cape Vogel area; 14 - Port Moresby- 
Kairuku area.) ; 

Paijmans, K. (1975). Vegetation Map of Papua New Guinea (1:1,000,000) and 
Explanatory Notes to the Vegetation Map of Papua New Guinea. Land Research 
Series no. 35, Melbourne. 


Papua New Guinea is included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958), 
and on the vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora 
Malesiana region at scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras Papua New Guinea is included in the incomplete but very 
detailed Flora Malesiana (1948- ), cited in Appendix 1. National accounts include: 


277 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea (1978- ). Melbourne Univ. Press. 

(2 vols so far. Vol. 1, 1978, edited by J.S. Womersley, includes introductory 
chapter on vegetation; keys, treatments of Combretaceae, Magnoliaceae, Meliaceae 
and many smaller families. Vol. 2, 1981, edited by E.E. Henty, covers 
Elaeocarpaceae, Juglandaceae, Loranthaceae and other families.) 

Johns, R.J. and Stevens, P.F. (1971). Mount Wilhelm flora: a checklist of the species. 
Bot. Bull. Dept Forests Papua New Guinea 6. 60 pp. (Checklist of high-altitude 
flora.) 

Royen, P. van (1959). Compilation of Keys to the Families and Genera of Angiosperms 
and Gymnosperms in New Guinea, 3 vols. Rijksherbarium, Leiden. 

Royen, P. van (Ed.) (1980-1983). The Alpine Flora of New Guinea, 4 vols. Cramer, 
FL-9490, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. (1 - Comprehensive account of physical and 
biological features; 2 - keys and descriptions of gymnosperms, monocotyledons; 3,4 
— angiosperms.) 

Streimann, H. (1983). The Plants of the Upper Watut Watershed of Papua New 
Guinea. National Botanic Garden, Canberra. 209 pp. (2114 vascular plant taxa, 
including 325 fern taxa, in checklist of collections with notes on ecology.) 


See also the botanical results of the Archbold expeditions, including treatments of new 
species and revisions of some families and genera, based principally on expeditions made 
between 1933 and 1939. Published as: 


Merill, E.D. and Perry, L.M. (Eds) (1939-1949). Plantae Papuanae Archboldianae, 1-8. 
J. Arnold Arbor. 20-30. 

Perry, L.M. (1949-1953). Plantae Archboldianae, 9-13. [bid., 30: 139-165; 32: 369-389; 
34: 191-257. 

Smith, A.C. (1941-1944). Studies of Papuasian plants, 1-6. [bid., 22: 60-80; 22: 
231-252; 22: 497-528; 23: 417-443; 25: 104-298. 


Contributions to the flora and vegetation of New Guinea have been published in the 
journal Nova Guinea (Contributions to the anthropology, botany, geology and zoology of 
the Papuan region). 


Field-guides 

Havel, J.J. (1975). Training Manual for the Forestry College 3(2): Botanical 
Taxonomy. PNG Forestry Dept, Port Moresby. 317 pp. (Identification manual for 
forest botanists.) 

Johns, R.J. (1975-1976). Common Forest Trees of Papua New Guinea, 12 parts. 
Forestry College, Bulolo. (Keys, descriptions and drawings; 1-3 revised 1983, 
Forestry Dept, PNG Univ., Lae.) 

Johns, R.J. (1979- ). The Ferns and Fern Allies of Papua New Guinea, 12 parts so far. 
(Parts 1-5: Forestry College, Bululo; parts 6-12: PNG University of Technology, 
Lae.) 

Royen, P. van (1964-1970). Manual of the Forest Trees of Papua and New Guinea, 

9 parts. Forestry Dept, Port Moresby. (Descriptions, keys, line drawings of selected 
trees. Part 1 - Combretaceae, revised 1969 by M.J.E. Coode; Forestry Dept, Lae. 
Other parts include Anacardiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Sapindaceae and 
Sterculiaceae.) 


Information on Threatened Plants None, but lists of rare and threatened species 
are to be compiled by a recently established ‘Flora Committee’ (J.R. Croft, 1985, in /itt.). 


See also: 


278 


Papua New Guinea 


Kores, P. (1977). Papua New Guinea’s orchids: an exploited resource. Science in New 
Guinea 5: 51-66. (Paper presented to the PNG Botanical Society, Wau Ecology 
Institute, October 1977; describes the threats to orchids.) 

Specht, R.L., Roe, E.M. and Boughton, V.H. (Eds) (1974). Conservation of Major 
Plant Communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Australian J. Bot. Supp. 
Series 7. 667 pp. (Detailed assessment of conservation status of major plant 
communities.) 


Botanic Gardens 
Gardens of the University, Box 4820, University, Port Moresby. 
National Botanic Garden and Herbarium, Office of Forests, Division of Botany, P.O. 
Box 314, Lae. 


Useful Addresses 
Department of Forestry, University of Lae, Institute of Technology (Unitec), Lae. 
Wildlife Branch, Office of Environment and Conservation, P.O. Box 6601, Boroko. 
CITES Management Authority: Director of Forestry, Department of Primary Industry, 
Frangipani Street, P.O. Box 5055, Boroko. 


Additional References 
Gressitt, J.L. (Ed.) (1982). Biogeography and Ecology of New Guinea, 2 vols. Junk, 
Hague. (1 - General and physical background, man’s impact, vegetation and flora; 
2 - fauna, conservation.) 
Paijmans, K. (Ed.) (1976). New Guinea Vegetation. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 213 pp. 
(Includes lists of medicinal and other useful species.) 


Paraguay 


— 


Area 406,750 sq. km 
Population 3,576,000 


Floristics An estimated 7000-8000 plant species (R. Spichiger, pers. comm., 
quoted in Toledo, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). One of the least known countries botanically 
in South America. 


Vegetation West of the Rio Paraguay, which bisects the country from north to 
south, the Gran Chaco, a plain covered with savannas and xerophytic scrub vegetation. In 
the centre, around the Rio Paraguay, seasonally inundated swamp (the Pantanal). East of 
the river, where 96% of the population live, is palm savanna with fertile grasslands and 
wooded hills in the south; in the north subtropical seasonal evergreen forest, exploited 
commercially (FAO/UNEP, 1981). On the eastern border, along the Rio Parana, where 
rainfall is heaviest, the only tropical rain forest in Paraguay, 25,000-40,000 ha of it 
affected by the Itaph Dam (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Further west, as rainfall decreases, the 
vegetation changes to subtropical seasonal evergreen lowland forest. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 1900 sq. km/annum out of 
40,700 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


Checklists and Floras About half of Paraguay, that part north of the Tropic of 
Capricorn, is covered in the family and generic monographs of Flora Neotropica, 
described in Appendix 1. The country Floras are: 


279 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


Chodat, R. and Hassler, E. (1898-1907). Plantae Hasslerianae. Bull. Herb. Boissier, 
Geneva. Many parts, in Vols 3-5 and 7, each cited in Bertoni, Mascherpa and 
Spichiger (1982), below. (Most complete checklist available.) 

Lopez, J. (1979). Arboles de la Regién Oriental del Paraguay. Asuncion. 227 pp. 

Michalowski, M. (1954). Catalogo sistemdatico de las malezas del Alto Paraguay. 
Servicio Técnico Interamericano de Cooperacién Agricola, Boletin No. 169, 
Asuncion. 158 pp. Mimeo. (Annotated list.) 

Spichiger, R. and Bocquet, G. (Eds.) (1983- ). Flora del Paraguay. 10 year project co- 
ordinated by the Geneva Herbarium, Switzerland, to produce a multi-part Flora, in 
Spanish, to be printed by the Missouri Botanical Garden. Includes a computerized 
database. 2 vols so far, including Annonaceae, by R. Spichiger and J.-M. 
Mascherpa. 

Teague, G.W. (1965). Plants of central Paraguay. Anales del Museo de Historia 
Natural, Serie 2, 7(4): 1-55. Montevideo. (List of species collected, with economic 
and medicinal values.) 


Boletin del Inventario Biolégico (Biological Inventory News), published quarterly by the 
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, Servicio Forestal Nacional, outlines 
present and future activities on the inventory of plants and animals and on the 
establishment of a natural history museum. 


Information on Threatened Plants None. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Sociedad de Botanica y Zoologia del Paraguay, Caja de Correo 811, Asuncion. 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico y Zoolégico, Parque y Museo de Historia Natural, Asuncion. 


Useful Addresses 

Departamento de Manejo de Bosques, Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Ministerio 
de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Edificio Patria, Tacuary 443-4° piso, Asuncion. 

Herbarium, Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genéve, Case Postal 60, 
1292 Chambésy, Switzerland. 

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, Projecto de Inventario Biolégico 
Nacional, Edificio Patria, Piso 6, Tacuary 443, Asuncion. 

CITES Management Authority: Director del Departamento de Control Agricola 
Forestal y Conservacion de Recursos Naturales, Ministerio de Agricultura y 
Ganaderia, Calle Pte. Franco 472, Asuncion. 

CITES Scientific Authority: Jefe del Departamento de Manejo de Bosques, Parques 
Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Servicio Forestal Nacional, Ministerio de Agricultura y 
Ganaderia, Edificio Patria, Tacuary 443-4° piso, Asuncion. 


Additional References 

Arenas, P. (1981). Ethnobotdanica Lengua-Maskoy. Fundacion para la Educacion, la 
Ciencia y la Cultura. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 358 pp. (Flora and ethnobotany of 
the Chaco.) 

Bertoni, B.S., Mascherpa, J.-M. and Spichiger, R. (1982). Datos bibliograficos para el 
estudio de la vegetacion y de la flora del Paraguay. Candollea 37: 277-313. 
(Bibliography on Paraguay vegetation; in French and Spanish.) 

Cabrera, A.L. (1970). La vegetacién del Paraguay en el cuadro fitogeografico de 
América del Sur. Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 2, suppl. (Not seen.) 

Chodat, R. and Vischer, W. (1916-19207). La végétation du Paraguay. Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Genéve. 14 parts in vol. 8 onwards. Reprinted in 1977 as one book by Cramer, 


280 


Paraguay 


FL-9490, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. Includes many line drawings of individual plants 
and some species descriptions, but is not a Flora in the normal sense. 

Esser, G. (1982). Vegetationsgliederung Und Kakteenvegetation Von Paraguay. Akad. 
d. Wiss. u. d. Literatur, Mainz, Germany. 113 pp. (Vegetation map.) 


Peru 


Area 1,285,215 sq. km 
Population 19,197,000 


Floristics Gentry (1980) suggested that ‘‘well over’’ 20,000 vascular plant species 
will eventually be found in Peru. 14,000 species will be included in the published Flora 
(A. Gentry, 1984, pers. comm.). Over 900 orchid species (Schweinfurth, 1958, 1970). 


Vegetation Along the coast, extending inland up to 100 km, is a desert region that 
includes the northern part of the Atacama Desert. Due to precipitation from fog, 
vegetation is luxuriant (the Loma Formation), consisting of annuals, shrubs and scattered 
trees, with many succulents and high in endemics (Ferreyra, 1953, 1977). In extreme 
northwest is woodland (the Algarrobal Formation) (Ferreyra, 1977), much degraded from 
agriculture and grazing (Unesco, 1981, cited in Appendix 1). Further inland and into the 
Andes to 4000 m are deciduous thickets and montane deciduous scrub. Above 4000 m, on 
both slopes, are the paramo (open herbaceous/grass communities, mainly north of 8°S.) 
and the puna, which is drier, colder and includes dwarf shrubs (mainly 12-16°S.). The 
eastern slopes of the Andes range from moist to wet depending on elevation: at 
2000-4000 m subhumid montane forests and scattered thorn forests; below 2000 m 
evergreen submontane and semi-deciduous forests. In eastern Peru tropical rain forest 
constitutes over 610,000 sq. km (8.7%) of the Amazonian forest (Unesco, 1981); in 
southern Amazon dry forest similar to the Cerrado of Brazil. 


Estimated rate of deforestation for closed broadleaved forest 2600 sq. km/annum out of 
693,100 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). Areas protected include the vast Manu National 
Park (15,328 sq. km), which spans Andean and Amazonian vegetation and may contain 
more plant species than any other protected area in the world. 


Checklists and Floras Peru is covered by the family and generic monographs of 
Flora Neotropica, as described in Appendix 1. Floristic knowledge of the Tumbes (Pacific) 
region is summarized by Gentry (1978), cited in Appendix 1. The country Floras are: 


Flora of Peru (various authors) (1936- ). Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13 (1-5C), 
and Fieldiana, Bot. New Series 5, 7, 9, 10 and ll. About 3/4 completed, recently re- 
activated as joint project of Field Museum and Missouri Botanical Garden, in 
collaboration with Universidad Major de San Marcos and Universidad Nacional de 
Amazonia Peruana. Includes an ecological inventory and a search for economically 
useful plants. 

Schweinfurth, C. (1958-1961). Orchids of Peru. Fieldiana, Bot. 30(1-4). 

Schweinfurth, C. (1970). First supplement to the orchids of Peru. Fieldiana, Bot. 33: 
1-80. 

Tryon, R. (1964). The ferns of Peru: Polypodiaceae (Dennstaedtieae to Oleandreae). 
Contr. Gray Herb. 194: 1-253. (176 species, which, according to the author, is about 
1/4 of the Peruvian fern flora.) 


281 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


See also: 


Cerrate de Ferreyra, E. (1979). Vegetacién del Valle de Chiquian: Provincia de 
Bolognesi, Departamento de Ancha. Los Pinus, Lima. 65 pp. 

Vargas Calderon, C. (1974). La Flora del Departamento de Madre de Dios (Pert). 
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. 93 pp. (Species lists.) 

Williams, L. (1936). Woods of northeastern Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 15: 
1-587. (Descriptions of trees, their habitats, local uses, physical properties and wood 
structures; plant associations in N.E. Peru.) 


Information on Threatened Plants There is no national Red Data Book. See: 


Ferreyra, R. (1977). Endangered plant communities in Andean and Coastal Peru. In 
Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. Pp. 150-157. 
(Includes several endangered species lists for different vegetation types.) 

Gentry, A.H. (1977). Endangered plant species and habitats of Ecuador and 
Amazonian Peru. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. 
Pp. 136-149. 


Individual threatened plants are mentioned in several other papers in: 


Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (Eds) (1977), cited in Appendix 1. See in particular 
J.T. Mickel on endangered and rare ferns (pp. 323-328), H.E. Moore Jr. on 
endangerment in palms (pp. 267-282), and P. Ravenna on endangered bulbous 
plants (pp. 257-266). 


Other references: 


Dourojeanni, M.T. (1968). Estado actual de la conservacion de la flora y la fauna en el 
Peru. Ciencia Interamericana 9(106): 51-64. 


Laws Protecting Plants Ley Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre, Decreto Ley No. 21147 
of 13 May 1975, assigns the Ministerio de Agricultura jurisdiction over plants (and 
animals). Decreto Supremo No. 158-177-AG of 13 March 1977 directs the Ministerio to 
assign plants (and animals) to specified threatened categories, and thereby afford them 
legal protection (Fuller and Swift, 1984, cited in Appendix 1). 


Voluntary Organizations 
Asociacion Peruana para la Conservacion (APECO), Atahualpa 335, Lima 18. 
Pro Defensa de la Naturaleza (PRODENA), Avenida Nicolas de Pierola, 742, Of. 703, 
Edificio Internacional, Lima. 


A relevant reference: 


Lieberman, G.A. and Swift, B. (1984). The development of private voluntary 
organizations dealing with natural resources and environmental management in Peru 
and a strategy for enhancement of their programs. RARE, c/o WWF-US, 1601 
Connecticut Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, U.S.A. (RARE have also 
produced a list of these organizations, 1983.) 


Botanic Gardens 
Jardin Botanico de ia Universidad Nacional Agraria, Apto 456 La Molina, Lima. 
Jardin Botanico de la Universidad Nacional de Huanuco ‘‘Hermilio Valdizan’’, Cuidad 
Universitaria, Cayhuayna. 
Jardin Botanico de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Jiron Puno 1002, 
Lima. 


282 


Peru 


Useful Addresses 
Centro de Datos para la Conservacion, Departamento de Manejo Forestal, Universidad 
Agraria La Molina, Apdo 456, Lima. 
Museo de Historia Natural ‘‘Javier Prado’’, Ave. Arenales 1256, Apto Postal 11010, 
Lima 14. 
CITES Management and Scientific Authorities: Direccién General Forestal y de Fauna, 
Ministerio de Agricultura, Jiron Natalio Sanchez 220, 3° Piso, Jesus Maria, Lima. 


Additional References 

Ellenberg, H. (1959). Typen tropischer urwaltder in Peru. Schweiz. Ziets. Forstw. 110: 
109-187. 

Ferreyra, R.H. (1953). Communidades vegetales de algunas Lomas Costaneras del 
Peru. Estacién Experimental Agricola de ‘‘La Molina’’, Bol. No. 53. 88 pp. 

Ferreyra, R.H. (1960). Algunas aspectos fitogeograficos de Peri. Rev. Inst. Geogr. 6: 
41-88. 

Gentry, A.H. (1980). The Flora of Peru: A conspectus. Fieldiana, Bot. New Series 5: 
1-73. 

Mapa Ecologico del Peru: Guia Explicativa. Oficina Nacional de Evaluacion de 
Recursos Naturales (ONERN), 1976. 

Svenson, H.K. (1945). Vegetation of the coast of Ecuador and Peru and its relation to 
the Galapagos Islands. Am. J. Bot. 33: 394-498. 

Weberbauer, A. (1936). Phytogeography of the Peruvian Andes. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bot. Ser. 13: 13-81. 

Weberbauer, A. (1945). E/ mundo vegetal de los Andes Peruanos. Ministerio de 
Agricultura, Lima. 


Philippines 


The Philippines comprise 7100 islands of which 800 are inhabited; the largest are Luzon 
(104,688 sq. km), Mindanao (94,630 sq. km) and Visayas (50,000 sq. km). Nearly all the 
larger islands have interior mountain ranges; the highest point is 2954 m at Mt Apo on 
Mindanao. 


Area 300,000 sq. km 
Population 53,395,000 


Floristics c. 8000 flowering plant species of which 3500 are endemic (Madulid, 
1982); c. 900 fern species (Parris, 1985, cited in Appendix 1). Floristic affinities with 
Borneo, Malaysia, the Sino-Himalayan region and Australia. The island of Palawan has 
c. 1500 flowering plant species; while species endemism was once thought to be as high as 
15%, recent research based on Flora Malesiana suggests it is nearer 5% (A. Podzorski, 
1984, pers. comm.). 


Vegetation Tropical forests originally covered most of the Philippines; now 
extensively deforested. Most remaining forests modified by shifting cultivation (‘kaingin’); 
the only extensive areas of forest outside national parks are on Palawan. Where native 
vegetation survives, it consists of mixed dipterocarp forest up to 800 m; tropical montane 
and subalpine (mossy) forests; small areas of ‘molave’ forest on limestone, with 
Pterocarpus and Vitex; seasonally dry monsoon forest on the western coastal strip; pine 


283 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


forests (with Pinus insularis and P. merkusii) in uplands of north and west Luzon and 
Mindanao; extensive kogon grassland (Imperata cylindrica), scrub and secondary forest. 
Mangroves cover 2450 sq. km (FAO/UNEP, 1981). 


According to FAO/UNEP (1981), estimated rate of deforestation of closed broadleaved 
forest 900 sq. km/annum out of a total of 93,200 sq. km (only 31% of the country); 
according to government surveys using Landsat imagery for 1972-1976 and aerial 
photographs, forests covered an estimated 114,616 sq. km, of which 60,119 sq. km were 
‘<full-canopy forests’’ (figures quoted in Myers, 1980, cited in Appendix 1). Between 800 
and 1400 sq. km of forest (including previously logged forest) are converted to agriculture 
by ‘kaingineros’ each year; Landsat surveys reveal that between 1971 and 1976 forests were 
converted to other land uses at an average rate of 3000 sq. km/annum (figures quoted in 
Myers, 1980). 


The Philippines are included on the Vegetation Map of Malaysia (van Steenis, 1958), and 
on the vegetation map of Malesia (Whitmore, 1984), both covering the Flora Malesiana 
region at scale 1:5,000,000 and cited in Appendix 1. 


Checklists and Floras The Philippines are included in the incomplete, but very 
detailed Flora Malesiana (1948- ), cited in Appendix 1. The standard checklist is: 


Merrill, E.D. (1923-1926). An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants, 4 vols. 
Bureau of Printing, Manila. (Annotated list including 5532 endemic vascular plant 
taxa.) 


Other accounts include: 


Brown, W.H. (Ed.) (1920). Minor Forest Products of Philippine Forests, 3 vols. 
Bureau of Forestry, Manila. (Comprehensive account of Philippine plants with 
economic uses.) 

Brown, W.H. (1951-1958). Useful Plants of the Philippines, 3 vols. Bureau of Forestry, 
Manila. (Reprinted edition.) 

Copeland, E.B. (1958-1960). Fern Flora of the Philippines, 3 parts. Monogr. Philippine 
Inst. Sci. Tech., 6. Manila. 

Merrill, E.D. (1912). Flora of Manila. Bureau of Science, Manila. 490 pp. (Reprinted 
1974, Bookmark, Manila.) 

Pancho, J.V. (1983- ). Vascular Flora of Mount Makiling and Vicinity (Luzon; 
Philippines). Kalikasan Suppl., New Mercury, Quezon. (Vol. 1 - Introduction to 
flora, keys, treatments of all gymnosperms and c. 60 angiosperm families including 
Dipterocarpaceae, Leguminosae and Moraceae. 476 pp. Vols 2-4 - in prep.) 


Descriptions of new species are often published in the Philippine J. Science. 
Information on Threatened Plants The main list is: 


Gutierrez, H.G. (1974). The endemic flowering plant species of the Philippines. Bound 
manuscript, 242 pp. (List of 5221 endemic taxa, assigned to earlier [UCN numerical 
system, 0-4, to indicate degree of threat. Taxonomy rather dated and degree of 
threat based mainly on literature and number of herbarium specimens.) 


Threatened plants are also listed in: 


Madulid, D.A. (1982). Plants in peril. Filipinas Journal 3: 8-16. (Mentions 20 
threatened plants, lists 2 plants on Appendix I and 5 on Appendix II of CITES.) 
Quisumbing, E. (1967). Philippine species of plants facing extinction. Araneta J. Agric. 

14: 135-162. (Lists about 100 taxa at risk, including non-endemics.) 


284 


Philippines 


Laws Protecting Plants Act No. 3983 provides protection for the flora and 
prescribes conditions under which plants may be collected, kept, sold, exported and for 
other purposes. The Bureau of Forestry is charged with enforcing this legislation. 


Presidential Decree No. 1152 establishes specific environment management policies and 
prescribes environmental quality standards. Among the provisions are ‘‘conserving 
threatened flora as well as increasing their rate of propagation’’. 


Presidential Decree No. 1586 requires the submission of Environmental Impact Statements 
on projects in critical areas among which are ‘‘those which constitute the habitats of any 
endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine wildlife (flora and fauna)’’. 


Voluntary Organizations 
Association of Systematic Biologists of the Philippines, c/o Botany Division, National 
Museum, P.O. Box 2659, Manila. 
Philippine Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Bancora Building, Amorsolo Street, 
Legaspi Village, Makati, Rizal, Luzon. 


Botanic Gardens 
Makiling Botanic Gardens, University of the Philippines, Los Bafios, Laguna 3720. 
Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Harrison Park, Malate, Manila. 
Philippine National Botanic Garden, Real, Quezon. 
The Hortorium, Museum of Natural History, U.P. at Los Bafios, College, Laguna. 


Useful Addresses 
Bureau of Plant Industry, San Adres, Manila. 
Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna 3720. 
CITES Management Authority: Director Bureau of Forest Development, Ministry of 
Natural Resources, Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City. 
CITES Scientific Authority: Forest Research Institute, U.P.L.B., College of Forestry, 
Laguna. 


Additional References 

Brown, W.H. (1919). Vegetation of Philippine Mountains. Manila. 434 pp. (Useful 
data on physical environment, forest types; many black and white photographs.) 

Madulid, D.A. (in prep.). A Dictionary of Philippine Plant Names, 3 vols. 
(Alphabetical list of 35,000 local names, cross-referenced to scientific names.) 

Nemenzo, C.A. (1969). The flora and fauna of the Philippines, 1851-1966: an 
annotated bibliography. Part 1: Plants. Nat. Appl. Sci. Bull. Univ. Philipp. 21. 
307 pp. (1493 entries; not seen, citation from Frodin.) 

Whitford, H.N. (1911). The Forests of the Philippines, 2 parts. Philippine Bureau of 
Forestry Bull. 10(1) (94 pp.) and 10(2) (113 pp.). Manila. (1 - Forest types and 
products; 2 - descriptions of forest types.) 


Pitcairn Islands 


The Pitcairn Island District is a British Dependent Territory, situated in the middle of the 
South Pacific Ocean, to the west of the Society Islands, between latitudes 23-26°S and 
longitudes 125-128°W. It consists of the volcanic Pitcairn Island, Henderson Island (an 
elevated limestone island), Ducie Island and Oeno Atoll. 


285 


Plants in Danger: What do we know? 


In 1982 world attention was focused on Henderson Island following a proposal to the U.K. 
Government for the construction of a settlement and airstrip there. This prompted 2 
reviews of the biological importance of Henderson as one of the very few elevated atolls 
with vegetation intact; these are Fosberg et al. (1983) and Serpell et a/. (1983). A popular 
account is given by Serpell (1983). The U.K. Government refused the application. Various 
conservation groups are now pressing for all or part of the Pitcairn Islands to be 
nominated for inscription as a World Heritage Site under the Convention Concerning the 
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted in Paris, 1972 (otherwise 
known as the World Heritage Convention). 


Area 43.5 sq. km 
Pitcairn: 5 sq. km; Henderson: 37 sq. km; Ducie: 0.7 sq. km; Oeno: 0.8 sq. km 
Population 63, all on Pitcairn Island (1981 census, Times Atlas, 1983) 


Floristics By far the richest flora is on Henderson, which has 9 ferns, all of which 
are widespread, and 54 native angiosperm taxa, 10 of which are endemic (Fosberg, Sachet 
and Stoddart, 1983). Oeno has 2 ferns and 15 angiosperms including 2 endemic taxa 
(St John and Philipson, 1960). Ducie has only 3 species; no endemics (St John and 
Philipson, 1962). No figure for number of angiosperms on Pitcairn Island, but Brownlie 
(1961) lists 20 fern species, of which 2 are endemic. 


Vegetation Henderson is one of the least disturbed Pacific islands. It has dense 
scrub forest c. 5-10 m tall, with Pandanus tectorius; the central part of the island is more 
sparsely vegetated (St John and Philipson, 1962). Pitcairn Island has remnants of rain 
forest, scrub and grassland, but the vegetation has been greatly modified, particularly in 
the south and centre. 


Checklists and Floras The most recent list is that of Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 
(1983), cited below. The Pitcairn Islands are also included in the Flora of Southeastern 
Polynesia (Brown and Brown, 1931-1935), cited in Appendix 1. See also: 


Brownlie, G. (1961). Studies on Pacific ferns, 4. The pteridophyte flora of Pitcairn 
Island. Pacific Science 15(2): 297-300. (Annotated list of 20 ferns.) 

St John, H. and Philipson, W.R. (1960). List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu 
Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 88(3): 401-403. 
(Checklist of ferns and angiosperms.) 

St John, H. and Philipson, W.R. (1962). An account of the flora of Henderson Island, 
South Pacific Ocean. Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. Bot. 1(14): 175-194. (Brief description of 
8 ferns, 55 angiosperms.) 


Information on Threatened Plants For Henderson Island, the reviews by Fosberg 
et al. (1983) and Serpell et al. (1983) outline the known status of the flora; Bidens 
hendersonensis, one of the endemics, was included in The IUCN Plant Red Data Book 
(1978); for the other islands no information. 


Additional References 
Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H. and Stoddart, D.R. (1983). Henderson Island 
(Southeastern Polynesia): summary of current knowledge. Atoll Res. Bull. 272. 
47 pp. (Physical geography, history of exploration, vegetation, bibliography; 
includes revised list of vascular plants of Henderson.) 
Rehder, H.A. and Randall, J.E. (1975). Ducie Atoll: its history, physiography and 
biota. Atoll Res. Bull. 183. 40 pp. 


286 


Pitcairn Islands 


Serpell, J. (1983). Desert island risk. New Scientist 1356: 320. (Describes the 
importance of Henderson Island and threats to its flora and fauna; reprinted in 
Threatened Plants Newsletter 11: 14, 1983.) 

Serpell, J., Collar, N., Davis, S. and Wells, S. (1983). Submission to the Foreign and 
Commonwealth Office on the future conservation of Henderson Island in the 
Pitcairn Group. WWF-UK, IUCN, ICBP. 27 pp. Mimeo. 


Poland 


Area 312,683 sq. km 
Population 37,228,000 


Floristics 2250-2450 native vascular species, estimated by D.A. Webb (1978, 
cited in Appendix 1) from Flora Europaea; 3 endemics (IUCN figures). Elements: 
Atlantic, Central European, southern Boreal, Arctic/alpine. Many species reach their 
western or eastern distributional limit in Poland. 


Vegetation Principally an agricultural landscape, especially in the north and 
central lowlands; less than 25% of the country has natural or semi-natural vegetation. 
Extensive re-afforestation with pine an